PPPPP RRRR OOOOO P P R R O O PPPPP RRRRR O O P R R O O P R R OOOOO RRRR AAA CCC EEEEE R R A A C C E RRRRR AAAAA C EEEE R R A A C C E R R A A CCC EEEEE DDDD RRRR IIIII V V EEEEE RRRR D D R R I V V E R R D D RRRRR I V V EEEE RRRRR D D R R I V V E R R DDDD R R IIIII V EEEEE R R PRO RACE DRIVER: DRIVING GUIDE by Jamie Stafford/Wolf Feather FEATHER7@IX.NETCOM.COM Initial Version Completed: December 25, 2002 Version 2.0 Completed: January 12, 2003 ============================================== ============================================== ============================================== MILESTONE This guide was originally submitted December 25, 2002, exactly two years after the submission of my first-ever game guide (Midnight Club: Street Racing - Capture the Flag Guide). This marks my 99th guide in these two years of writing, and when my first guide was submitted, I never dreamed that I would become such an authority figure on PlayStation and PlayStation2 racing games. Due to support from readers and other guide writers, I have launched my own Web site with my guides as well as an e-mail list to inform others of my writing projects. I would like to take this opportunity to thank the hundreds of readers who have e-mailed me with suggestions, comments, criticisms, and even simply short notes of thanks. It is truly for the readers that I continue to write game guides, and reader feedback and input is definitely welcome. I eagerly look forward to the next two (and hopefully more) years of writing game guides - which will almost certainly be concentrated within my specialty of auto racing games. ============================================== JOIN THE FEATHERGUIDES E-MAIL LIST To be the first to know when my new and updated guides are released, join the FeatherGuides E-mail List. Go to http://www.coollist.com/group.cgi?l=featherguides for information about the list and to subscribe for free. ============================================== ============================================== ============================================== CONTENTS Spacing and Length Permissions Introduction Getting Started Career Mode Mandatory Pit Stops Race Circuits in Pro Race Driver Bonus Codes General Tips Car Tuning Braking Cornering Rumble Strips Concrete Extensions Tires Drafting/Slipstreaming Wet-weather Racing/Driving Circuit Histories Circuit History: A1 Ring Circuit History: Adelaide Circuit History: Bathurst Circuit History: Brands Hatch Circuit History: Bristol Circuit History: Canberra Circuit History: Catalunya Circuit History: Charlotte Circuit History: Dijon Prenois Circuit History: Donington Park Circuit History: Eastern Creek Circuit History: Fuji Circuit History: Hockenheim Circuit History: Knockhill Circuit History: Las Vegas Circuit History: Magny-Cours Circuit History: Mantorp Park Circuit History: Mexico Circuit History: Monza Circuit History: Norisring Circuit History: Nurburgring Circuit History: Oran Park Circuit History: Oschersleben Circuit History: Oulton Park Circuit History: Phillip Island Circuit History: Rockingham Circuit History: Sandown Circuit History: Sears Point Circuit History: Silverstone Circuit History: T1 Circuit AIDA Circuit History: Vallelunga Circuit History: Vancouver Circuit History: Zandvoort Circuit History: Zolder Driving Instructions Driving Instructions: A1 Ring Driving Instructions: Adelaide Driving Instructions: Bathurst Driving Instructions: Brands Hatch Grand Prix Driving Instructions: Brands Hatch Indy Driving Instructions: Bristol Driving Instructions: Canberra Driving Instructions: Catalunya Driving Instructions: Charlotte Driving Instructions: Dijon Prenois Driving Instructions: Donington Park Driving Instructions: Eastern Creek Driving Instructions: Fuji Driving Instructions: Hockenheim Long Driving Instructions: Hockenheim Short Driving Instructions: Knockhill Driving Instructions: Las Vegas Driving Instructions: Magny-Cours Driving Instructions: Mantorp Park Driving Instructions: Mexico Driving Instructions: Monza Driving Instructions: Norisring Driving Instructions: Nurburgring Driving Instructions: Oran Park Driving Instructions: Oschersleben Driving Instructions: Oulton Park Driving Instructions: Phillip Island Driving Instructions: Rockingham Oval Driving Instructions: Rockingham Road Driving Instructions: Sandown Driving Instructions: Sears Point Driving Instructions: Silverstone Driving Instructions: T1 Circuit AIDA Driving Instructions: Vallelunga Driving Instructions: Vancouver Driving Instructions: Zandvoort Driving Instructions: Zolder Diagrams Online Resources Completely Subjective Section Thanks Contact Information ============================================== ============================================== ============================================== SPACING AND LENGTH For optimum readability, this driving guide should be viewed/printed using a monowidth font, such as Courier. Check for font setting by making sure the numbers and letters below line up: 12345678901234567890123456 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ This guide is approximately *****150 pages long***** in the Macintosh version of Microsoft Word98 using single-spaced Courier 12-point font. Therefore, it is probably NOT a good idea to print this guide in its entirety!!!!! ============================================== PERMISSIONS Permission is hereby granted for a user to download and/or print out a copy of this driving guide for personal use. This driving guide may only be posted on: FeatherGuides, GameFAQs.com, f1gamers.com, PSXCodez.com, Cheatcc.com, Games Domain, gamesover.com, Absolute-PlayStation.com, RobsGaming.com, InsidePS2Games.com, CheatPlanet.com, RedCoupe, The Cheat Empire, a2zweblinks.com, Gameguru, CheatHeaven, IGN, GameReactors.com, cheatingplanet.com, neoseeker.com, and vgstrategies.com. Please contact me for permission to post elsewhere on the Internet. Plagiarism is NOT tolerated!!!!! ============================================== ============================================== ============================================== INTRODUCTION Pro Race Driver is definitely an above-average simulation- style auto racing game. It can best be compared with Gran Turismo 3 in relation to the number of circuits in the game (some of which must be unlocked), although Gran Turismo 3 definitely has the upper hand in terms of the photorealistic graphics and the sheer number of vehicles. However, whereas Gran Turismo 3 has literally HUNDREDS of races and race series, there is no connecting thread or storyline to the game, and this is where Pro Race Driver truly shines. Pro Race Driver's Career Mode has the player enacting the racing life of Ryan McKane. The game's opening film (available in French or in English) shows a young Ryan and his older brother at a race and watching their near-legendary father die in a horrifyingly terrible accident. Fifteen years later, Ryan gets his first shot at a big-time auto racing series (Americas Series). All this is done with nice cinematic cutscenes which sometimes includes cutscenes with rival drivers and team managers based upon the on-track racing actions. With forty-two licensed cars as well as thirty-eight licensed circuits from around the world, Ryan will have A LOT to overcome (including - and perhaps ESPECIALLY - his own ego) to become a legendary race car driver in his own right, surpassing even the racing community's high expectations of his deceased father. Please note that some of the information in this guide comes from my General Racing/Driving Guide, Total Immersion Racing: Game Guide, and World-famous Racing Circuits Guide - which can all be found in full at FeatherGuides (http://feathersites.angelcities.com) and at GameFAQs (http://www.GameFAQs.com/); the General Racing/Driving Guide and the World-famous Racing Circuits Guide are exclusive to these two sites. ============================================== ============================================== ============================================== GETTING STARTED There is certainly A LOT to Pro Race Driver, and it may be a bit difficult for the player to decide exactly where to begin. Without question, once past the opening cutscenes for the game, the player should set the game options and controller setting to the desired liking. Once this is done, the player should probably go into Free Time, the room where the drivers simply 'hang around' when there is nothing officially racing-related to do. To get a good feel for how the game works and plays, the player should go to Free Race. Here, there are two 'sets' of circuits on the Tracks of the World menu selection screen. The top of this screen shows race venues using the order of the racing series in which they are used; circuits selected from within a race series will also have only series-specific vehicles on the upcoming vehicle selection screen (note that some race venues are used in multiple race series). The bottom of the Tracks of the World screen lists ALL the race circuits available in the Freestyle section; when a race venue is selected from Freestyle, then the initially- available and unlocked cars appropriate for the selected circuit(s) are available from the vehicle selection screen. Vehicle selection is done by picking the car key for the vehicle the player wishes to drive; only those vehicles specific to the chosen race venue or series will be available. Next, options can be made, such as the transmission type, the vehicle color (unfortunately, this is not available for all cars, likely due to vehicle licensing issues), etc. Finally, it is time to head to the circuit!!! Now the player is shown the garage at the circuit. Unfortunately, Pro Race Driver does not include qualifying (which is the one major downfall of this game), so the player is stuck with wherever she or he is placed on the starting grid by the CPU; this can be noted before the race by selecting Grid Positions. Selecting Car Setup/Test Drive will allow the player to change the various aspects of each car, from downforce to gear ratios (combined or individually) to brake bias to ride height to tires and beyond (there are not as many tuning options in Pro Race Driver as in Gran Turismo 3, but there are definitely more than enough to keep the player quite interested); car set-up changes can be tested using Test Drive, but the player will unfortunately be the only one on the circuit, so there is no opportunity to determine how the vehicle will handle in traffic. When ready, the player can go to Race to line up on the starting grid for the race itself - bonne chance!!!!! After competing in several races at favorite race venues, the player should probably go back to the Tracks of the World screen and become familiar with the three Americas Series venues: Mexico, Sears Point, and Vancouver. This is because the Americas Series is where Ryan McKane will always begin when a new Career Mode profile is created. Mexico and Vancouver are current CART circuits, whereas Sears Point is perhaps best known in the States as one of the two road courses used by NASCAR. Once the player clears the Americas Series in Career Mode, the player will then have access to all the other Tier 1 racing series (TOCA, Southern European, etc.). Before progressing to each of the other racing series, the player would benefit greatly from returning to Free Race and participating in races at the circuits used in the series the player wishes to participate in next. This is important even if the player is very familiar with given race venues from other racing games, as each game has its own idiosyncrasies in relation to circuit design, car handling, etc. This is ESPECIALLY important for those highly familiar with F1-based racing games, as F1 cars have FAR more power, agility, and braking ability than any of the cars used in Pro Race Driver. One other benefit of participating in races at the circuits used in the series the player wishes to participate in next is to conduct car tuning for each circuit. There are thirty- two slots available in Pro Race Driver for saving car set- ups, and set-ups are all available for Free Race Mode AND Career Mode. So long as the player uses the same model of vehicle in Free Race Mode and in Career Mode for a given circuit, the car set-up can be saved and loaded at will. This way, when the player finally begins to work through Career Mode, there will not be a need to spend a lot of time trying to find the appropriate car set-up for each race venue. ============================================== CAREER MODE This is the main feature of Pro Race Driver, and where the player will likely spend the majority of gameplay (although Free Race Mode certainly has its own appeal). After a cutscene to introduce Ryan McKane and his entry into high- level auto racing, he is thrust directly into the Americas Series, which races at Mexico, Sears Point, and Vancouver. However, he must first pass a test drive at Mexico - and the target time is set high enough that Ryan can have one or two off-course excursions and still successfully land the drive for the season. This is a series of six races - two races per venue - and the player must attain at least thirty championship points in order to unlock ALL the Tier 1 races and gain a $100,000 bonus for the season. Once the Americas Series has been successfully completed, Ryan can then go to any of the other racing series in Tier 1. This is done via e-mail, with various racing teams from various racing series offering either a test drive or a direct ride for their series. Before selecting a team/series, the player should probably exit Career Mode and return to Free Race to participate in 'meaningless' races at the race venues in a series in which the player wishes to compete, in order to become more familiar with the rendition of each of those circuits in Pro Race Driver. When ready, the player can return to Career Mode, select the appropriate e-mail, and enter the desired series with a better idea of what to expect from each circuit in the chosen race series. (See the Race Circuits in Pro Race Driver section later in this guide for a list of all the race circuits used in each series.) Each Career Mode race series awards points to most or all of the competitors. The number of competitors WHO FINISH A RACE receiving points and the number of points each of these competitors receives varies by race series. These points are all combined throughout the series, so that the driver with the most points at the end of a race series will be that season's series champion. Should Ryan McKane become a season's series champion, he will be shown (in a cutscene) accepting that series' championship trophy. At times, depending on how Ryan performs in a series, there will be individual challenges from other drivers. If accepted, these are head-to-head events in identical cars (differing only by color). Should Ryan win, he will be able to keep the cars for later usage in the game. Also based upon in-series performance, Ryan may receive e- mails concerning one-time races, or Single-day Events. These events also award points, which count toward the total career points. A minimum of 132 career points in the Tier 1 race series are required to unlock the Tier 2 race series and their associated race venues; a minimum of 162 career points in the Tier 2 race series are required to unlock the Lola Championship. The trick here, however, is that if a race series is run multiple times, only the highest single-season point total is counted toward the overall career points. Therefore, unless a player really enjoys a particular race series, a series should not be repeated unless the player believes that she or he has an excellent chance at bettering the current series 'high score' in terms of single-season points (or unless the player is Michael Schumacher himself!!!!!). When the Tier 2 race series are unlocked, Ryan McKane automatically has only one series offer: DTM. This begins with a test drive at Hockenheim Short. Once again, the target time is set high enough that Ryan can make one or two mistakes and still best the target time with plenty of time to spare. However, it is still a good idea to go to Free Race Mode and compete in a few races in the DTM series (using series-specific vehicles) before embarking upon the DTM series in Career Mode. Note that there are two types of test drives to earn a ride for a series. The first type is similar to those mentioned above: Ryan must complete a lap at a given circuit within a specified amount of time, and has a certain number of attempts in which to accomplish this task. The second type of test drive is actually a one-lap race (similar to the Single Day Events); in this case, Ryan must finish the race at or better than the specified position, and within the allotted number of attempts. Except for when first entering a new tier of events, there may not even be a need for a test drive of either type, depending on how Ryan was able to perform in the previous series' season. Fortunately, it is possible to obtain enough career points to advance to Tier 2 without competing in all the Tier 1 race series. Unfortunately, however, once in Tier 2, the game will not permit a return to Tier 1 without first beating the Lola series. Success in Tier 1 is largely based upon car set-up (tuning). Success in Tier 2 is a combination of car set-up with PRECISION throttle and braking management (especially throttle management) as well as navigation of the overly- aggressive CPU-controlled competition. Most race series and Single Day Events in Pro Race Driver use the pre-2003 FIA points system. In this points system, only the top six drivers WHO ACTUALLY FINISH A RACE will receive points in the order shown below (some race series will use a different points system; those who do not finish a race receive no points even if they are in the Top 6 in the final race results): Place Points ----- ------ 1st 10 2nd 6 3rd 4 4th 3 5th 2 6th 1 Others 0 Note that at the end of a series, should Ryan McKane be tied with another driver for the championship, the CPU still credits Ryan with winning the series championship 'outright.' In other words, the trophy presentation cutscene for that series is still played. (There are apparently no tiebreaker rules such as most wins, better qualifying positions, etc.) ============================================== MANDATORY PIT STOPS Some Career Mode races - as well as those Free Race Mode races for which the player specifies pit stops - have a mandatory pit stop rule. In these races, the mandatory pit stop MUST be made in the middle 60% of the race. This means that should the player need to stop to repair damage before the first 20% of the race has been completed, that stop will NOT count as the mandatory pit stop and the player will be required to make a return trip to Pit Lane in the middle 60% of the race. There are several tactics concerning when to make the mandatory pit stop. One is to do it as soon as the middle 60% window opens (at the end of Lap 2 in a typical 5-lap mandatory-pit-stop race in Career Mode); this way, the mandatory pit stop is done; however, many competitors will also use this tactic, so Pit Lane could be rather busy with cars entering and exiting their pit stalls, and it makes the on-track action even more important. Another tactic is to wait until the final lap of the 60% window (at the end of Lap 4 in a typical 5-lap mandatory-pit- stop race in Career Mode). The advantage to this is that there will be few (if any) other cars in Pit Lane at the same time, and since most CPU-controlled competitors 'prefer' to make the mandatory pit stop earlier in the 60% window, there will be a much higher chance that the player will not need to deal with any traffic (unless lapping backmarkers, which will be rather unlikely in Career Mode's Tier 1 and Tier 2 race series), and thus should be able to run a number of fast lap times to attain or extend the overall lead once all of the mandatory pit stops have been made. A second advantage of waiting to conduct the mandatory pit stop close to the end of the 60% window concerns vehicle damage. If the mandatory pit stop is conducted early in the 60% window and the vehicle later becomes severely damaged, it may be necessary to return to Pit Lane to make repairs, which almost always results in losing the race (and quite likely not gaining even a single point for the race). If the mandatory pit stop is conducted near the end of the 60% window, then the player should hopefully have a far enough lead over the rest of the field (once all mandatory pit stops have been completed) that she or he can still finish first, or at least finish somewhat high in the points. There is one major 'flaw' in making a pit stop, however, whether mandatory or not. When the player's car enters Pit Lane, the CPU automatically takes over car control and does not relinquish this control until the car is once again squarely on the actual raceway (not the Pit Exit lane, but the actual raceway itself). Where this could be a problem is if one or more competitors already on the main raceway come up FAST behind the player's car and slam into the player's vehicle; the CPU-controlled competition, therefore, will do everything possible to maintain its own racing line irregardless of the player's control or lack of control when rejoining the race after a pit stop. ============================================== ============================================== ============================================== RACE CIRCUITS IN PRO RACE DRIVER This is a list of the race circuits available - by series - in Pro Race Driver. Those circuits/series which must be unlocked (by progressing through Career Mode) are so noted; only the Tier 1 series and circuit are originally available in the game. While Free Race Mode allows racing at any of the unlocked circuits in any of the unlocked series, Ryan McKane will ALWAYS begin with the Americas Series when a new Career Mode profile is created. (Also, Ryan will ALWAYS begin with DTM once Tier 2 becomes available.) Series Circuits Used --------------------------- ------------------------------ Americas Series Mexico Sears Point Vancouver AAS (American All Stars) Charlotte Bristol Sears Point Las Vegas V8 Supercars (Initially Phillip Island locked) Adelaide Eastern Creek Canberra Bathurst Sandown Oran Park TOCA Brands Hatch Indy Oulton Park Silverstone Donington Park Knockhill Brands Hatch Grand Prix Alfa GTV Cup Monza Vallelunga Catalunya Pacific Challenge Fuji T1 Circuit AIDA Bathurst Southern European Challenge Dijon Prenois Magny-Cours Catalunya Northern European Challenge Mantorp Park Zolder Oschersleben A1 Ring DTM (initially locked) Hockenheim Short Nurburgring Oschersleben Norisring Zandvoort Hockenheim Long Euro Tour (initially locked) Rockingham Oval A1 Ring Rockingham Road Brands Hatch Indy Catalunya Lola (initially locked) ??? Freestyle All above circuits which are initially-available or have been unlocked by progressing through Career Mode Single Day Events These take place at circuits where Ryan has already raced Head-to-head Challenges These take place at circuits where Ryan has already raced ============================================== BONUS CODES There are several bonus codes available for Pro Race Driver. These are entered in the Bonus folder of the Options file cabinet. Codemasters provides two bonus codes simply for registering for both the game and Code M (Codemasters' online newsletter concerning its current and upcoming games, combined with its special members-only section of the Codemasters Web site); without giving anything away (hopefully), these two bonus codes definitely make the game a little more challenging, especially on tight street circuits such as Vancouver. Note that the physics engine for Pro Race Driver is not really conducive for oval track racing, especially in the American All Stars (AAS) racing series (in Tier 2). The second of the codes received for registering (as listed in the above paragraph) can be activated to make the American All Stars series MUCH easier - and can also allow for relatively easy wins, making it QUITE possible to win EVERY race in the series :-) Unfortunately, the North American version of the game has one severe problem: THERE ARE NO NUMBERS ON THE CODE-ENTRY SCREEN TO INPUT THE NUMBER-BASED CODES GIVEN ON THE PRO RACE DRIVER TIP LINE >:-( The only codes which CAN be entered into the North American version of the game are the text-based codes received by registering with Codemasters as indicated above. ============================================== GENERAL TIPS Save game progress at every opportunity. In Career Mode, this occurs after every head-to-head event and Single Day Event, and after every TWO races within a race series. Pro Race Driver does not use rules; in other words, there are no official repercussions (such as ten-second penalties or immediate disqualifications) for unsportsmanlike or dangerous driving, shortcutting corners, etc. Many corners (especially chicanes) do have barriers to ensure that all drivers (including the player) keep to the racing line, and there are plenty of sand traps and gravel traps to significantly slow cars which go off-line at many corners, but this is really the extent of the implementation of any 'rules' in Pro Race Driver. Note, however, that it is DEFINITELY possible (and highly likely) to anger the CPU-controlled competition through blocking, swapping paint, etc.; some drivers may even develop a deep-rooted grudge against the player and take extreme measures to attempt to knock the player's vehicle out of the way or foil the player's chances of winning a race and/or a championship in the given car class. The PlayStation2 features 256 levels of button sensitivity (for the X, Square, Circle, and Triangle buttons), and Pro Race Driver makes definite use of this feature (but fortunately NOT to the extreme of Total Immersion Racing). Pressing harder on the accelerator button (set to the X button as the default) will provide faster acceleration; pressing harder on the brake button (set to the Square button as the default) will provide harder braking. (However, in the quest for harder braking, it is important to never brake too hard, as this will cause wheel-lock and cause the vehicle to slide and NOT decelerate.) Pro Race Driver seems to be best suited to a player who prefers a slightly- to somewhat-loose car, meaning that the back end tends to swing about. This means that drift-style racing is quite feasible for those skilled in this highly- specialized driving technique, and that plenty of countersteering will be required at most race venues. However, there are certainly enough tuning parameters that a player with good knowledge of car tuning can truly adapt virtually any vehicle in the game to a given circuit. Auto racing is largely dependent upon racing line, braking zones, braking strength, and acceleration strength. Pro Race Driver very much places these four prime elements of auto racing into play. Certainly, a car's set-up can affect a player's race, but the way that the player uses these four areas to make the most of a car's set-up is key to success... moreso than in many other auto racing games due to the construction of the physics engine. It IS possible to take a corner so quickly that a car goes up on two wheels. While this is a bit difficult to do, it is also possible to cause a vehicle to flip and roll. Pro Race Driver allows for a total of 32 car set-ups to be saved on the memory card in Memory Card Slot 1. If there is more than one Career Mode game saved on the memory card, the saved car set-ups can ALL be accessed from within ANY of the Career Mode game saves. In other words, car set-ups are NOT career-independent. Before progressing to each of the racing series in Career Mode, the player would benefit greatly from going to Free Race and participating in races at the circuits used in the series the player wishes to participate in next. This is important even if the player is very familiar with given race venues from other racing games, as each game has its own idiosyncrasies in relation to circuit design, car handling, etc. This is ESPECIALLY important for those highly familiar with F1-based racing games, as F1 cars have FAR more power, agility, and braking ability than any of the cars used in Pro Race Driver. Before beginning any Tier 2 series in Career Mode, it is best to go to Free Race Mode and compete in a Tier 2 series (such as DTM) using that series' racecars. This is important because these cars have MUCH more power and attain MUCH higher speeds than those for Tier 1. What makes this especially important in Pro Race Driver is that this game apparently does NOT use a one-size-fits-all physics engine, unlike games such as Total Immersion Racing, Gran Turismo 3, Le Mans 24 Hours, or Tokyo Extreme Racer Zero despite the vast differences in the games' many cars. Therefore, trying to drive a Tier 2 vehicle in the same manner as a Tier 1 car will result in near-complete destruction of the vehicle. For those players who have driven these circuits in other racing games and/or with other vehicles, it is important to remember that braking zones and acceleration points do not generally 'convert' well from one racing game to another and from one vehicle (type) to another. ============================================== ============================================== ============================================== CAR TUNING In order to be successful in Pro Race Driver, the player must have a strong sense of car tuning. While a car may perform okay in its default/stock set-up, each vehicle needs to be tuned specifically for each circuit in order to truly get the best possible performance and thus have the best possible chance at winning each race. Gears Transmission Gear selection can be set to automatic (the CPU handles all shifting duties) or manual (the player must handle all shifting duties). If the player uses automatic transmission, then the shoulder buttons originally assigned to gear shifting (for manual transmission) are instead used to provide the player with a view of each side of the vehicle; this can be important to see the extent of the damage to the vehicle when using a chase camera view in gameplay. When using a driver (in-car) view in gameplay, these buttons (if automatic transmission has been selected) instead allow Ryan McKane to glance to either side of the car; this can be useful in passing other vehicles. Ratios In Pro Race Driver, each individual gear can be set independently, or all gears can be highlighted at once for overall adjustments. Shortening gear ratios (moving the curved lines to the left) will provide better acceleration at the sacrifice of top-end speed; this is ideal for tight, technical circuits such as Bristol. Lengthening gear ratios (moving the curved lines to the right) will provide better/faster top-end speed at the sacrifice of acceleration (i.e., slower acceleration, especially from a standing start and when exiting the pit stall); longer gear ratios are crucial to circuits with few corners and/or many long straightaways, such as Hockenheim Long and Monza. Downforce Downforce controls how the air passes over and around the vehicle, and helps to keep a car firmly on the ground (the opposite effect of wings from an airplane). Raising downforce will provide better pavement grip and easier cornering, but at the sacrifice of top-end speed; this is best for tight, technical circuits such as Zandvoort. Lowering downforce will reduce pavement grip and provide better/faster top-end speed, but cornering will be more difficult (and the vehicle may have a much greater tendency to slide while cornering, especially at high speeds); this is best for circuits with few corners and/or many long straightaways, such as Hockenheim Long and Monza. Suspension Stiffness Softening a vehicle's suspension will allow for a much smoother ride overall and will also help with cornering, but the car is then more prone to flipping when cornering at high speeds or performing sudden evasive maneuvers. Hardening a vehicle's suspension will cause the driver to feel virtually every possible bump in the pavement and will also make cornering more difficult (especially at high speeds). Ride Height Ride height controls airflow underneath a vehicle. Raising ride height will allow for more air to pass underneath the vehicle, thus slowing the car moderately due to aerodynamic friction and also assisting slightly in cornering. Lowering ride height will reduce the amount of air passing underneath the vehicle, thus slightly augmenting top-end speed while also making cornering moderately more difficult. Anti-roll Anti-roll devices are designed to prevent the vehicle from flipping. Strengthening the anti-roll devices will reduce the chances that the car may flip during high- speed cornering and evasive maneuvers; this will also make cornering more difficult in general. Softening the anti-roll devices will make flipping a stronger possibility, but will also make cornering easier. Brake Bias Braking can be applied more toward the front or the rear of the vehicle. However, moving the brake bias more toward one end of the car makes wheel-lock a stronger possibility for those wheels. Tires In Pro Race Driver, the pit crew will automatically apply the type of tire appropriate for the racing conditions; however, the player can override the pit crew's decision. Slicks are for dry-conditions racing. Intermediates are for use when the pavement is damp but not really wet (as in a slow, gentle drizzle). Wets are used during hard rain and in the period immediately following actual rainfall. It is VERY rare that the player can only adjust the tuning of one aspect of the car without causing one or more parts of the car set-up to be out of balance. For example, for racing at Monza, the downforce and ride height should both be lowered as much as possible; to counterbalance the cornering difficulty inherent with these downforce and ride height settings, anti-roll and suspension stiffness should both also be lowered as much as possible to lessen (although not necessarily eliminate) the difficulty in cornering. Pro Race Driver allows for a total of 32 car set-ups to be saved on the memory card in Memory Card Slot 1. If there is more than one Career Mode game saved on the memory card, the saved car set-ups can ALL be accessed from within ANY of the Career Mode game saves. In other words, car set-ups are NOT career-independent. ============================================== ============================================== ============================================== BRAKING The first step in driving fast is knowing when, where, and how much to slow down (braking). In some games, a brake controller can be acquired or purchased, allowing the player to customize the brake strength by axle or by adjusting the bias of the brakes toward the front or the rear of the car. The use of a brake controller will affect the braking zone, as will other factors. Specifically, the car's speed on approaching a corner, the amount of fuel in the car at a given moment, the drivetrain of the car, the weight of the car, and even the car's center of gravity can all affect the braking zone. Similarly, the driving conditions - sunny, overcast, damp, wet, icy, snowy etc. - will affect the braking zone for each corner (as well as the car's ability to attain high speeds). Except for purely arcade-style games, the braking zone will differ somewhat for each car depending upon its strengths and weaknesses. It certainly helps for the player to try a Free Run or a Time Trial (if these modes exist in a given game) to learn the circuit(s) - including the braking zones. When looking for braking zones, try to find a particular stationary object near the entry of each corner; it helps tremendously if this object is far enough away from the circuit that it will not be knocked over during a race. To begin, try using the brakes when the front of the car is parallel with the chosen stationary object. If this does not slow the car enough before corner entry or if the car slows too much before reaching the corner, pick another stationary object on the following lap and try again. Whenever changes are made to the car - whether to the brake controller or to other aspects of tuning and/or parts - it would be a good idea to go back into Free Run mode and check that the braking zones still hold; if not, adjust as necessary using the method in the paragraph above. For those races which include fuel loads, the car will become progressively lighter during a race. The lesser weight can often mean a slightly shorter braking zone; however, if tire wear is excessive (especially if there have been numerous off-course excursions), that might dictate a longer braking zone. Cars with a higher horsepower output will inherently attain faster speeds, and will therefore require a longer braking zone than cars with a lower horsepower output. Try a Volkswagon New Beetle, a Mini Cooper, a Dodge Viper, a Panoz Esperante GT-1, a Corvette C5R, and an F-2002 (all in stock/base configuration) along the same area of a circuit and note how their braking zones differ. A final note on braking: To the extent possible, ALWAYS brake in a straight line. If braking only occurs when cornering, the car will likely be carrying too much speed for the corner, resulting in the car sliding, spinning, and/or flipping. (Some games purposely do not permit the car to flip, but a slide or spin can still mean the difference between winning and ending up in last position at the end of a race.) If nothing else, players should strive to become of the 'breakers' they possibly can. This will essentially force a player to become a better racer/driver in general once the player has overcome the urge to constantly run at top speed at all times with no regard for damages to self or others. Also, slowing the car appropriately will make other aspects of racing/driving easier, especially in J-turns, hairpin corners, and chicanes. ============================================== CORNERING Ideally, the best way to approach a corner is from the outside of the turn, braking well before entering the corner. At the apex (the midpoint of the corner), the car should be right up against the edge of the pavement. On corner exit, the car drifts back to the outside of the pavement and speeds off down the straightaway. So, for a right-hand turn of about ninety degrees, enter the corner from the left, come to the right to hit the apex, and drift back to the left on corner exit. See the Diagrams section at the end of this guide for a sample standard corner. For corners that are less than ninety degrees, it may be possible to just barely tap the brakes - if at all - and be able to clear such corners successfully. However, the same principles of cornering apply: approach from the outside of the turn, hit the apex, and drift back outside on corner exit. For corners more than ninety degrees but well less than 180 degrees, braking will certainly be required. However, for these 'J-turns,' the apex of the corner is not the midpoint, but a point approximately two-thirds of the way around the corner. J-turns require great familiarity to know when to begin diving toward the inside of the corner and when to power to the outside on corner exit. See the Diagrams section at the end of this guide for a sample J-turn. Hairpin corners are turns of approximately 180 degrees. Braking is certainly required before corner entry, and the cornering process is the same as for standard corners: Approach from the outside, drift inside to hit the apex (located at halfway around the corner, or after turning ninety degrees), and drifting back to the outside on corner exit. See the Diagrams section at the end of this guide for a sample hairpin corner. If there are two corners of approximately ninety degrees each AND both corners turn in the same direction AND there is only a VERY brief straightaway between the two corners, they may be able to be treated like an extended hairpin corner. Sometimes, however, these 'U-turns' have a straightaway between the corners that is long enough to prohibit a hairpin-like treatment; in this case, drifting to the outside on exiting the first of the two corners will automatically set up the approach to the next turn. See the Diagrams section at the end of this guide for a sample U-turn. FIA (the governing body of F1 racing, World Rally Championship, and other forms of international motorsport) seems to love chicanes. One common type of chicane is essentially a 'quick-flick,' where the circuit quickly edges off in one direction then realigns itself in a path parallel to the original stretch of pavement, as in the examples in the Diagrams section at the end of this guide. Here, the object is to approach the first corner from the outside, hit BOTH apexes, and drift to the outside of the second turn. FIA also seems to like the 'Bus Stop' chicane, which is essentially just a pair of quick-flicks, with the second forming the mirror image of the first, as shown in the Diagrams section at the end of this guide. Perhaps the most famous Bus Stop chicane is the chicane (which is actually called the 'Bus Stop Chicane') at Pit Entry at Spa- Francorchamps, the home of the annual Grand Prix of Belgium (F1 racing) and the host of The 24 Hours of Spa (for endurance racing). Virtually every other type of corner or corner combination encountered in racing (primarily in road racing) combines elements of the corners presented above. These complex corners and chicanes can be challenging, such as the Ascari chicane at Monza. See the Diagrams section for an idea of the formation of Ascari. However, in illegal street/highway racing, the positioning of traffic can 'create' the various corners and corner combinations mentioned here. For example, weaving in and out of traffic creates a virtual bus stop chicane (see the Diagrams section at the end of this guide). Slowing may be necessary - it often is - depending on the distance between the vehicles. See the Sample Circuit Using Some of the Above Corner Types Combines in the Diagrams section at the end of this guide; note that this is a diagram for a very technical circuit. At some race venues, 'artificial chicanes' may be created by placing cones and/or (concrete) barriers in the middle of a straightaway. One such game which used this type of chicane is the original Formula1 by Psygnosis, an F1-based PlayStation game from 1995, which used this at Circuit Gilles-Villeneuve along Casino Straight (shortly after passing the final grandstands at the exit of Casino Hairpin). One thing which can change the approach to cornering is the available vision. Blind and semi-blind corners require ABSOLUTE knowledge of such corners. Here is where gamers have an advantage over real-world drivers: Gamers can (usually) change their viewpoint (camera position), which can sometimes provide a wider, clearer view of the circuit, which can be especially important when approaching semi-blind corners; real-world drivers are obviously inhibited by the design of their cars and racing helmets. Great examples of real-world blind and semi-blind corners would be Mulsanne Hump at Le Mans, Turns 14 and 15 at Albert Park, and each of the first three corners at A1-Ring. Also important to cornering - especially with long, extended corners - is the corner's radius. Most corners use an identical radius throughout their length. However, some are increasing-radius corners or decreasing-radius corners. These corners may require shifting the apex point of a corner, and almost always result in a change of speed. Decreasing-radius corners are perhaps the trickiest, because the angle of the corner becomes sharper, thus generally requiring more braking as well as more turning of the steering wheel. Increasing-radius corners are corners for which the angle becomes more and more gentle as the corner progresses; this means that drivers will generally accelerate more, harder, or faster, but such an extra burst of speed can backfire and require more braking. See the Diagrams section at the end of this guide for sample images of a decreasing- radius corner and an increasing-radius corner. For traditional road racing circuits, increasing-radius and decreasing-radius corners may not be too much of a problem; after several laps around one of these circuits, a driver will know where the braking and acceleration points are as well as the shifted apex point (should a shift be required). However, for stage-based rally racing, where the roads are virtually unknown and the driver knows what is ahead only because of the navigator's instructions (which - based upon notes - may or may not be absolutely correct), the unknown can cause drivers to brake more often and/or more heavily. For rally-based games, such as the Need for Speed: V-Rally series (PlayStation/PSOne) or for World Rally Championship (PlayStation2), there is often specialized vocabulary used: 'tightens' generally designates that a corner has a decreasing radius, whereas 'widens' or 'opens' indicates that a corner has an increasing radius. This need for 'extra' braking is also tempered by the fact that in much of rally racing, corners are either blind or semi-blind, due to trees, buildings, cliffs, embankments, and other obstacles to clear vision all the way around a corner. One particularly interesting aspect of cornering is one which I honestly do not know if it works in reality (I am not a real-world racer, although I would certainly LOVE the chance to attend a racing school!!!), but which works in numerous racing/driving games I have played over the years. This aspect is to use the accelerator to help with quickly and safely navigating sharp corners. This works by first BRAKING AS USUAL IN ADVANCE OF THE CORNER, then - once in the corner itself - rapidly pumping the brakes for the duration of the corner (or at least until well past the apex of the corner). The action of rapidly pumping the accelerator appears to cause the drive wheels to catch the pavement just enough to help stop or slow a sliding car, causing the non-drive wheels to continue slipping and the entire car to turn just a little faster. Using this rapid-pumping technique with the accelerator does take a little practice initially, and seems to work best with FR cars; however, once perfected, this technique can pay dividends, especially with REALLY sharp hairpin corners, such as at Sebring International Raceway. ============================================== RUMBLE STRIPS Depending on car set-up and weather conditions, rumble strips (sometimes also called 'alligators') can be either useful or dangerous. The purpose of rumble strips is to provide a few extra centimeters of semi-racing surface to help keep cars from dropping wheels off the pavement, which can slow cars and throw grass and other debris onto the racing surface (which makes racing a little more dangerous for all involved, especially in corners). Generally, rumble strips are found on the outside of a corner at corner entry and corner exit, and also at the apex of a corner - these locations provide a slightly better racing line overall. If a car is set with a very stiff suspension (i.e., there is not much room for the suspension to move as the car passes over bumps and other irregularities in the racing surface), hitting rumble strips can cause the car to jump. Even if airborne for only a few milliseconds, at speed, it could be just enough so that the driver loses control of the car. Obviously, if one or more wheels are not in contact with the ground, the car is losing speed, which could be just enough of a mistake for other cars to pass by, and the lack of contact with the ground could result in excessive wheelspin which risks to flat-spot the tire(s) when contact is regained with the ground. When the racetrack is damp or wet, however, it is generally best to avoid using the rumble strips. Since rumble strips are painted (usually red and white), ANY amount of moisture will make the rumble strips extremely slick as the water beads on the paint, so that hitting a rumble strip in the process of cornering (especially at the apex of a corner) will cause the tire(s) to lose traction and often send the car spinning. ============================================== CONCRETE EXTENSIONS Similar to rumble strips are concrete extensions. These are generally (much) wider than rumble strips, and may or may not be painted (at FIA-approved F1 circuits, for example, these are generally painted green). Also, whereas rumble strips protrude slightly above the level of the racing surface, concrete extensions are at the same level as the racing surface. Concrete extensions can be used in the same manner as rumble strips. However, if painted, concrete extensions should be avoided for the same reasons listed above for rumble strips n the event of wet or damp racing conditions. Players should note that in some games - especially where challenges or license tests are involved - concrete extensions are often NOT designated as part of the official track, resulting in an 'Out of Bounds' designation. This is true, for example, in EA Sports' F1-based series (F1 2000, F1 Championship Season 2000, F1 2001, and F1 2002) and in the Gran Turismo series. ============================================== TIRES As a 2000/2001 Michelin commercial campaign (shown in the States) stated, the tires are the only safety features on the road which actually TOUCH the road. Implicit in this series of commercials is the message that special care must be given to tires. In the case of Michelin, this means that choosing Michelin tires is far safer than choosing any other brand of tires (note that this series of commercials had been running since LONG before the Firestone/Ford controversy erupted in 2000). In the case of racing/driving games, this same implicit message - that the tires are the only safety features on the road which actually TOUCH the road - means that special care must be given to the tires to keep them from wearing out too quickly. Of course, some games (usually arcade-style games, such as the Ridge Racer series) do not use tire wear. Other games do offer an array of tires, but simply to provide higher levels of pavement grip as higher levels of tires are acquired or purchased (such as Tokyo Xtreme Racer Zero). Other games have races which are simply too short to make tire wear a viable issue; an example of this type of game would be Downforce. In general, tire wear is not an issue in rally racing games. Some games simply provide Levels of tires. Here, the assumption is that Level 1 tires provide the least amount of pavement grip, with higher levels providing more pavement grip than previous levels. However, many games (especially simulation-based games such as Le Mans 24 Hours and the Gran Turismo series) offer several choices of actual tire compounds. For non-racing cars intended for mundane street use, Normal tires are standard issue. While Normal tires may work well on the highway and on city streets, they are virtually worthless in an actual racing situation. Normal tires do not provide adequate grip to be effective in racing. This is most noticeable when trying to corner at relatively high speeds with a vehicle with Normal tires. Simulation tires supposedly give a more accurate feel of what it is like to drive a racing-tuned car. Sports tires are a little better than Normal tires. When first playing a racing/driving game which offers Sports Tires, one of the best things you can do to improve your chance of success is to upgrade to Sports Tires as soon as possible. This will improve cornering ability, and provide a little more grip for acceleration (especially from a standing start). Racing tires come in an array of 'flavors,' with each tire compound giving a varying level of grip countered by an inverse level of durability. Not all racing games offer such a variety of tire compounds from which to choose. Super-slick Least grip, maximum durability Slick Medium-slick Medium Average grip, average durability Medium-soft Soft Super-soft Maximum grip, least durability Note that in some games, Slick and Super-slick are more likely to be called Hard Tires. Dirt Tires are required for dirt-based rally events. In some racing games (primarily Gran Turismo 2 and Gran Turismo 3), some non-racing cars can also be equipped with Dirt Tires - and in some cases can easily outperform rally-dedicated vehicles if given proper tuning considerations. Intermediate Tires are often used in games with varying weather effects, such as Le Mans 24 Hours. Whereas Normal, Sport, Super-soft, Soft, Medium-soft, Medium, Medium-slick, Slick, and Super-slick Tires are designed specifically for dry racing conditions, Intermediate Tires are generally used when the pavement is damp. A good indicator as to whether Intermediate Tires or Wet Tires (see the following paragraph) should be used is whether there is a large spray of water - often called a 'rooster tail' - coming up from underneath the car at high speeds on the straightaways. If there is not a rooster tail, or if the rooster tail is fairly small, then Intermediate Tires should be a good choice. Unfortunately, EA Sports has never included Intermediate Tires in its F1- based games, despite the fact that Intermediate Tires are used in real-world F1 racing; Intermediate Tires very much came into play, for example, at the 2002 Grand Prix of Great Britain. Wet Tires are designed for truly wet conditions. A good indicator as to whether Intermediate Tires (see the preceding paragraph) or Wet Tires should be used is whether there is a large spray of water - often called a 'rooster tail' - coming up from underneath the car at high speeds on the straightaways. If there is a large rooster tail, then Wet Tires are definitely needed. Some racing games have an on-screen tire indicator. This can range from a set of brackets or an image of the car with the tires highlighted in a particular color to a small line with an arrow indicating the condition of the tires. If the color system is used with a bracket or an image of the car with the tires highlighted, then the following colors are often used to indicate tire conditions: At the beginning of a race and immediately after a Pit Stop, the tires are brand new ('stickers') and need to be brought up to temperature as quickly as possible so that they can provide the best possible grip. This is noted by dark blue tire indicators. During this period, sharp turns or extremely-fast cornering will almost certainly cause the car to slide, and perhaps even spin. However, slides and spins will bring the tires up to optimum temperature even faster, so you may wish to purposely induce slides when entering corners, IF the tire indicators are dark blue. Once the tire indicators are green, the tires have reached their optimum performance temperature, thus providing you with the best possible grip for that set of tires. The amount of time the tire indicators remain in the green color range depends on your driving style, the amount of time off-course (in the grass or sand) or banging the barriers (or other cars), and the initial selection of tire compound. Note that in some games, new tires put on in a Pit Stop and tires on the car at the beginning of a race start with green indicators (bypassing the 'stickers' condition mentioned above). As the tire indicators switch to yellow, you need to start taking better care of your tires. You may experience slides when cornering. Orange tire indicators are a warning to get to Pit Lane to change tires as soon as you possibly can. You will be sliding around a lot more. Red tire indicators are effectively Game Over. Unless you have a HUGE (multi-lap) lead or a significant horsepower advantage over your competitors, you will not have a chance of winning the race, especially if you stop to change tires. Essentially, you are driving on pure ice, and the only way to 'reliably' get around the circuit is to ride the rails (barriers) alongside the circuit. Note that not all four tire indicators will be the same color at all times. If even ONE tire shows a red indicator, you need to limp back to Pit Lane to change tires as soon as possible. Even if a game does not have a tire wear indicator, players will inherently KNOW when the tires are worn due to the amount of slipping around, primarily when cornering and during extreme braking and acceleration. Some games, such as F1 2002, will have team radio communications which state that the tires are wearing down. If available in a given game, traction control affects tire durability. With a low traction control setting, the tires will spin for a while (especially on a standing start or when under strong acceleration out of a corner) before they actually grip the pavement; the friction of the pre-grip spinning wears away at the tires. With a high traction control setting, wheel spin is reduced or even eliminated, thus extending the durability of the tires. One of the best ways to reduce the durability of the tires is to corner at high speeds. The game manual for Gran Turismo 3 gives an excellent, highly-detailed description of what occurs with the tires when cornering; this explanation should be read at least once by EVERY serious gaming racer. In short, cornering at high speeds causes a high percentage of the tire to be used for speed, and a low percentage to be used for the actual cornering. To combat this and thus extend the durability of the tires, try to brake in a STRAIGHT line before reaching a turn, thus reducing overall speed and providing a lower percentage of the tires to be used for speed, and a greater percentage used for cornering. Note that if the percentage of the tires used for speed is too high compared to the percentage used for cornering, the car will slide and/or spin. Perhaps one of the best things to do to learn to take care of the tires is to play a racing game (such as F1 2002) in which vehicle damage is available. Playing with the damage option on will certainly make the effects of worn tires quite visual. As tire grip wears away (due to a long stint, multiple off-track excursions, etc.), the car may begin sliding around, potentially resulting in car damage (broken and missing parts), which REALLY makes driving a nightmare at high speeds. Many racing/driving games do not make this damage visibly clear, so it is easy to underestimate the condition of the tires; similarly, without any car damage (generally due to licensing concerns, but also because damage modeling requires MUCH more from the game programmers), cars in these games can simply 'ride the rails' around corners when tire conditions are less than optimal. ============================================== DRAFTING/SLIPSTREAMING One very useful racing technique is drafting, also known as slipstreaming. In some forms of motorsport, especially in oval track racing such as NASCAR and IRL, drafting is essential to making passes; NASCAR even raises drafting to an art form at its restrictor plate races by forcing cars to draft off each other simply to stay in contact with the leaders. Drafting works because of the aerodynamic vacuum which occurs behind a vehicle moving at a high rate of speed. As air flows around Car A, there is an area around which the air is forced as it flows off Car A's rear end. If Car B can get close enough to Car A, its front end can get into this vacuum area. Since vacuums prefer to fill their void with anything possible, Car B is drawn closer and closer to Car A. If the driver of Car B does not do anything or does not react fast enough, then Car B will eventually crash in to the back of Car A. However, once sufficient vacuum-assisted momentum has been gained, Car B can pull out to the side, exiting the vacuum with added momentum/speed, and rocket past Car A. By using Car A's natural high-speed vacuum in this manner, Car B will emerge from the draft with a major advantage in terms of speed without ever pressing harder on the accelerator. Often, drafting results in an additional 5MPH/8KPH over Car A; while this may not seem like a lot of extra speed, it is often enough to make a successful pass. Drafting is a great tactic for oval and tri-oval courses. However, its effectiveness at road racing venues is essentially limited to just long straightaways. In this case, it is highly important that Car B safely make the drafting pass well before the braking zone for the next corner, as the added speed will require earlier and/or stronger braking. Also, cars with variable downforce - especially cars with wings, such as CART and F1 cars - seem better able to make use of the draft. Specific to F1 2002, there is a draft/slipstream meter on the right side of the screen during races and other events (such as challenges) in the game. This can be useful, with the meter lighting up from bottom to top as Car B approaches the rear end of Car A. When the meter is fully lit, the player should quickly pull out of the draft/slipstream or risk an accident. ============================================== WET-WEATHER RACING/DRIVING Almost everything written to this point in the guide focuses solely upon dry-weather racing/driving conditions. In fact, most racing/driving games deal ONLY with dry-weather conditions. However, simulation-based games will include at least a few wet-conditions situations. This can range from Gran Turismo 3 - which uses two circuits (hosting a total of eight races between Simulation Mode and Arcade Mode) where the roadway has A LOT of standing water, as if the races take place just following a major prolonged downpour - to F1 2002 - where in most situations, players can purposely select the desired weather conditions for a given race. In wet-weather racing/driving conditions, it is IMPERATIVE to use tires designed for wet-conditions usage. For example, in F1 2002, in a full 53-lap race at Monza, I purposely tried running as long as I could with Dry Tires, then switched to Rain Tires when I could no longer handle the car's inherent sliding about... and my lap times instantly dropped by more than five seconds. In games which offer Intermediate Tires, such as Le Mans 24 Hours, the period when the racing circuit is simply damp (at the start of a period of rain, or when the circuit is drying after a period of rain) can be tricky in terms of tires. Intermediate Tires are certainly best for these racing conditions, but the time in Pit Lane spent changing to Intermediate Tires can mean losing numerous race positions, especially if the weather conditions change again a short time later and require another trip to Pit Lane to change tires yet again. Tires aside, simulation-style games simply will not allow a player to drive a circuit the same way in wet-weather conditions as in dry-weather conditions. The braking zone for all but the gentlest of corners will need to be extended, or else the car risks to hydroplane itself off the pavement. Throttle management is also key in wet-conditions racing. Due to the water on the circuit, there is inherently less tire grip, so strong acceleration is more likely to cause undue wheelspin - which could in turn spin the car and create a collision. If a car has gone off the pavement, then the sand and/or grass which collect on the tires provide absolutely NO traction at all, so just the act of getting back to the pavement will likely result in numerous spins. In general, cornering is more difficult in wet conditions than in dry conditions. To help ease this difficulty in cornering, simulation-style games will sometimes allow the player to change the car's tuning during a race (if not, the player will be forced to try to survive using the tuning set- up chosen before the beginning of the race). Tuning is covered in more detail in another section below, but the main aspect to change for wet-weather conditions is to raise the downforce at the front and/or rear of the car; this will help improve cornering ability, but will result in slower top-end speed and slower acceleration. If the car's brake strength can be adjusted, it should be lowered, as strong braking will raise the likelihood of hydroplaning off the pavement; lowering brake strength will also mean an additional lengthening of the braking zone for all but the gentlest corners of a given circuit. When the circuit is damp or wet, rumble strips and concrete extensions (which are usually painted) should be avoided as much as possible. The water tends to bead on the paint used for rumble strips and concrete extensions, making them incredibly slippery, especially if a drive wheel is on a rumble strip or concrete extension while the player is in the process of turning the car; this will cause undue wheelspin in that particular drive wheel, usually resulting in the car spinning. ============================================== ============================================== ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORIES The 'ancient' predecessor to this section was a guide created due to a personal inquiry for a guide for F1 2002, as I was wishing to learn more about the history of the race venues then used in F1 competition; this section takes that information (from my Circuit Histories Guide) and expands it to cover other racing venues (F1 and otherwise) worldwide. This is not intended to be a detailed history of all the race venues, but more of a general overview of the many circuits included in Pro Race Driver. The majority of information for this guide comes from circuits' official Web sites, Formula1.com (http://www.formula1.com/), NASCAR.com (http://www.NASCAR.com/), and Driver Network (http://www.drivernetwork.net/). In some cases, historical information is taken directly from the circuits' own official Web sites. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: A1 RING The A1-Ring has been the host of F1's Grand Prix of Austria since 1997, but also hosts Truck Grand Prix, Classic Grand Prix, Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters, and motorbikes, among other racing series. The 2002 Grand Prix of Austria was surrounded by controversy following an extreme Ferrari public relations faux pas. Reubens Barrichello had truly dominated the entire race weekend, and was definitely on his way to his second-ever F1 win. In the closing laps of the race, teammate Michael Schumacher (P2) began closing in on Barrichello, but the assumption was that this move was to allow Ferrari's cars to be close enough for a photo opportunity for its sponsors. However, since Michael Schumacher and Juan Pablo Montoya (Schumacher's closest expected competition) were at that point very close in points in the Drivers' Championship, Barrichello - who that week had signed a contract extension as the NUMBER TWO TEAM DRIVER behind Michael Schumacher - was ordered to pull aside in the final meters of the race to allow his teammate to gain an extra four points in his lead over Montoya (P1 awards 10 points; P2 awards 6 points). While FIA could not do anything against the team or the drivers for the team orders, the fans in the stands (and myself watching live on television at 7AM in Arizona) were FURIOUS. Michael Schumacher having officially 'won' the race was to take the top rung on the podium, but instead took the second rung and pushed the 'true' winner Reubens Barrichello to the top rung; the FIA took objection to this and sanctioned the team and the drivers at a special hearing later in the year. F1 winners at A1-Ring: Jacques Villeneuve (1997), Mika Hakkinen (1998 and 2000), Eddie Irvine (1999), David Coulthard (2001), and Michael Schumacher (the official winner in 2002 - see the note on the controversy above, as many consider that Reubens Barrichello won the race). See the official Web site (http://www.a1ring.at/) for more information. Unfortunately, it does not appear to have any historical information on the circuit itself, nor can I find any such information online. Also, the official Web site is entirely in German, a language I cannot read. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: ADELAIDE This 3.22-kilometer (2.01-mile) temporary street circuit was used for eleven years by Formula1 for the Grand Prix of Australia (which is now held at Albert Park in Melbourne). It is currently used by Australia's V8 Supercars series in the same configuration as the F1 series. Official history relating to the Clipsal 500 V8 Supercars race: Since the inaugural 1999 Sensational Adelaide 500 attracted 162,000 patrons - a record for a national motorsport meeting in Australia, the event has not stopped growing in popularity and audience. The 2000 event attracted another record crowd for a national motorsport event, 164,000. The 2001 event raised the bar even higher, attracting a crowd of 166,800 spectators and the 2002 event surpassed all expectations with a new record attendance of 171,200. The event has been awarded the AVESCO 'Motorsport Event of the Year' for each year - 1999, 2000, 2001, as well as the Yellow Pages Tourism Award as South Australia's best major festival or special event. Over its three-year history the Clipsal 500 Adelaide has provided economic benefit to SA totaling $44.9m, with visitor bed nights having increased forty two per cent to 43,400, and the length of stay of visitors increasing from five to seven nights. This year [2002] 21,000 grandstand seats were built, providing more than three thousand extra as compared with last year (2001). Corporate clients this year numbered over 8,000 per day. Increasing from the 2001 daily figure of 7,200. Employment as a result of the event has increased to 290 full time job equivalents, while the media benefit (that is the value of international and national television, radio and press coverage) had grown by 32% over the past three years with the total value being $87.67m. A New Family Area was introduced to the event this year. The area, located in the Rymill Park Lake section of the circuit off Bartels Road (Adelaide Straight) was a designated 'dry zone' and provided a number of free attractions for children from 10am to 4pm each day, including face painting, a jumping castle, a horse & car carousel, and ladybird carousel. The area was complete with a Clipsal Vision Super screen for ease of viewing. This year two concerts were held at the event. The Saturday Night After Race Concert delivered the ultimate country show with a city appeal - featuring Lee Kernaghan and Beccy Cole, with the Sunday Night Concert featuring Australia's premiere male vocal group Human Nature, joined by special guest Deni Hines, and new South Australian talent, Candyce. The Clipsal 500 Adelaide track was modified for this year's event. The turn 8 / 9 chicane was removed making it a fast sweeper from Adelaide Straight on to Brabham Straight. The nominated charity to benefit from fundraising opportunities during the 2002 event was The Leukaemia Foundation of SA. The Clipsal 500 Adelaide television audience had grown, not only on Network 10 throughout Australia, but live in New Zealand and with a growing global audience which included South Africa, Japan, Singapore, Thailand, Russia, forty four countries in Europe, the United Kingdom, the Middle East, Canada, the Caribbean, Mexico, the United States and South America. See the official Web site (http://www.clipsal500.com.au/) for more information. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: BATHURST From the official Web site of Bathurst 24 Hours (since there is no official Web site for the circuit itself; unfortunately, there is very little historical information available here): This unique circuit is located literally at the end of the main street of Bathurst, a city of 40,000 people with another 160,000 located within an 80-kilometer radius. It holds legendary status within Australian motorsport history, having hosted long distance races every year since 1963. ... The circuit runs 6.213 kms in an anti-clockwise direction. A lap time for FIA N-GT cars is expected to be in the 2 min 10 sec to 2 min 15 sec region. Although it is usually a public road, the track is constructed to an extremely high standard for racing with excellent surfaces, width and safety. The main pit areas feature permanent lock-up garages (55) with overhead corporate hospitality suites. Additional temporary pit structures will be provided for the Bathurst 24hr situated along Mountain Straight. All pit garages will use the same pit exit lane to the circuit. ... Mount Panorama is the only active motor racing track in Australia, which is open to the public. It is 6.213 kms in length, 870 metres above sea level at its height, 670 metres above sea level at its lowest point and has grades of up to 1 in 6.13 - downhill on the actual racing circuit. See the official Web site of Bathurst 24 Hours (http://www.bathurst24hr.com/) for more information. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: BRANDS HATCH Events at Brands Hatch include: MRO Powerbike, BRSCC Championship, Aston Martin Race Weekend, Champion of Brands, Historic Superprix, British F3, WSB Championship, Ferrari and Maserati Festival, British Touring Cars, MG Racing Spectacular, and Formula Ford Festival. Official circuit history (from the Octagon Motorsports Web site): Since its birth in 1926 as a local bicycle-racing venue, Brands Hatch has become synonymous with the best of British motor racing. Situated in a natural bowl, the circuit provided panoramic views of all the action, so its popularity as a racing venue grew rapidly. In 1950 Brands Hatch consisted of a mile-long oval tarmac circuit, but extensions and improvements meant that by 1960, Brands Hatch was ready to host Grand Prix events, and to write itself into the history books. In 1964, Jim Clarks won the European Grand Prix - not long after, he posted the first 100 mph lap of the circuit. A regular Grand Prix venue in the 70's and 80's, Brands Hatch also provided Nigel Mansell with his first World Championship win in 1985. Unofficial circuit history (from grandprix.com): It was back in 1926 that a group of cyclists on the main road from London to Folkestone noticed a natural amphitheater on land belonging to Brands Hatch farm, near the village of West Kingsdown. After discussions with the local farmer it was agreed that the field could be used for bicycle racing and time trials. Within a couple of years motorcycles had begun to use the dirt track and a three-quarter mile circuit was laid out in the little valley. It remained in operation throughout the 1930s but it was not until after World War II that a proper organization was established. That came with the formation of Brands Hatch Stadium Ltd. in 1947 and later that year the organizers convinced the BBC to film motorcycle races to be transmitted on the new television network. In April 1950, with a new tarmac surface and extended to a mile, the track opened for car racing with 500cc Formula 3 becoming the mainstay of the racing calendar. In 1953 the Universal Motor Racing Cub was established and a racing school was set up at the circuit. The following year the track was lengthened to 1.24-miles - with the addition of the hairpin at Druids Bend - and widened and the racing changed direction, the track having previously been anti clockwise. A grandstand, acquired from the Northolt trotting track, was added in 1955. The Le Mans disaster that year was to provide a boost to Brands Hatch as many of the rival postwar tracks were closed down because they were not safe enough. Brands Hatch managed to keep up with requirements and in 1956 hosted its first Formula 2 race with victory going to Roy Salvadori, who was in considerable pain having broken several ribs in a crash in an earlier sportscar event. There was a second F2 race a month later which was won by Colin Chapman driving one of his own Lotus 11s. A third F2 race at the end of the season established Brands Hatch as a serious racing circuit although it was obviously too short to attract any major international events. As a result the track authorities applied for planning permission to build an extension through the woods behind the track. The Kent County Council agreed and the new track hosted its first major race in August 1960 with victory in the non-championship Silver City Trophy F1 race going to Jack Brabham in a Cooper-Climax. The following year the circuit's press officer John Webb negotiated the sale of Brands Hatch to Grovewood Securities. He was put in charge of Motor Circuit Developments, the company which took over the management of the track. Major upgrading followed with new facilities added and new circuits acquired by MCD, including Mallory Park (1962), Snetterton (1963) and Oulton Park (1964). In July of that year Brands Hatch hosted its first World Championship F1 race, the RAC having agreed to alternate the British GP between Brands Hatch and Silverstone. From the earliest days Brands had a number of fatal accidents, but in the winter of 1965-66 Paddock Hill Ben in particular had acquired a dreadful eputation, for within a matter of months George Crossman, Tony Flory and Stuart Duncan were killed there and two others were seriously hurt. The death of Jo Siffert in October 1971 would lead to major safety work in 1972. In the 1970s Brands Hatch played an important role in the development of Formula Ford and in 1976 took over the running of the Formula Ford Festival. Two years later Brands Hatch hosted a race featuring Indycars, imported for the occasion from the United States of America. Webb's abilities as an organizer even enabled the track to host the 1983 European Grand Prix at 10 weeks notice after the unexpected cancellation of the New York GP. The last British GP at Brands Hatch was held in 1986 with victory going to Nigel Mansell in a Williams-Honda. That year John Foulston bought Brands Hatch, Oulton Park and Snetterton from Grovewood Securities and established a new company called Brands Hatch Leisure. The following year the company bought Cadwell Park but tragedy struck when Foulston was killed while testing a McLaren Indycar at Silverstone. BHL was taken over by his widow Mary Foulston, although John Webb remained in charge until his retirement in 1990. The running of the group was then taken over by Nicola Foulston. Without a Grand Prix Brands Hatch concentrated on Formula 3000 but a huge multiple accident in 1988 raised questions of safety again and by 1991 the F3000 circus turned its back on the track. Nicola Foulston was unperturbed and continued to develop BHL as a business. In 1996 she floated the company on the London Stock Exchange. This was a big success and Foulston began to make preparations for a bid for the British Grand Prix. In 1999 she announced that she had acquired the rights to hold the race in 2002. Planning permission was sought for rebuilding work but while this was still being discussed Foulston sold the company to the giant American advertising firm Interpublic for $195m, a premium of 36% on the price of the shares. See the official Web site of Octagon Motorsports (http://circuits.octagonmotorsports.com/) for more information on this and other Octagon Motorsports race venues in the United Kingdom. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: BRISTOL First used for NASCAR in 1961, Bristol Motor Speedway is the shortest track on the current NASCAR calendar at 0.533 miles (0.853 kilometers) - thus it is known as 'The World's Fastest Half-mile.' Formerly asphalt, the Bristol, Tennessee, USA, circuit was converted to concrete in 1992, and boasts attendance easily topping 150,000 for NASCAR events. The banking is thirty-six degrees in the corners and sixteen degrees on the straightaways. World of Outlaws and NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series have also held races at Bristol Motor Speedway. Racing schools at Bristol Motor Speedway include Buck Baker Racing School, Fast Track High Performance Driving School, Jarrett Favre Driving Adventure, Richard Petty Driving Experience, SpeedTech Auto Racing School, and Roy Hill's Drag Racing School. Here is the history of Bristol Motor Speedway as given on the official Web site of the circuit: Bristol Motor Speedway could very easily have opened in 1961 under a different name. The first proposed site for the speedway was in Piney Flats but, according to Carl Moore, who built the track along with Larry Carrier and R.G. Pope, the idea met local opposition. So the track that could have been called Piney Flats International Speedway was built five miles down the road on 11-E in Bristol. The land that Bristol Motor Speedway is built on used to be a dairy farm. Larry Carrier and Carl Moore traveled to Charlotte Motor Speedway in 1960 to watch a race and it was then that they decided to build a speedway in Northeast Tennessee. However, they wanted a smaller model of CMS, something with a more intimate setting and opted to erect a half mile facility instead of mirroring the 1.5-mile track in Charlotte. Work began on what was then called Bristol International Speedway in 1960 and it took approximately one year to finish. Many ideas for the track were scratched on envelopes and brown paper bags by Carrier, Moore and Pope. Purchase of the land on which BMS now sits, as well as construction of the track, cost approximately $600,000. The entire layout for BMS covered 100 acres and provided parking for more than 12,000 cars. The track itself was a perfect half-mile, measuring 60 feet wide on the straightaways, 75 feet wide in the turns and the turns were banked at 22 degrees. Seating capacity for the very first NASCAR race at BMS - held on July 30, 1961 - was 18,000. Prior to this race the speedway hosted weekly races. The first driver on the track for practice on July 27, 1961 was Tiny Lund in his Pontiac. The second driver out was David Pearson. Fred Lorenzen won the pole for the first race at BMS with a speed of 79.225 mph. Atlanta's Jack Smith won the inaugural event - the Volunteer 500 - at BMS on July 30, 1961. However, Smith wasn't in the driver's seat of the Pontiac when the race ended. Smith drove the first 290 laps then had to have Johnny Allen, also of Atlanta, take over as his relief driver. The two shared the $3,225 purse. The total purse for the race was $16,625. Nashville star Brenda Lee, who was 17 at the time, sang the national anthem for the first race at BMS. A total of 42 cars started the first race at BMS but only 19 finished. In the fall of 1969 BMS was reshaped and remeasured. The turns were banked at 36 degrees and it became a .533-mile oval. The speedway was sold after the 1976 season to Lanny Hester and Gary Baker. In the spring of 1978 the track name was changed to Bristol International Raceway. In August of 1978 the first night race was held on the oval. On April 1, 1982 Lanny Hester sold his half of the speedway to Warner Hodgdon. On July 6, 1983, Warner Hodgdon completed 100 percent purchase of Bristol Motor Speedway, as well as Nashville Speedway, in a buy-sell agreement with Baker. Hodgdon named Larry Carrier as the track's general manager. On January 11, 1985, Warner Hodgdon filed for bankruptcy. After Warner Hodgdon filed for bankruptcy, Larry Carrier formally took possession of the speedway and covered all outstanding debts. In August of 1992 BMS became the first speedway to host a Winston Cup event that boasted a track surface that was all concrete. On Jan. 22, 1996, Larry Carrier sold the speedway to Bruton Smith at a purchase price of $26 million. At the time of the sale, the facility seated 71,000. On May 28, 1996 the track's name was officially changed to Bristol Motor Speedway. By August of 1996, 15,000 seats had been added bringing the seating capacity to 86,000. BMS continued to grow and by April of 1997 was the largest sports arena in Tennessee and one of the largest in the country, seating 118,000. The speedway also boasted 22 new skyboxes. For the August 1998 Goody's 500 the speedway featured more than 131,000 grandstand seats and 100 skyboxes. Improvements to the speedway since Smith took possession are in excess of $50 million. The seating capacity for the Food City 500 in March of 2000 was 147,000 as the Kulwicki Terrace and Kulwicki Tower were completed. Some notable track facts (taken from the official Web site): - Kurt Busch won his first career Winston Cup race in the 2002 running of the Food City 500. - Tony Stewart's initial Bristol win came in the 2001 Sharpie 500. - Elliott Sadler's victory in 2001 Food City 500 was the first for Bristol victory for Stuart, Va.'s, famed Wood Brothers team. - In 21 of 40 years since Bristol opened, a driver who won a Winston Cup race at Bristol went on to win the series title later the same year. - Rusty Wallace snapped Jeff Gordon's four-year Food City 500 winning streak in 1999 and got his 50th win in 2000. - WCS track qualifying record: Jeff Gordon, 127.216 mph, 15.083 sec. 126.37 mph, 3/22/02. - WCS race record: Charlie Glotzbach, 101.074 mph (2:38:12), 7/11/71. - Most Bristol wins (driver): Darrell Waltrip, 12 (seven consecutive). - Most Bristol wins (car owner): Junior Johnson, 21 (eight consecutive). - Most Bristol wins (manufacturer): Chevrolet, 36 (Ford is second with 23). - Most Bristol poles (driver): Cale Yarborough, nine. - Johnny Allen crossed the finish line first in the inaugural BMS race, but he was driving in relief of Jack Smith, who gets credit for Bristol's first victory. For NASCAR, race speed records are: - Winston Cup: C. Glotzbach at 101.074MPH (161.718KPH, set July 11, 1971) - Busch Series: H. Gant at 92.929MPH (148.686KPH, set April 4, 1992) - Craftsman Trucks: R. Carelli at 83.992MPH (134.387KPH, set June 22, 1996) See the official Web site (http://www.bristolmotorspeedway.com/) for more information as well as photo galleries. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: CANBERRA No information or official Web site found. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: CATALUNYA The Circuit de Catalunya near Barcelona has hosted the Grand Prix of Spain since 1997. The circuit hosts numerous forms of racing, including FIA Sportscar Championship, Spanish Formula-1 Grand Prix, 24 HOURS MOTORBIKE ENDURANCE, 24 HOURS CAR ENDURANCE, Catalunya Motorbike Championship, Spanish GT's Championship, Truck GP, and certainly F1 Racing; Catalunya even holds courses for the preparation of racing officials. Many teams also use the circuit for practice and testing. The circuit has three configurations: Grand Prix (7.563 kilometers, or 4.727 miles), National (4.907 kilometers, or 3.067 miles), and School (2.725 kilometers, or 1.703 miles). F1 winners at Catalunya: Jacques Villeneuve (1997), Mika Hakkinen (1998-2000), and Mika Hakkinen (2001 and 2002). See the official Web site (http://www.circuitcat.com) for more information. Unfortunately, it does not have any historical information on the circuit, nor can I find any such information online. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: CHARLOTTE Named 'Charlotte' in Pro Race Driver, this is really now known as Lowe's Motor Speedway. The complex sports both a superspeedway (which is highly famous amongst NASCAR fans) and a dirt track (which is highly famous amongst World of Outlaws fans). Here is the circuit history from the official Web site: Lowe's Motor Speedway was designed and built in 1959 b current chairman O. Bruton Smith. The late Curtis Turner, one of stock car racing's earliest driving stars, was Smith's business partner. At the time Smith, a native of Oakboro, N.C., was an automobile dealer and short-track stock car racing promoter at Concord Motor Speedway and the Charlotte Fairgrounds. Turner, a Virginian who amassed his money in the lumber industry, became one of the first drivers on the NASCAR circuit after the sanctioning body debuted in 1949. Together, they built their dream of a 1.5-mile superspeedway on the outskirts of The Queen City and, on June 19, 1960, the first World 600 was run at the new facility. In 1961, like many superspeedways of the era, the track fell into Chapter 11 reorganization from which it eventually emerged despite lagging ticket sales. After his departure from the speedway in 1962, Smith pursued other business interests in Texas and Illinois. Working within Ford Motor Company's dealership program, Smith became quite successful and began purchasing shares of stock in Lowe's Motor Speedway. By 1975 Smith had again become the majority stockholder in the speedway, regaining control of its day-to-day operations. He hired current President H.A. 'Humpy' Wheeler as general manager and the two began to implement plans for needed improvements and expansion. During the ensuing 25 years, Smith and Wheeler demonstrated a commitment to customer satisfaction, building a facility that continuously established new industry standards. Thousands of grandstand seats and luxury suites were built. Food concessions and restroom facilities were added and modernized to increase the comfort of race fans. Smith Tower, a 135,000-square-foot, seven-story facility connected to the speedway's grandstands, was erected and opened in 1988. The building houses the speedway's corporate offices, ticket office, souvenir gift shop, leased office space and The Speedway Club, an exclusive dining and entertainment facility. Under the watchful eye of Smith and direction of Wheeler, in 1984 Lowe's Motor Speedway became the only sports facility in America to offer year-round living accommodations when it built 40 condominiums high above turn one. Twelve additional condominium units were added in 1991. Another innovation implemented by Smith and Wheeler was a $1.7 million, 1,200-fixture permanent lighting system developed by MUSCO Lighting of Oskaloosa, Iowa. The revolutionary lighting process uses mirrors to simulate daylight without glare, shadows or obtrusive light poles. The lighting system was installed in 1992, allowing Lowe's Motor Speedway to be the first superspeedway to host night auto racing. Ever cognizant of the competitors as well as the spectators, Smith and Wheeler added a new $1 million, 20,000-square-foot Winston Cup garage area in 1994. Other additions and improvements include the development of the speedway's 2,000-plus acres. In addition to the speedway, the property, some of which is leased, includes an industrial park that serves as home to several motorsports-related businesses, a modern landfill facility operated by BFI and a natural wildlife habitat. In addition to the 1.5-mile quad oval, the Lowe's Motor Speedway complex includes a 2.25-mile road course and a six-tenths-mile karting layout in the speedway's infield; a quarter-mile asphalt oval utilizing part of the speedway's frontstretch and pit road; and a one-fifth-mile oval located outside turn three of the superspeedway. Three NASCAR Winston Cup events, two NASCAR Busch Series races, a pair of Automobile Racing Club of America events and a Goody's Dash Series race are among the events held each year on the 1.5-mile superspeedway. The FasTrack Driving School and the Richard Petty Driving Experience also use the track extensively throughout the year. Other events on the various tracks include a weekly, nationally televised short track series for Legends Cars; Sports Car Club of America national and regional competitions; American Motorcycle Association events; and World Karting Association regional, national and international races. In May 2000, a state-of-the-art four-tenths-mile clay oval-The Dirt Track @ Lowe's Motor Speedway-was complete across Highway 29 from the speedway. The stadium-style facility has nearly 15,000 seats and plays host to the Pennzoil World of Outlaws sprint cars, dirt late model stock cars, the AMA Grand National motorcycles, the Advance Auto Parts Modified Super DIRT Series and Monster Trucks. Lowe's Motor Speedway also annually presents two of the nation's largest car shows and swap meets-the Food Lion AutoFairs in April and September-and rents the facility more than 300 days per year. Corporations such as IBM, UNOCAL, Miller Brewing, Coca-Cola, Duracell, Wendy's and Lipton Tea have rented the speedway to film television commercials or to entertain employees and clients with food, music and race car rides. Motion pictures such as 'Days of Thunder,' 'Speedway' and 'Stroker Ace' and even music videos like Tracy Lawrence's 'If the Good Die Young' have been filmed at the speedway. Adding to rental dates are race team testing and automobile manufacturer research. Smith and Wheeler will quickly point out they have yet to complete their vision, and they continue to improve and expand the facility. More than 10,000 stadium-style seats, 20 new executive suites and 40 special 32-seat boxes were built in turn four in 1995. In May 1997, the Diamond Tower Terrace grandstand was opened along the backstretch to accommodate an additional 26,000 race fans for The Winston and Coca Cola 600. In May 1998, an 11,000-seat expansion of the new Diamond Tower Terrace was completed, bringing the total seating capacity of Lowe's Motor Speedway to approximately 147,000. Then in May 1999, more than 10,000 new seats were completed in the Fourth Turn Terrace grandstand. A 10,860 seat expansion of the Ford grandstand on the frontstretch was completed in May 2000, bringing the speedway's total seating capacity to 167,000. These additions are all part of a long-term project calling for additional grandstand seating, infrastructure improvements, spectator amenities and the development of adjacent land for possible commercial real estate ventures. Building on the basic philosophy of keeping spectator and competitor comfort a high priority, Lowe's Motor Speedway continues to be a leading promoter and marketer of motorsports activities in the United States. See the official Web site (http://www.charlottemotorspeedway.com/) for more information. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: DIJON PRENOIS This French circuit hosts numerous events: F3, GT, F.Renault Coupe 206CC, Porsche Carrera Cup, an historic Ferrari weekend, Historics Grand Prix, Euro 3000, and F3000. Motorcycle events here include 125cc Open, 250cc Open, 600 Supersport, Super Production, Hornet Cup, Aprilia Cup, Coupe Ducati Club, and Side Car. Historical information (translated and abridged): 1968: Beginning of the 'Automobile Stadium Project' May 26, 1972: Inauguration of Circuit Dijon-Prenois at 3.289km (2.056 miles) June 4, 1972: First race - European Prototype Championship 1974: Host of the first Grand Prix of France (F1); winner: Ronnie Peterson 1975: Host of Grand Prix of Switzerland (F1); winner: Clay Regazzoni 1977: Host of Grand Prix of France; winner: Mario Andretti 1981: Host of Grand Prix of France; winner: Alain Prost (his first F1 win) 1984: Final F1 Grand Prix race held at Dijon-Prenois; winner: Niki Lauda See the official Web site (http://www.circuit-dijon- prenois.com/) for more information. However, the Web site is currently only available in French. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: DONINGTON PARK The Donington Park venue holds two circuits: the National Circuit and the International Circuit (the latter includes the parallel straightaways behind the Paddock Area). Donington Park is billed as a great place for car testing and launches, and also has days where the average drivers can take their cars and motorcycles to the tracks. The Honda Ron Haslam Race School also used Honda Hornets, CBR600 and CBR900RR Fireblades to train people of all ages and abilities on motorcycles. There is also the public Donington Grand Prix Collection museum, which contains more than 150 grand prix cars from the 1930s to the present. Race events include: Historic Sports Car Club Championships, British Formula 3 and British GT Championships, German Touring Car Masters, Donington Vintage and Historic Car Weekend, Cinzano British Motorcycle Grand Prix, Ford Racing Festival, Mini Racing Festival, MCN British Superbike Championship, BRSCC Car Championship, and British Truck Racing Championship. The official Web site (http://www.donington-park.co.uk/) unfortunately does not include any historical information. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: EASTERN CREEK This 3.93-kilometer (2.456-mile) circuit hosts V8 Supercars, many Formula series, a number of sports cars and sports sedans series, touring cars, production cars, and numerous national and support motorcycle series. The pit straight even incorporates a drag strip, and the circuit permits the average driver to enter cars and motorbikes for drag racing events (so long as the vehicle is road-registered). See the official Web site (http://www.eastern-creek- raceway.com/) for more information. This Web site unfortunately does not include historical information. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: FUJI This Japanese circuit is perhaps most notable to North American classic video game enthusiasts from its appearance in Atari's Pole Position series in the stand-up arcades of the 1980s. There are a few of these classic Pole Position and Pole Position II arcade boxes still in existence, although the best bet for finding these games now is on the various gaming consoles. However, those who prefer the version of the circuit in the Pole Position series will be rather disappointed at the chicanes added along the faster sections of the Fuji circuit. See the official Web site (http://www.fujispeedway.co.jp/) for information. There is virtually NO information on the English-language portion of the site, and NO historical information. The majority of information on the site is available only in the Japanese-language section. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: HOCKENHEIM The Hockenheim circuit was an EXCELLENT and very high-speed race venue until 2002, when the circuit was redesigned and severely shortened while accommodations were added to bring in even more spectators than before. The former Hockenheim configuration ran almost entirely through the German forest. The circuit was designed in 1932, and hosts F1 and many other forms of motorsport. Notable F1 winners at Hockenheim: Niki Lauda (1977), Mario Andretti (1978), (1981, 1986, and 1987), Alain Prost (1984, 1993), Ayrton Senna (1988-1990), Nigel Mansell (1991 and 1992), Michael Schumacher (1995, 2002), and Mika Hakkinen (1998). The official Web site (http://www.hockenheimring.de/) is unfortunately only available in German - which is a language I cannot read :-( ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: KNOCKHILL The official Web site (http://www.knockhill.co.uk/) is unfortunately unavailable, loading only a single blank page at the time of the writing of this guide. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: LAS VEGAS Las Vegas Motor Speedway sports a superspeedway, 'bullring,' drag strip, and dirt track. Amongst these four venues, more than four hundred different racing events were held on LVMS property in 2002. Circuit history from the official Web site: # Sept. 15, 1996-Inaugural Indy Racing League Las Vegas 500k, won by Richie Hearn. # Nov. 3, 1996-NASCAR Craftsman Truck Carquest 420k, won by Jack Sprague. # March 16, 1997-NASCAR Busch Grand National 300, won by Jeff Green. Oct. 11, 1997-Las Vegas 500k Indy Racing League, won by Eliseo Salazar. # Nov. 9, 1997 NASCAR Craftsman Truck Carquest 420k, won by Joe Ruttman. # Feb. 28, 1998-NASCAR Busch series Sam's Town 300, won by Jimmy Spencer. # March 1, 1998-Inaugural Las Vegas 400 NASCAR Winston Cup, won by Mark Martin. # Oct. 11, 1998-Pep Boys Indy Racing League Las Vegas 500k, won by Arie Luyendyk. # Nov. 8, 1998-NASCAR Craftsman Truck Sam's Town 250, won by Jack Sprague. # March 6, 1999-NASCAR Busch Series Sam's Town 300, won by Mark Martin. # March 7, 1999-NASCAR Winston Cup Las Vegas 400, won by Jeff Burton. # September 24, 1999-Nascar Craftsman Truck Series Orleans 250, won by Greg Biffle # September 25, 1999-Nascar Winston West Gold Coast 150, won by Kevin Richards # September 26, 1999-Pep Boys Indy Racing League Vegas.com., won by Sam Schmidt # March 5, 2000-NASCAR Busch Series Sam's Town 300, won by Jeff Burton # March 6, 2000-NASCAR Winston Cup Series Carsdirect.com 400, won by Jeff Burton # April 7, 2000-Inaugural NHRA Summitracing.com Nationals, winners were Kenny Bernstein (TF), Jim Epler (FC), Jeg Coughlin Jr. (PS), Bob Panella (PST), Angelle Seeling (PSB) # April 21, 2000-NASCAR Winston West, Orleans 150, won by David Starr # April 21, 2000-IRL Vegas Indy 300, won by Al Unser Jr. # March 1, 2001-NASCAR Winston West NAPA 300, won by Mark Reed # March 3, 2001-NASCAR Busch Series Sam's Town 300, won by Todd Bodine # March 4, 2001-NASCAR Winston Cup UAW-DaimlerChrysler 400, won by Jeff Gordon # April 8, 2001-NHRA Summitracing.com Nationals, won by Kenny Bernstein (TF), Tommy Johnson Jr. (FC), Jeg Coughlin Jr. (PS), Bob Panella (PST) # Oct. 14, 2001, NASCAR Craftsman Truck Orleans 350, won by Ted Musgrave # Oct. 28, 2001, Inaugural NHRA ACDelco Las Vegas Nationals, won by Darrell Russell (TF), Ron Capps (FC), Mark Pawuk (PS) and Shaun Gann (Bikes) # March 2, 2002, NASCAR Busch Series Sam's Town 300, won by Jeff Burton. # March 3, 2002, NASCAR Winston Cup UAW-DaimlerChrysler 400, won by Sterling Marlin # April 7,2002, NHRA Summitracing.com Nationals, won by Larry Dixon (TF), Gary Densham (FC) and Ron Krisher (PS). See the official Web site (http://www.lvms.com/) for more information. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: MAGNY-COURS Characterized by its three parallel straightaways (which can be aurally difficult for drivers while on the middle straightaway), Nevers Magny-Cours has hosted F1 events since 1991. The 4.226-kilometer (2.641-mile) circuit is also used for Motorbikes Championship, FIA GT Championship, Formula Renault 2000 Eurocup, FIA Sportcar Championship, Formula Nissan, historical races, and various endurance races. F1 winners at Nevers Magny-Cours: Nigel Mansell (1991 and 1992), Alain Prost (1993), Michael Schumacher (1994, 1995, 1997, 1998, 2001, and 2002), Damon Hill (1996), Heinz-Harald Frentzen (1999), and David Coulthard (2000). Visit the official Web site (http://www.magnycours.com/) for more information. Unfortunately, the site does not include any circuit history in either the French- or English-language versions of the site. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: MANTORP PARK The official Web site (http://www.mantorppark.com/) is currently available only in Swedish, so a circuit history is not available in English. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: MEXICO This 2.75-mile (4.40-kilometer) permanent road circuit began hosting CART events in 2001. As such, there is no real history available for this circuit. Please see the official Web site (http://www.telmexgigantegranpremiomexico.com/) for information. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: MONZA Originally opened in 1922 to commemorate the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Milan Automobile Club, the Monza circuit (Autodromo Nazionale Monza), near Milan, Italy, has been the site of more F1 grand prix events than any other. The Monza circuit has seen numerous configurations, including the famous banked section from 1955 to 1961. Monza has always been an incredibly fast race venue... and with this speed comes even greater danger. Phil Hill's 1961 race victory (his second consecutive win at Monza) was severely overshadowed by a collision between Jim Clark and Wolfgang von Trips which took the lives of the latter driver and over one dozen spectators. A 1970 mechanical failure during Qualifying killed Jochen Rindt, so one may not be surprised that chicanes, guard rails, and reinforced fencing were added beginning in 1972 as an attempt to slow the cars and make Monza's events safer for all involved; however, the chicanes specifically were really just makeshift safety measures due to the increasing performance in virtually all realms of motorsport. In more recent years, the opening lap of the 2000 Grand Prix of Italy was seriously marred by the death of a trackside race marshal due to all the flying debris at the Roggia Chicane (the second chicane of the circuit). While there were no dangerous incidents at the 2001 Grand Prix of Italy, that particular event happened to be scheduled for the first weekend following the world- shocking terrorist attacks on the United States (September 11, 2001) AND the near-fatal accident at a new race venue in Germany (the previous afternoon) which forced the amputation of the legs of CART driver Alex Zanardi; these events cast a dark shadow over the race itself as well as the entire Grand Prix weekend. On a far more positive note, Williams driver Juan Pablo Montoya - truly making his first great impact upon the F1 world following several years of astounding success in CART - broke Keke Rosberg's twenty-seven-year record for the fastest ever F1 qualifying lap. Rosberg's then record-setting lap was 259.005KPH (161.878MPH) set at Silverstone; Montoya's new record-setting lap was 259.827KPH (162.392MPH). What makes Montoya's achievement even more impressive is that Michelin- shod F1 vehicles (led by Williams and McLaren) have generally not been able to compete with Bridgestone-shod cars (led by Ferrari). The Monza circuit has seen all sorts of motorsport events, including motorcycles and touring cars, and currently is 5.736 kilometers (3.585 miles) in length. A recent Italian telefilm on the life of Enzzo Ferrari exclusively used the Monza circuit for its racing shots using time-appropriate vehicles. Notable F1 winners at Monza: Alberto Ascari (1951 and 1952), Juan Manuel Fangio (1953-1955), Stirling Moss (1956 and 1957), Stirling Moss (1959), Jim Clark (1963), Jackie Stewart (1965 and 1969), Emerson Fittipaldi (1972), Mario Andretti (1977), Niki Lauda (1978 and 1984), Alain Prost (1981, 1985, and 1989), Nelson Piquet (1983, 1986, and 1987), Ayrton Senna (1990 and 1992), Michael Schumacher (1996, 1998, 2000, and 2002), and Juan Pablo Montoya (2001). The official Web site of Autodromo Nazionale Monza (http://www.monzanet.it/) has plenty of great information, including a large track map of Monza's various configurations and plenty of images of racing action on Monza's banked turns. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: NORISRING The official Web site (http://www.autohausamnorisring.de/) is only available in German, so a circuit history is not available. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: NURBURGRING Originally 22.677 kilometers (14.173 miles) in length, the Nurburgring first opened in 1927 (following two years of construction) and is still going strong. The opening events featured motorcycles (June 18, 1927), with cars featured the following day. The 1939 German Grand Prix was the final race at Nurburgring for quite some time due to the beginning of World War II. The circuit itself was damaged in the closing months of the war, but racing returned to Nurburgring in 1947. However, there were no races at Nurburgring in 1948, as the circuit was being brought up to safety standards. Nurburgring began hosting F1 events in 1951. Estimates show that 400,000 spectators came to the track for the 1954 F1 race. In 1958, however, the F1 race saw the death of Peter Collins as his Ferrari went out of control. The 1968 world motorcycle championship at Nurburgring had a strange stoppage: a forest fire. The F1 Grand Prix later that year had nearly impossible visibility due to intense rain and fog. In 1970, the Northern Loop of the circuit was called into question after numerous accidents. Improvements were made for the following year, when 130,000 spectators witnessed Jackie Stewart winning the F1 Grand Prix. More improvements were demanded in 1974 (first by motorcyclists, then by F1 drivers). When Nikki Lauda was seriously injured in 1976, the Northern Loop was decommissioned as an F1 venue. A new, shorter circuit was then designed and built, opening in 1984 at 4.542 kilometers (2.839 miles) in length. Alan Prost won that year's European Grand Prix. In 1986, however, the F1 race moved to Hockenheim. 1995 saw the return of F1 to Nurburgring, and the historic race venue has produced excellent races ever since. Some of the notable F1 winners at Nurburgring: Alberto Ascari (1951 and 1952), Juan Manuel Fangio (1954-1956), Stirling Moss (1961), Jim Clark (1965), Jack Brabham (1966), Jackie Stewart (1968, 1971, and 1973), Alain Prost (1984), Michael Schumacher (1995, 2000, and 2001), Jacques Villeneuve (1996 and 1997), Mika Hakkinen (1998), and Rubens Barrichello (2002). See the official Web site (http://www.nuerburgring.de/) for plenty more details about the Nurburgring. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: ORAN PARK Oran Park contains two separate circuits which are joined for form the Grand Prix circuit of 2.7 kilometers (1.7 miles) which is used for V8 Supercar. From the official Web site: Oran Park is a motorsport facility steeped in history. The facility was established by the Singer Car Club 40 years ago. In its early days it would host one race per day. The circuit initially consisted only of the current south circuit, with the extended Grand Prix figure-8 layout not being incorporated into the track until the 1970s. Oran Park has played to host to a number unique and exciting events. It has hosted Australian Grand Prix, been the home of truck racing and was the home of the final round of the Australian Touring Car Championship for quite some time. Oran Park was instrumental in running Sports Sedans racing, that captivated Sydney motor racing fans in the 1970s (and still proves very popular today). Oran Park is a multi-faceted faclity, and includes a number of separate tracks and a driver training facility. Oran Park boasts the famous Grand Prix circuit, which is a challenging figure-8 layout, with a combination of fast sweepers and tight, technical corners. The Grand Prix Circuit is able to be split up and used concurrently as South and North Circuits. The South Cicuit incorporates the long straight, while the North Circuit incorporates the figure-8 section of the track and is a short and challenging track. Additionally, Oran Park has a Skid Pan for driver training, two dirt circuits for off road events, a motorcross track, and a popular go-kart circuit. See the official Web site (http://www.oranpark.com/) for more information. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: OSCHERSLEBEN The official Web site (http://www.motopark.de/) is only available in German, so a circuit history is not available. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: OULTON PARK Located near Cheshire, England, this circuit hosts British Touring Car Championship, British Superbike Championship, and British GT Championship, along with numerous club series. Official circuit history from Octagon Motorsports: Oulton Park first established itself as the North West's premier motorsport venue in the 1950s. A decade later, it was hosting international meetings, and among the winners were household names such as Stirling Moss, Jack Brabham, Jackie Stewart and Graham Hill. The circuit has been extended over the years, and boasts the unique distinction of having three circuits in one. This allows Oulton Park to present a racing programme that includes something for just about every motorsport enthusiast. Unusually, it is also able to seat spectators within the perimeter of the circuit, providing unrivalled views of the action. See the official Web site of Octagon Motorsports (http://circuits.octagonmotorsports.com/) for more information on this and other Octagon Motorsports race venues in the United Kingdom. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: PHILLIP ISLAND In 1952, the Phillip Island Auto Racing Club was formed with the vision of building the first international grand prix circuit in Australia. In December 1956, the circuit finally opened. Major events held at Phillip Island include Australian Superbike Championship, World Superbike Championship, V8 Supercar Championship Series, Konica V8 Supercars, and Australian Motorcycle Grand Prix. See the official Web site (http://www.phillipislandcircuit.com.au/) for more information, including a highly-detailed circuit history. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: ROCKINGHAM Rockingham Motor Speedway hosts an 'oval' circuit plus an infield road circuit (i.e., a 'stadium circuit'), allowing for many types of racing at this British facility. Events here include Ascar Oval Race Meeting, Classic Motorcycle Race Meeting, British Superbike Race Meeting, F3/GT, ASCAR Oval Race Meeting, CART Rockingham 500, Uniroyal Challenge with Formula Palmer Audi & VSR Club Race Meeting, and BRDC Winter Raceday. See the official Web site (http://www.rockingham.co.uk/) for more information. Unfortunately, a circuit history is not given on the official Web site. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: SANDOWN The official Web site (http://www.sandownraceway.com.au/) is extremely slow and virtually unresponsive at the time of the initial writing of this game guide. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: SEARS POINT Sears Point Raceway is now officially known as Infineon Raceway. This is the site of one of NASCAR's two road circuit events each year, providing a drastic change for the oval-dedicated stock car drivers. Circuit history from the official Web site: Since 1968, Infineon Raceway has provided the best in motorsports action. From the fender-rubbing action of NASCAR Winston Cup and ground pounding thunder of NHRA Drag Racing to the grassroots SCCA road races and AFM motorcycle events, Infineon Raceway has played host to many of racing's greatest moments and stars. Racing legends such as Mario Andretti, Al Unser, Dan Gurney, Kenny Roberts, Dale Earnhardt, Shirley Muldowney and Don 'The Snake' Prudhomme, as well as modern day stars including Jeff Gordon, Rusty Wallace, Ron Hornaday Jr., Miguel DuHamel and John Force, have all left their indelible marks at this unique and historic facility. NASCARInfineon Raceway is arguably the world's busiest racing facility, with track activity scheduled an average of 340 days a year. It is one of the nation's only high performance automotive industrial parks. Under the ownership and vision of Speedway Motorsports Incorporated, Infineon Raceway is poised to reach new heights in facility development and in the quality of events it offers fans. What follows is a brief history of how Infineon Raceway came to be one of North America's most complete and versatile motorsports complex: In the Beginning Franklin Sears was born in Indiana in 1817. He spent his childhood in Missouri, and in 1844 ventured westward to Oregon. He left home with his friend, Granville Swift, a rifle, mule and $1.50 in his pocket. After one winter in Oregon, Sears was fed up with the rain and headed south. He volunteered for the U.S.-Mexican war and was named a hero of the Battle of San Pasquale. He spent much of the time in the thick of the battle and was a decorated solider during the war. Following the war in 1851, he married Granville Swift's sister, Margaret, and settled on 600 acres of land south of Sonoma. He built his home of hand-hewn redwood. He was a blacksmith by trade but a large source of his income came from ranching. Sears eventually partnered with Granville Swift and bought 15,000 acres of land that stretched from Infineon Raceway all the way to what is now Lakeville Highway. 1968 The 2.52-mile road racing course was constructed on 720 acres by Marin County owners Robert Marshall Jr., an attorney from Point Reyes, and land developer Jim Coleman of Kentfield. The two conceived of the idea of a race track while on a hunting trip. Ground was broken in August and paving of the race surface was completed in November. The first official event at Infineon Raceway was an SCCA Enduro, held on December 1, 1968. 1969 The track was sold to Filmways Corp., a Los Angeles-based entertainment company for $4.5 million. From 1969 through early 1970, Infineon Raceway hosted a variety of events, including USAC IndyCar races, NASCAR stock car races, SCCA races, and drag races. 1970 Dan Gurney won a 150-mile USAC IndyCar road race with a field that included Mario Andretti, Mark Donahue and Al Unser. Not long after, the track closed in May and became a tax shelter for Filmways after losses of $300,000 were reported. 1973 Hugh Harn of Belvedere and Parker Archer of Napa arranged to lease the track through Filmways vice president Lee Moselle for $1 million. Bob Bondurant, owner and operator of the Bob Bondurant School of High Performance Driving, announced that he would move his school from Ontario Speedway in Southern California to Infineon Raceway. The Pacific Region of the Sports Club Car of America announced it would hold a driver's school and series of non spectator races at the track. 1974 Bob Bondurant and partner Bill Benck took over management and control of the leased raceway from Archer and Harn. American Motorcycle Association national motocross races in the hills north of Turn 7 become popular with Bay Area fans, but were phased out by the end of the decade because of rising insurance costs. 1977 AMAMoselle, a lawyer with no racing experience, comes aboard and hires Jack Williams, the 1964 NHRA top fuel drag racing champion, to be his operations chief, and Art Glattke to handle public relations. Moselle was under orders from Filmways to clear spectator restrictions with the county of Sonoma and to build a major-event schedule. A group calling itself Black Mountain Inc., which included Bob Bondurant, William J. Kolb of Del Mar and Howard Meister of Newport Beach, purchased the track from Filmways for a reported $1.5 million. Two months later, in May, Kenny Roberts did wheelies on the final two laps while he waved to a crowd of 20,000 for a runaway victory in the AMA-Sonoma Motorcycle Classic. 1980 The Black Mountain Group took on an additional partner -- the Long Beach Grand Prix Association -- in hopes of improving marketing and public relations. 1981 The Long Beach Grand Prix, headed by Chris Pook, decided to rename the track Golden State International Raceway. The Black Mountain group obtained an injunction to keep Filmways from claiming the property after defaulting on payments. Black Mountain claimed Filmways gave false financial projections when it sold the property in 1979. Bondurant resigned as president of Golden State Raceway in a dispute with Pook over the Long Beach Grand Prix's management plan. Filmways regained ownership of the track and Williams, Rick Betts and John Andersen purchased the track from Filmways at an auction for $800,000. The track was renamed Infineon Raceway International Raceway. 1983 Ford became a major sponsor at the track. Williams named Dr. Frank N. Scott Jr. of Aptos and Harvey 'Skip' Berg of Tiburon as partners. 1985 The track was completely repaved, in part with funds donated from the 'Pave the Point' fund raising campaign. It was also in 1985 that the first shop spaces (Buildings A,B,C, and D -- in the main paddock area) were built. 1986 Berg, president of a real estate acquisition and management firm headquartered in Seattle, took control of the track and became major stockholder in Brenda Raceway Corp., which controlled the track until 1996. Berg named Darwin Doll, vice president and general manager of Michigan International Speedway, new track president. 1987 NHRA Top FuelOne of the most significant moves in the track's history occurred. Infineon Raceway signed a five year contract with the National Hot Rod Association for the California Nationals. The first event was held in the summer of 1988. Additional buildings constructed on the property brought shop space to more than 700,000 square feet. 1988 Berg hired Glen Long, an IBM executive, to be the track's new president. Mike Yurick was named general manager. The NHRA nationals were a resounding success, with an estimated 32 ,000 spectators on hand to watch Joe Amato edge Dick LaHaie in victory by one hundreth of a second margin. 1989 The NASCAR Winston Cup Series debuted at the raceway, with Ricky Rudd taking the inaugural victory. Infineon Raceway arrived. 1991 The Skip Barber Racing School replaced the Bob Bondurant School of High Performance Driving. The NASCAR Winston Cup race drew 70,000 spectators in its second year at the track. The 15-year association with International Motorsports Association (SportsCar) GTP series, was suspended. Steve Page, a marketing executive with the Oakland A's, succeeded Long as track president. 1994 More than $1 million was spent on a beautification project and construction of a 62-foot-high, four-sided electronic lap leader board in the center of the road course. A medical facility and an 18-nozzle Unocal gasoline filling station were constructed. 1995 A major $3 million renovation plan was kicked off that included posh tower VIP suites and a two-story driver's lounge/emergency medical facility. Trans-Am and SportsCar races returned to Infineon Raceway. The NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series is added to the major-events schedule. 1996 The Russell Racing School signs a 10-year contract with Infineon Raceway in February to headquarter its world renowned driving school in Sonoma. The Skip Barber Driving School moves to Laguna Seca. In May of 1996, the NASCAR Winston Cup race drew a record 102,000 spectators -- the largest single-day crowd for a Northern California sports event. Infineon Raceway owner Skip Berg sells the track to O. Bruton Smith, chairman of Speedway Motorsports, Inc. in November of 1996. Speedway Motorsports also owns Atlanta, Bristol, Charlotte, Las Vegas and Texas Motor Speedways in addition to Infineon Raceway. 1997 Kragen signs a contract through the year 2001 to joint sponsor the annual NASCAR Winston Cup event. The event will be renamed the Save Mart/Kragen 350 for the 1998 season. 1998 Major renovations begin at Infineon Raceway with the creation of 'The Chute,' an 890-foot high-speed stretch that will be used for all NASCAR-sanctioned events. The stretch connects existing Turns 4 and 7 and is officially opened on May 5 by NASCAR star Jeff Gordon. The re-design of the road course shortens the circuit from 2.52 miles to 1.949 miles but increases the Winston Cup race from 74 to 112 laps, provding fans with more action. The Chute will be used for Winston Cup, Winston West, Southwest Series and Craftsman Truck Series events. In June, NASCAR marks its 10-year anniversary with Infineon Raceway and Vallejo native Gordon comes away for the victory in the Save Mart/Kragen 350 Winston Cup race. 1999 Jeff Gordon joins Rusty Wallace and Ernie Irvan as the only two-time winners at Infineon Raceway when the Vallejo native wins the Save Mart/Kragen 350 NASCAR Winston Cup race in June. The first-ever running of the American Le Mans Series takes place at Infineon Raceway in July as J.J. Lehto and Steve Soper guide BMW to the Prototype victory. This marks the return of exciting sports car racing to Infineon Raceway as a main event for the first time since 1997. The race is televised live by NBC. Progressive Insurance signs on as the title sponsor of the AMA Superbike event, which is won by Mat Mladin. The native of Australia would go on to capture his first-ever AMA Superbike championship. His only win of the year would come at Infineon Raceway. NHRA drag racing winners include Doug Kalitta (Top Fuel), Whit Bazemore (Funny Car) and Jim Yates (Pro Stock). 2000 Infineon Raceway gains unanimous approval from the Sonoma County Board of Supervisors by a 5-0 vote to begin work on a $35 million Modernization Plan that will transform the facility into one of the premier motorsports venues in the country. The comprehensive project will take two years to complete and inlcudes 64,000 Hillside Terrace seats, repaving of both the road course and drag strip and increased run-off around the entire track. Jeff Gordon becomes the first three-time NASCAR Winston Cup winner at Infineon Raceway, taking the Save Mart/Kragen 350. In other racing news, Allan McNish sets the fastest lap ever recorded at Infineon Raceway since the raceway opened in 1968. McNish, piloting an Audi R8 during the American Le Mans Series Grand Prix of Sonoma, covers a single lap at 112.440 mph. Doug Kalitta joins Gordon as a three-peat winner, claiming his third consecutive Top Fuel title at the Fram Autolite Nationals NHRA event. 2001 The 2001 season kicked off with the completion of the first phase of Infineon Raceway's $35 million Modernization Plan. The first phase of the project, which began in September, featured the completion of hillside terrace seats in Turns 2-4, a new entrance at Gate 7, the construction of two ring roads for shuttle and fan traffic, 40 permanent garages and increased run-off on the road course, among others. The 10-turn road course used for the NASCAR Dodge/Save Mart 350 featured a modified Chute lengthened by over 300 feet to include a straightaway between Turns 4 and 4a and the creation of a pure straightaway between Turns 4a and 7. Turn 7 boasts a 90-degree right-hand turn with 120 feet of runoff room for safety and creates a new passing zone on the track. The new Turn 7 proved crucial in the 2001 Dodge/Save Mart 350, with Tony Stewart making the race winning pass in this turn as Robby Gordon and Kevin Harvick battled for position. Stewart took the checkered flag after 112 laps, robbing Jeff Gordon of his fourth consecutive win at Infineon Raceway. The NHRA FRAM Autolite Nationals offered more than just exciting racing action in 2001. After Kenny Bernstein, Del Worsham and Tom Martino claimed their titles, John Force and Gary Scelzi boarded Caterpillar bulldozers to begin destruction of the drag strip and signify the beginning the of second phase of the Modernization Plan. Phase Two of the plan focuses on fan and driver amenities, including more terraces seats, repaving of the drag strip and road course surfaces and the construction of a new permanent grandstand at the start/finish line of the road course. The Plan is scheduled to be completed for the 2002 season. 2002 The 2002 racing season was a time of major change at the Sonoma raceway. In June, track officials announced that the facility had been renamed Infineon Raceway as part of a 10-year strategic partnership with Infineon Technologies, one of the world's top semiconductor manufacturing companies. The agreement includes two annual events to be held at Infineon Raceway. The annual American Le Mans Series event will be renamed the Infineon Grand Prix of Sonoma, and beginning in 2003, Infineon Raceway will host the Infineon Mountain Bike Challenge, a world class competitive biking event. Infineon Raceway became just the second motor racing facility in the country to secure a major naming rights deal. The 2002 racing season also saw the near-completion of the facility's two-year, $50 million Modernization Plan. This renovation touched nearly every area of the property and includes the addition of many fan and racer amenities. Changes to the facility include: a new permanent grandstand at start/finish of the road course; hillside terrace seating at Turns 7-9; a completely refurbished drag strip complete with 660-foot concrete launch pad; expanded paddock area; and the new Infineon Raceway Karting Center. Infineon Raceway also hosted its full-slate of annual events, including the Dodge/Save Mart 350 NASCAR Winston Cup event and NHRA FRAM Autolite Nationals, with the addition of the inaugural NHRA Summit Sport Compact Drag Racing Series event. The new drag strip surface proved fruitful at the NHRA event, with track records reset in three classes and Pro Stock Motorcycle rider, Angelle Savoie, posting the second quickest time in history. See the official Web site (http://infineonraceway.com/) for more information. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: SILVERSTONE The world-famous Silverstone circuit - often spoken of in the same terms as Indianapolis Motor Speedway and Monza - has hosted F1 racing since 1950. This 5.110-kilometer (3.194- mile) circuit is set at an airport site, and contains several configurations. The Silverstone International circuit (used for the British TOCA series) shares much of the same pavement as the Grand Prix circuit used for the annual F1 Grand Prix of Great Britain; in fact, the pavement for the two circuits even cross at approximately two-thirds of the way around the International circuit. During World War II, the Royal Air Force chose the site now known as Silverstone for an airfield and a bomber-training base. Following the war, other circuits such as Donnington Park and Brooklands could not be used for racing due to having been converted for wartime uses. Thus, in 1948, the Silverstone site was used for its first race... with the circuit marked by hay bales. The circuit was redone in 1949 and assumed a configuration roughly equivalent to that in current use. F1 began in 1950, and held its first race at Silverstone. Guiseppe Farina won the first-ever F1 race in an Alfa Romeo. The British Racing Drivers' Club operated Silverstone until 2001, when current owner Octagon Motorsports took control of the venue; this also ensures that the British Grand Prix will be held at Silverstone for at least the next fifteen years. The world's best F1 drivers have all placed themselves into the Silverstone record books, including Manuel Fangio, Stirling Moss, Mike Hawthorn, Jack Brabham, John Surtees, Jim Clark, Graham Hill, Jackie Stewart, James Hunt, John Watson, Niki Lauda, Alain Prost, Nigel Mansell, Ayrton Senna, Eddie Irvine, Jacques Villeneuve, Mika Hakkinen, Michael Schumacher, and David Coulthard. The track record is held by Michael Schumacher, at 1:24.475 with an average speed of 217.784KPH (136.115MPH). Silverstone hosts far more than just F1: Grand Prix motorcycles, SuperBikes, Karts, FIA GTs, European Le Mans, RallySprint, stages of the Rally of Great Britain, British Touring Car Championship, and British Formula 3 and GT. The official Web site is actually the site for Octagon Motorsports (http://www.octagonmotorsports.com/), which owns and operates Silverstone, as well as Snetterton, Cadwell Park, Brands Hatch, and Oulton Park. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: T1 CIRCUIT AIDA The official Web site (http://www.ti-circuit.co.jp/) is only available in Japanese, so there is no circuit history available. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: VALLELUNGA The official Web site (http://www.vallelunga.it/) has an automatic redirection to a blank page. Therefore, no circuit history is available. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: VANCOUVER The Vancouver temporary street circuit primarily features one of the three Canadian rounds of the CART-FedEx Championship Series, but also includes CASCAR Super Series, Fran-Am, Barber Dodge Pro Series, and the SCCBC Sedan Invitational Race. Circuit history from the official Web site (written in 2002): From green flag to checkered flag, the challenging Vancouver course will take the world's most talented drivers on a heart-pounding 12-turn ride through the streets of downtown Vancouver. With the spectacular North Shore mountains as a backdrop, the twisting waterfront course is sure to test the limits of every CART driver and their million-dollar racing machines. Last year a packed house of more than 65,000 cheering fans were revved up for another Canadian victory following the first ever in Vancouver the year before by Team KOOL Green's 'Thrill from Westhill', Paul Tracy. Things couldn't have started any better as 26 cars took the green flag led by the all-Canadian front row of Team Players drivers Alex Tagliani and Patrick Carpentier. After 175 miles of racing and seven lead changes, it was Patrick Racing's 'Super Sub' Roberto Moreno who powered his Visteon Reynard Lola to his first victory of the season after passing fellow Brazilian Gil de Ferran with just nine laps to go. An emotional Moreno treated the crowd to some victory donuts before dedicating the race to the memory of hometown favorite Greg Moore. As always, the Vancouver race played a pivotal role in the race for the season championship. With his second place finish, Team Penske driver Gil de Ferran, took over top spot in the standings and never looked back on his way to repeating as CART FedEx Championship Series champion. Last year, more than 160,000 motorsport fans came to Concord Place to catch thrilling wheel-to-wheel action and the roar of the 800-horsepower engines. See the official Web site (http://www.molsonindy.com/) for more information. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: ZANDVOORT The official Web site (http://www.circuit-zandvoort.nl/) is only available in Dutch, so an official circuit history of not available. ============================================== CIRCUIT HISTORY: ZOLDER Circuit Zolder has been used in the past for F1's Grand Prix of Belgium, but is a 'sore point' amongst many current drivers due to the lack of modernized safety features. For example, the 2002 season featured primarily sand and gravel in the recovery zones, whereas the majority of European racing venues are instead removing sand and gravel to be replaced by more pavement; such changes permit cars to slide off of the actual raceway, recover, and rejoin the race. Events held at Circuit Zolder include: German Touring Cars, World Championship Cyclo-Cross, Road World Championships, FIA Electro Solar Cup, Motorcycle Road Racing Grand Prix, Grand prix of the Nations, European Historic Grand Prix, Truck Super Prix, and 24 Hours of Zolder... among others. Circuit history from the official Web site: The name 'Terlamen' is derived from 'Terlaemen', the name of the local domain that is already quoted in 1293 and at the heart whereof the circuit has been constructed. The community of Heusden-Zolder is the owner of the circuit and of the greater part of the surrounding woods. The vzw Terlamen runs the circuit. In 1959, Auto-Moto-Club Bolderberg came with the idea to build a circuit where its members could practice their hobby. In 1960, this idea was materialised in a small 2,700-meters long circuit. Very soon, it became clear that this circuit was too small for national and international competitions. A permanent and larger circuit was required. On 14 July 1963, the 4,300-meters long circuit was officially inaugurated. After the works in 1994, the length was reduced up to 4,184 meters. Although not the largest, Circuit Zolder surely is one of the safest circuits of the world. Moreover, the track has been built in such a way that the drivers can demonstrate their true capacities. Since the circuit constitutes a closed complex, timings, races or other events can be organised without obstructing the circulation on the public road. Besides many Formula 1 races in the past and other internationally famous races such as the European Historic Grand Prix and the Truck Super Prix, Circuit Zolder hosts many national and regional competitions such as the New Race Festival, the 24 Hours of Zolder, the Belgian Masters and the Race Promotion Night as well. Every year, Circuit Zolder is the place-to-be for thousands of visitors. Please see the official Web site (http://www.circuit- zolder.be/) for more information. ============================================== ============================================== ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS The following large section is a list of detailed driving instructions to help players to quickly yet safely drive each circuit in Pro Race Driver. Much of this information comes from my World-famous Racing Circuits Guide (in which the information is based upon a variety of racing games featuring the listed circuits), so there may be a few minor differences between what is printed here and the rendition of each circuit in Pro Race Driver. Please note that different games will provide different variations on the same circuit. For example, compare Monte Carlo/Monaco (Temporary Street Circuit) in F1 2001 and Gran Turismo 3; the circuit in the former is very tight and narrow, just like the real-world circuit, whereas the latter presents a generally wider circuit. Changes also occur within the same game series; compare the Le Mans circuit in Test Drive: Le Mans and Le Mans 24 Hours. Note also that circuit owners are always considering changes (largely in the effort to improve safety in the event of crashes) and that it may take quite some time for games to reflect these changes; the Monza circuit's initial chicane was changed in 2000 in an attempt to slow cars somewhat, but it was not until F1 2001 that EA Sports made the real-world circuit's alterations to its line of F1-based games. For those fairly new to racing games - especially those games with a heavy road racing emphasis, such as any F1-based game and games based on endurance racing - it may be a good idea to combine the driving details presented in this guide with information of driving tips presented both in the previous section of this guide and also in my General Racing/Driving Guide, also available EXCLUSIVELY on FeatherGuides and GameFAQs. ============================================== INSTRUCTIONS: A1 RING This course may only have seven corners, but it is still a highly-challenging technical course for the drivers. The circuit itself is built on a steep hillside, with the Paddock area and the Pit Straight located at the lowest elevation of the course. The significant elevation changes and poorly- placed barriers make this a particularly challenging circuit to safely navigate. This is also the circuit where Ferrari made a major public relations blunder in 2002 by ordering race leader Rubens Barrichello to pull aside in the final few meters of the Austrian Grand Prix to allow teammate Michael Schumacher to win a race which Barrichello had completely dominated all weekend long (Practice, Qualifying, and Race). Pit Straight: Long and straight; main grandstands to the left, Pit Lane to the right. Rather mundane, except that the entire Pit Straight has a slow uphill climb into the Castrol Curve. The beginning of the Pit Straight (coming off Mobilkom Curve) is also a bit bumpy. Turn 1 (Castrol Curve): After a rather mundane Pit Straight, the Castrol Curve is anything but mundane. This is a right- hand uphill corner which requires moderate braking. The Pit Lane rejoins the main course on the right at the exit of the corner. Because of the steep slope of the hill, it is all too easy to drive off the outside of the corner and into the massive sand trap. If you lose your concentration and forget even to slow down, you will likely find yourself airborne once you hit the rumble strip; similarly, if you try to take this corner at top speed, you may find yourself looking up at the ground. Straightaway: There are a few fades in the straightaway as the course continues its uphill climb. The end of the straightaway (approaching Remus Curve) has a suddenly steeper grade and demands total concentration. Turn 2 (Remus Curve): This is a TIGHT right-hand 'J' turn requiring heavy or even severe braking, as well as COMPLETE CONCENTRATION to navigate safely (even when not dealing with traffic). The uphill climb of the circuit continues through most of the turn, plus Remus Curve is even slightly banked toward the OUTSIDE of the corner, making high or even moderate speeds absolutely impossible here. Rolling the right-side tires up on the thin patch of grass on the inside of the Remus Curve will almost definitely result in loss of control of your vehicle. Even worse, this is a blind corner due to the barrier. Aggressive drivers will certainly end up overrunning the Remus Curve on exit and find themselves beached in the kitty litter. If you use the accelerator too soon on exit, you WILL find yourself off-course. Straightaway: Located at the highest elevation of the course, this straightaway has a fade to the right, then another to the left. After the second fade, prepare for braking before arriving at the Gosser Curve. Make use of the distance-to- corner markers, or else you risk overrunning Gosser Curve. Turn 3 (Gosser Curve): Another tight right-hand corner, heavy braking will be required here to avoid sliding off the course and into yet another sand trap. This is also a blind corner, due to the barrier on the inside of Gosser. The circuit begins to slowly descend in elevation here. Straightaway: This is actually NOT a straightaway at all; the course map does not list the right-hand turn, but it is definitely more than just a fade. If you overrun this, you will end up in the same sand trap as before - it is simply extended along the left side of the course from the outside of Gosser until well beyond this unofficial corner. Turn 4 (Niki Lauda Curve): This is a wide left-hand corner which will require moderate or heavy braking, especially since this is a blind corner due to the slope of the hill on the inside of the turn; even if you slow greatly before entering the corner, you will likely be tapping the brakes as you progress through Niki Lauda. There is another wide patch of sand on the outside of the corner, stretching almost all the way to the entrance of the Gerhard Berger Curve. A short straightaway separates Turns 4 and 5. Note that the circuit turns to the left here; the patch of pavement which continues straight forward will lead you into a barrier. Turn 5 (Gerhard Berger Curve): This is almost identical to the Niki Lauda Curve, but with an additional sand trap which begins on the inside of the corner. Straightaway: Again more than a fade but not listed as an official corner, there is a 'turn' to the right shortly after exiting the Gerhard Berger Curve. About two-thirds of the way along, the course enters a scenic forested area; this 'transition' section is also rather bumpy. Turn 6 (Jochen Rindt Curve): This is a blind right-hand corner which can be taken with light braking, or just a small lift of the accelerator; the best way to judge this corner is by using the right-side barrier as a guide. Another sand trap awaits those who run off the outside of the corner. A short straightaway follows Jochen Rindt. Turn 7 (Mobilkom Curve): This is a right-hand corner which will require light or moderate braking. The Pit Lane begins on the right just before the entry to Mobilkom, so be careful not to bump cars slowing before going to the pits. Pit Entry: Located just before the entrance to the Mobilkom Curve, the Pit Lane is to the right. This is a very long pit lane, so plan to stay out of here as much as possible!!! ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: ADELAIDE The Adelaide venue is a temporary street circuit which was one of the true gems of F1 racing. Unfortunately, the Grand Prix of Australia is now held instead at Albert Park in Melbourne (which is itself an excellent race venue), but, while Albert Park is definitely a beautiful place to hold a race, it does not have nearly the mystique and the charm that is found on the challenging streets of Adelaide. (Fortunately, Australia's excellent V8 SuperCar series still uses the Adelaide circuit.) Turns 1 and 2: At the end of the Pit Straight, this very tricky section begins with a TIGHT left-right chicane which requires moderate or heavy braking; cars will definitely pile up here if there is an incident on the opening lap of the race, as there is virtually nowhere to go should an accident block the raceway due to the closeness of the barriers (although they are fortunately NOT nearly as close as at Monaco). After a VERY brief straightaway, there is a dogleg to the left. Turn 3: Shortly after passing underneath the pedestrian bridge, drivers need to begin braking for the blind right- hand Turn 3. Because the white-painted barriers are so close to the circuit in this opening segment of the Adelaide street circuit, it can be VERY difficult to spot exactly where the circuit bends until one can see the very short escape road ahead... and by this time, it is really too late to safely make it through the right-hand right-angle corner. Turn 4: About one city block beyond Turn 3, this is a perpendicular left-hand corner requiring moderate braking. Turn 5: About one city block beyond Turn 4, this is a perpendicular right-hand corner requiring moderate braking. Turns 6 and 7: About one city block beyond Turn 5, this is a fast left-right chicane which can actually be taken at full throttle with the proper tight racing line. If taken at full throttle, beware the barrier on exiting the chicane. Begin braking at corner exit for Turn 8. Turn 8: This is a rough right-hand corner which requires moderate braking beginning with the exit of Turn 7. Turn 9: This is a rough right-hand corner which requires light braking and a wide racing line... but beware the grandstands on the left on corner exit. Straightaway: This is the single longest straightaway at Adelaide. Powerful acceleration out of Turn 8 is required, and only the BAREST of tapping on the brakes is needed for Turn 9 to enable excellent passing opportunities along this immense straightaway and the entry to Turn 10. Turn 10: This tight and nasty right-hand J-turn requires heavy braking, especially given the incredibly-fast speeds attained along the previous straightaway. This is an excellent to pass on braking entering this J-turn. Turn 11: Immediately following a left-hand dogleg, this is a J-turn to the left, requiring moderate braking. Turn 12: This final corner is tricky. Pit Entry is immediately on the right on corner entry, whereas the main circuit uses the outside racing line. The Pit Lane barrier is set back at corner exit, which means that passing can occur by essentially 'shortcutting' the corner... but then drivers risk ramming the Pit Lane barrier by 'shortcutting' the corner too much. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: BATHURST This 'world-famous' counter-clockwise circuit (in Australia and New Zealand) hosted its first 24-hour race in November 2002. The circuit map certainly presents a mostly-technical circuit, but it simply does NOT do justice to just HOW technical this circuit is... and drivers must certainly have their hands full and their hearts in their throats while trying to race here at night in the new 24-hour event!!!!! What makes this circuit so difficult is that the most technical section consists of many tight and fast-approaching twists and turns combined with the continual ascents and descents in the highly-scenic mountains, so that when drivers finally exit the mountainous section, their nerves are extremely frayed. While speed is obviously important in auto racing, the trick to Bathurst is to continually maintain a 1,000,000,000% concentration level for the entire race. Pit Straight: This is nearly the shortest straightaway of the circuit, and is the farthest point from the highly-technical mountainous section. Turn 1 (Hell Corner): This may not seem like much on the circuit map, but due to the immense speeds attained on Pit Straight and the near-lack of recovery room for those who miss the braking zone, this left-hand right-angle corner is an extremely dangerous place. It is important to begin braking rather early, especially on the first lap of a race, to try to avoid other cars' accidents (and debris) ahead. Straightaway (Mountain Straight): This straightaway leaves the vast, flat, open area of the valley and begins the ascent into the mountains. More and more trees appear alongside either side of the straightaway as the elevation rises, and is in some respect reminiscent of the Spa-Francorchamps circuit in Belgium. Mountain Straight has its own crest about halfway along the straightaway, then a long dip before renewing its ascent. Turn 2: This right-hand 105-degree angle seems rather gentle on the circuit map, but the ascent of the circuit truly gains momentum here; this fact combined with the inside barrier's proximity to the raceway itself makes this corner semi-blind and extremely difficult, so pristine knowledge of this corner is a necessity to keep from sliding off the pavement. The main ascent of the mountains begins at the entry of Turn 2, so car power will certainly be a necessity... although that power must be continually tempered with both strong braking and feather-light throttle control. Note: From the exit of Turn 2 to the end of the mountainous section, there pavement is almost always directly bounded by barriers and/or sheer cliff faces. This means that there is literally NOWHERE to go in case of an incident, and thus the raceway can quite easily become blocked. This also means that missing a braking zone will result in the near-instant destruction of the front of a vehicle. Turn 3 (Cutting): This is a left-hand decreasing-radius hairpin corner with NO room for error; missing the braking zone will destroy the front of the car. Cutting is a blind corner, so it is imperative to go VERY slowly here, especially since this is a prime place for accidents to occur as cars ram and bounce off the barriers here. Turn 4: This right-hand corner is rather gentle, but the circuit has a brief crest here which can potentially play havoc with light-weight, high-power vehicles. This caveat aside, it should be possible to power through Turn 4 at full acceleration without incident (unless blocked by traffic). Turns 5-6: Here, minor braking will be needed to keep off the barriers (still adjacent to the raceway) as the grade of the ascent increases through the right-hand Turn 5. Immediately afterward is the gentle left-hand Turn 6, which leads onto a brief straightaway. Turn 7: This long left-hand corner requires at least light braking at its midpoint, which is a major dip in elevation. This dip will play havoc with virtually any vehicle, but car control will be EXTREMELY difficult here if a car is even slightly loose (i.e., the rear of the car tends to swing about). Turn 8: This is a gentle left-hand corner which can be taken at full acceleration. Straightaway (Skyline): As the name suggests, this is the highest elevation of the Bathurst circuit (although the mountain continues to climb in elevation to the right of the raceway), and a nice view of the vast plains can be seen both ahead and to the left of the flow of traffic. However, taking the time to admire this scenery will bring death and destruction in the Esses. Turns 9-15 (Esses): Simply put, this is a nail-biter. The circuit makes a steep downhill descent among the tightest, twistiest turns; again, there is really nowhere to recover should a driver miss a braking zone. This section is where strong braking is REALLY needed. Those using manual transmission can use mountain-driving tactics and gear down one or two gears lower than usual, allowing for 'engine- braking' to occur to save the vehicle's true brakes. Turn 16 (Forest Elbow): This is a sharp left-hand corner on a steep downhill run which is semi-blind on approach. There is STILL no recovery room for those who miss the corner, so it is imperative that all drivers brake early and HARD for Forest Elbow. Turn 17: After a brief straightaway, this is a gentle left- hand corner coming out of the mountainous area. No braking should be required here. Straightaway (Conrod Straight): This is the single longest straightaway of the Bathurst circuit. The descent is very gradual now as the circuit rejoins the vast desolate valley, the trees thinning quickly. The barriers on either side of the raceway slowly begin to give way as well. Fortunately, Chase can be easily seen ahead (in daytime conditions). Turns 18-20 (Chase): This is a gentle right-hand mini-kink followed by a sharp left-right. There is no barrier on the inside of Chase to prevent cars from simply barreling straight ahead, but the entire area IS filled with kitty litter to severely slow those drivers attempting this tactic. Moderate or hard braking will be required for Turn 19, and drivers may need to tap the brakes again for Turn 20. Turn 21: After a short straightaway, this is a left-hand right-angle corner onto Pit Straight, with Pit Entry just before the entry of the corner on the left side of the pavement. There is some recovery room for Turn 21, but not much. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: BRANDS HATCH GRAND PRIX The Brands Hatch Grand Prix circuit is a fun circuit for racing. Situated within a natural bowl, it is easy for many spectators to see the bulk of the racing action from many points along the circuit. However, traffic is almost always a problem for drivers. Interestingly, along almost the entire circuit, drivers can easily hear the other cars on other sections of the circuit, thus testifying to the compact nature of this venue. Pit Straight (Brabham Straight): This is the longest single straightaway of the circuit, so powerful acceleration is required out of Clark Curve to make passes or pull away from challengers. Turn 1 (Paddock Hill Bend): This long sweeping right-hand corner can be tricky at full acceleration, so a gentle tapping of brakes before entering Turn 1 is key. This is nearly a double-apex corner, so take care with the racing line, especially since this begins the downhill descent of the circuit. Taking this corner at full throttle is likely to cause the car to spin before achieving corner exit. Turn 2 (Druid's Bend): This right-hand hairpin is the tightest corner of the Brands Hatch Grand Prix circuit. Passing on braking here can be advantageous, but is NOT for the newcomers - especially on the opening lap of a race!!! There is plenty of sand to the outside of the hairpin for those who miss the braking zone. Turn 3 (Graham Hill Bend): Experts can handle this left-hand corner at full throttle if unencumbered by traffic, although slight braking is preferred here. The course is at its lowest elevation here. Straightaway (Cooper Straight): This straightaway has a slight bend to the left. While not nearly as long as Brabham Straight, it is a great place for low-downforce cars to gain race positions. Turn 4 (Surtees): This left-hand corner requires light braking to keep to the pavement, and flows quickly toward Pilgrim's Drop. Straightaway: Following Surtees, the circuit has its longest straightaway. About halfway along this straightaway begins Pilgrim's Drop, which - despite the 'misnomer' - is a gentle descent into Hawthorne Bend. Turn 5 (Hawthorne Bend): This right-hand right-angle corner will require light to moderate braking, but really adept drivers should be able to get away with only a very slight tapping of the brakes through Hawthorne Bend as necessary. The entry to Hawthorne Bend marks the beginning of an uphill climb for the circuit; this makes this corner a bit more challenging than it would originally appear from the circuit map. Straightaway (Derek Minter Straight): This straightaway continues the gentle uphill climb of the circuit (which begins with the entry to Hawthorne Bend). Turn 6 (Westfield Bend): This is a long right-hand corner which can generally be taken with light or moderate braking; only TRUE experts can safely navigate Westfield Bend without ANY braking whatsoever (and this will really only be due to prime car tuning). Driver who carry too much speed through Westfield Bend will likely find themselves beached in one of the wide sand traps to the outside of the corner. Turns 7-9 (Dingle Dell Corner): Shortly after Westfield Bend is a right-left-right chicane complex. If unencumbered by traffic, it is possible to essentially shortcut Turn 8 and make a wide right-hand sweeping arc. Otherwise, moderate braking will be required here to keep to the pavement (or only light braking if the traffic through the chicane is spread wide enough to allow making ample use of the rumble strips). Turn 10 (Stirling's Bend): This is a left-hand right-angle corner coming very quickly after Dingle Dell Corner (the right-left-right chicane). Moderate braking is a requirement here, especially since there is VERY little grass on the outside of the pavement before the barrier will stop any runaway vehicles. This opens onto Clearways, another long straightaway, so excellent acceleration out of Stirling's Bend will pay dividends for gaining race positions. Turn 11 (Clark Curve): Slight braking may be desired entering this long right-hand corner, but then it is imperative to power hard all the way to Turn 1!!! Pit Entry is on the right entering Clark Curve. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: BRANDS HATCH INDY The Brands Hatch Indy circuit is a small but fun circuit for racing. Situated within a natural bowl, it is easy for many spectators to see the bulk of the racing action from many points along the circuit. However, traffic is almost always a problem for drivers. Interestingly, along almost the entire circuit, drivers can easily hear the other cars on other sections of the circuit, thus testifying to the compact nature of this venue. Pit Straight (Brabham Straight): This is the longest single straightaway of the circuit, so powerful acceleration is required out of Clark Curve to make passes or pull away from challengers. Turn 1 (Paddock Hill Bend): This long sweeping right-hand corner can be tricky at full acceleration, so a gentle tapping of brakes before entering Turn 1 is key. This is nearly a double-apex corner, so take care with the racing line, especially since this begins the downhill descent of the circuit. Taking this corner at full throttle is likely to cause the car to spin before achieving corner exit. Turn 2 (Druid's Bend): This right-hand hairpin is the tightest corner of the Brands Hatch Indy circuit. Passing on braking here can be advantageous, but is NOT for the newcomers - especially on the opening lap of a race!!! There is plenty of sand to the outside of the hairpin for those who miss the braking zone. Turn 3 (Graham Hill Bend): Experts can handle this left-hand corner at full throttle if unencumbered by traffic, although slight braking is preferred here. The course is at its lowest elevation here. Straightaway (Cooper Straight): This straightaway has a slight bend to the left. While not nearly as long as Brabham Straight, it is a great place for low-downforce cars to gain race positions. Turn 4 (Surtees): This left-hand corner requires light braking to keep to the pavement, and flows quickly into McLaren. Turn 5 (McLaren): This long sweeping right-hand corner can generally be taken at full acceleration. Turn 6 (Clark Curve): Slight braking may be desired entering this long right-hand corner, but then it is imperative to power hard all the way to Turn 1!!! Pit Entry is on the right entering Clark Curve. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: BRISTOL First used for NASCAR in 1961, Bristol Motor Speedway is the shortest track on the current NASCAR calendar at 0.533 miles (0.853 kilometers) - thus it is known as 'The World's Fastest Half-mile.' Formerly asphalt, the Bristol, Tennessee, USA, circuit was converted to concrete in 1992, and boasts attendance easily topping 150,000 for NASCAR events. The banking is thirty-six degrees in the corners and sixteen degrees on the straightaways. Passing is difficult at Bristol due to the compact nature of the circuit; the only easy part about racing at Bristol is the ability to be involved in accidents. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: CANBERRA Canberra is a rather difficult street circuit. This venue is not nearly as tight and compact as at Vancouver, but the corners are definitely FAR worse (and also more numerous), requiring much slower speeds. It is important to keep to the left on Pit Straight to ensure avoiding Pit Lane... unless a pit stop is truly needed or required. Pit Straight: Pit Entry is on the right half of Pit Straight, so it is important for cars remaining on the main circuit to keep to the left to ensure they do not accidentally go into Pit Lane itself. Also, the Pit Lane barrier is difficult to see on approach, so drivers should commit to either the far- left or the far-right until they have safely passed the beginning of this barrier. Turn 1: This is a severe-braking right-hand right-angle corner which will likely see a lot of bumping and grinding on the first lap of a race. During a race, Pit Exit is at the apex of the corner, so it is important for those coming from Pit Straight to keep hard to the left, and those coming from Pit Lane to keep hard to the right. Turn 2: IMMEDIATELY after exiting Turn 1, this is a long sweeping left-hand corner on a slightly-wider raceway. Full acceleration can be used here, and there is definitely plenty of room to make a well-timed pass. However, drivers must be careful as traffic from Pit Lane merges with the higher-speed traffic coming off Pit Straight. Turns 3-6: This is an elongated right-left-left-right bus stop chicane. Moderate or severe braking will be required for Turn 3 and Turn 5; careful throttle management will be needed for Turn 6 to ensure avoiding the outside barrier. Turns 7-9: This is a left-right-right complex which in total acts as nearly a hairpin corner. Moderate braking will be needed here, with gentle throttle control throughout. In fact, this section is easier if Turns 8 and 9 are treated as a hairpin corner, making a wide berth to hit both apexes just right. Note that there is an access road BETWEEN Turn 8 and Turn 9, but this is NOT part of the official raceway; nonetheless, this can be rather confusing until the intricacies of this circuit have been committed to memory. Turn 10: This right-hand corner requires moderate braking. Straightaway: This is not 'straight' at all. Instead, this 'straightaway' is one long continuous sweeping bend to the left. there are three bridges over this 'straightaway;' it is best to begin braking for Turn 11 once beyond the third bridge. Turn 11: This right-hand corner requires moderate braking. Turns 12 and 13: This is a VERY slow left-right chicane, so moderate or even severe braking will be required. Due to the VERY slow speed required here for safe passage, this is a prime place for cars to pile up if one driver is too aggressive. Turns 14-16: This right-left-right chicane is just as slow as the previous chicane. What makes this worse, however, is that the left-hand corner of this chicane is an actual hairpin in its own right!!! Fortunately, once past the apex of the chicane's own hairpin turn, the right side of the raceway opens up, so those drivers using too much speed through the hairpin portion of the chicane will have a nice expanse of grass to greet them instead of the usual immovable barrier. Turns 17 and 18: Immediately after exiting the chicane, the raceway curves twice to the right. These are gentle curves, but the second will still require light braking since the momentum of the vehicle will try to force it into the left- side barrier. This leads onto Pit Straight. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: CATALUNYA The Catalunya circuit is challenging, especially the two hairpins and the final corners of the race. This is the same circuit configuration used in modern F1 racing. Pit Straight: As usual, incredible speeds can be attained here. Watch for cars rejoining the race from the right side of the straightaway about two-thirds of the way along its length. Turn 1 (Elf): This is a right-hand corner which requires moderate braking. Be careful not to hug the inside of the corner too tightly, or you will damage your right-side tires on the barrier. Strong acceleration out of Turn 1 creates great passing opportunities all the way to Repsol. Attempting to take Turn 1 at top speed will either cause you to lose control as you run up on the rumble strips, or send you too far off course to survive Turn 2 intact. Turn 2 (Elf): Immediately following Turn 1, the left-hand Turn 2 can usually be taken at top acceleration. With strong acceleration out of Turn 1, this is a prime passing zone. Turn 3 (Seat): A sweeping right-hand increasing-radius corner which can be taken at full speed with a flawless racing line. This is also a good place to pass slower cars, especially if you have the inside line. Turn 4 (Repsol): This is a semi-blind right-hand hairpin corner which requires moderate or heavy braking. The barrier on the inside of the corner rests almost directly against the track, and blocks your view around the corner. This can actually be a good place to pass on braking, but only with extreme caution (and usually only if the car you wish to pass takes the wide line around the corner). Don't come too hot into this corner or else you will find yourself in the sand. After clearing the first 90 degrees, you should be able to accelerate fairly well if not encumbered by traffic. Turn 5: After a very short straightaway, this is a semi-blind left-hand hairpin, a bit tighter than Turn 4. Moderate or heavy braking will be needed here, or you will definitely find yourself in the kitty litter. Straightaway: This straightaway fades to the left. Strong acceleration out of Turn 5 can create passing opportunities, especially in the braking zone for Wuth. Turn 6 (Wuth): With a good racing line, you should be able to brake lightly to clear this semi-blind, slightly-downhill, left-hand corner. Beware the barrier on the inside of Wuth. The exit of Wuth has an immediate fade to the right, so do not commit too much to turning left here, or the front-left of the car will be shaking hands with the barrier. Turn 7 (Campsa): This right-hand corner can be taken at full speed with a flawless racing line. Note that the official circuit is to the right; do not drive directly ahead onto another patch of pavement, or you will be assigned a Stop-Go Penalty. Turn 8 (La Cacsa): Severe braking is required for this left- hand corner. While not suggested, you may be able to pass other cars on braking here. As with Wuth, stay off the rumble strips and grass on the inside of the turn, or you will risk losing control of the car. This is a 'J' turn, and the corner seems to go on forever before you reach the exit. Turn 9 (Banc Sabadeau): Shortly following Turn 8, moderate or heavy braking will be needed here for the right-hand, upward- sloping corner. This is also a 'J' turn which is nearly a double-apex corner. If you need a recovery area anywhere on the course, it will most likely be here. It is possible to pass slower cars here by tightly hugging the inside of the turn, even running the right-side tires on the rumble strips or just slightly in the grass. Turn 10: Light braking may be needed for this right-hand corner. The key here is to truly hug the inside of the turn and accelerate strongly through the exit. Watch for slow cars here preparing to go to Pit Lane for servicing. Turn 11: Entering this right-hand corner, the Pit Lane begins on the right, so be on the lookout for very slow cars here. If you take this final corner too tightly, or make a VERY late decision to go to the pits, you will certainly damage the front of the car on a barrier. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: CHARLOTTE One of the favorite circuits of NASCAR racing, Charlotte is a tri-oval, with Pit Straight actually curved slightly along its entire length. The corners can accommodate two-wide racing if necessary, but single-file racing is best through the turns. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: DIJON PRENOIS Located in southern France, Circuit Dijon Prenois is a small, hilly, and FUN circuit. Pit Straight is 1.1km (0.7 miles) in length, whereas the rest of the circuit continually twists and turns in the hills. Pit Straight: This is really the only true straightaway of the entire circuit. At 1.1km (0.7 miles) in length, this straightaway really should be taken at lower than optimal speeds, due to the necessity for high downforce on the rest of the circuit. Turns 1-2 (Villeroy): This is a double-apex right-hand corner. Turn 1 can be taken with light braking, but moderate braking will be necessary for Turn 2. Turns 3-5 (Hourglass S'es): Careful, precision steering will be needed to keep the car on the pavement while still negotiating traffic at top speed through these right-left- right S-curves. Turn 5 is sharper than the other corners. There is a continual rise in elevation throughout this section of the circuit. Turn 6 (Crossover): The shorter configuration of the circuit has simply a moderate left-hand corner here, but the main configuration uses a 135-degree left-hand corner heading toward the Parabolique. Light to moderate braking will be required for Crossover, and plenty of sand on the outside of the corner awaits the not-so-focused drivers. Turn 7 (Parabolique): This is a right-hand heavy-braking near-hairpin corner which is made much more difficult due to the sudden steep climb in elevation beginning at the entry of the Parabolique. This means that much of the corner is unsighted, thus drivers must have PRISTINE knowledge of this corner in order to truly power through the Parabolique at any great speed. There is fortunately a sand trap on the outside of the Parabolique to collect runaway vehicles, but it is still possible to clear the kitty litter and severely damage the car against the barrier. Turn 8: This left-hand corner is a long moderate-braking corner at the crest of the circuit. There is a wide sand trap on the outside of the turn for those who overshoot the corner, which is especially important since this is a semi- blind corner until the car is safely at the top of the rise. Turn 9 (Combe): This right-hand corner can be easily negotiated with only slight braking as needed. Turn 10 (Pouas Corner): This final corner is a long right- hand sweeping turn leading back onto the immense Pit Straight. Slight tapping of the brakes may be necessary for Pouas Corner, especially in high-powered cars. Pit Entry is on the right approximately 1/4 of the way along Pit Straight. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: DONINGTON PARK This popular British venue is the host of many events, and has been included in other games. The outside of almost every corner has a very small strip of grass between the pavement and the sand trap. The Grand Prix configuration inverts the final chicane of the National configuration and adds two lengthy straightaways with two hairpin corners behind the paddock area. Turn 1: This right-hand J-turn requires moderate braking, and plenty of patience at the start of a race as traffic really jams up here. Turn 2: This is a long, gentle right-hand semi-corner, sloping downhill along its entire length. Turn 3: Continuing downhill, this left-hand corner will only require light braking, if the brakes are needed at all. Due to the downhill slope, it may be difficult to see the apex of the corner as you approach. Turn 4: Immediately after Turn 3, the course turns uphill to the right here, with light or moderate braking required. Turn 5: After passing underneath the pedestrian bridge, the course turns to the left here. No braking is required. Turn 6: This is really just a left-hand fade. Turn 7: Moderate braking is necessary as the course continues uphill through this right-hand turn. The barrier on the left comes rather close to the pavement, so there is not much grass and sand to stop you if you miss your braking zone. Turn 8: This lengthy, sweeping right-hand J-turn will require light braking to keep out of the grass and sand as the course continues slowly uphill. This corner opens out onto the longest straightaway at Donington. Turns 9-10: Shortly after passing underneath the big Dunlop tire, begin braking for the chicane. This is a tight left- right combination with NO room for error. The barrier on the inside of Turn 9 prevents shortcutting, and the sand trap to the inside of Turn 10 severely hinders anyone attempting to shortcut that corner. Turn 11: After a significant straightaway, this is a tight right-hand hairpin turn onto another significant straightaway behind the Paddock Suite. Essentially, think of this as changing runways on an airport circuit (such as at Sebring) and you should do fairly well here. Moderate braking is required here. If you miss your braking zone, there is a wide patch of kitty litter to the outside of the corner. Turn 12: The final corner of the circuit is a left-hand tight hairpin. Again, think of this as changing runways on an airport circuit. Moderate braking will be needed here. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: EASTERN CREEK This 3.93-kilometer (2.456-mile) circuit hosts V8 Supercars, many Formula series, a number of sports cars and sports sedans series, touring cars, production cars, and numerous national and support motorcycle series. The pit straight even incorporates a drag strip, so racecars here can make use of this wider section to pass large packs of slower traffic. This is a high-speed technical circuit, and those with moderately- or extremely-loose cars will likely find themselves slamming the barriers and/or sliding through the many patches of kitty litter. Pit Straight: The longest straightaway at Eastern Creek, Pit Straight also doubles as a drag strip :-) Pit Entry is approximately 1/3 of the way along Pit Straight. Turn 1: This is a long left-hand corner requiring light braking after the immense length of Pit Straight and the high speeds attained there. Turn 2: This left-hand hairpin corner requires moderate or even heavy braking on approach, and perhaps slight braking throughout. This is a somewhat-tight corner, so it is easy to misjudge speed and end up slipping off the pavement and getting stuck in the grass on the outside of the corner. Turn 3: Almost immediately following Turn 2, this right-hand corner may require light braking to keep from slipping out into the kitty litter on corner exit. Turn 4: This right-hand corner needs moderate braking to keep to the pavement, although a wide sand-filled recovery area is available if necessary. Turn 5: Just after Turn 4, Turn 5 is a left-hand corner requiring moderate braking. Turns 6-7: Turn 6 is a quick right-hand flick leading immediately into the left-hand sweeping Turn 7. Light braking can be useful for Turn 6, whereas moderate braking is required for and throughout Turn 7 to keep the vehicle on the pavement. Turn 8: Light or moderate braking is needed for this left- hand corner. Turn 9: This right-hand hairpin requires moderate or even heavy braking. Turns 10-11: Turn 10 is a quick right-hand flick leading immediately into the left-hand sweeping Turn 11. Light braking can be useful for Turn 10, whereas moderate braking is required for and throughout Turn 11 to keep the vehicle on the pavement. This leads onto Pit Straight. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: FUJI This Japanese circuit is perhaps most notable to North American classic video game enthusiasts from its appearance in Atari's Pole Position series in the stand-up arcades of the 1980s. There are a few of these classic Pole Position and Pole Position II arcade boxes still in existence, although the best bet for finding these games now is on the various gaming consoles. However, those who prefer the version of the circuit in the Pole Position series will be rather disappointed at the chicanes added along the faster sections of the Fuji circuit. Turns 1-2 (Daiichi Corner) This is a double-apex right-hand near-hairpin corner. Due to the immense length of Pit Straight, HARD braking will be required before even thinking of entering Daiichi Corner, and moderate braking will be required throughout this section. There is a nice patch of kitty litter on the outside of Daiichi Corner, but drivers should not expect it to stop a runaway car before the vehicle slams hard into the wall when overshooting this section of the circuit. Turns 3 and 4 (Sumtory Corner): Ahead, a barrier can be seen; this blocks direct access to the smooth left-hand corner Pole Position enthusiasts know so well; instead, players are forced straight ahead into a tight left-right complex around the barrier, so moderate or hard braking will be needed here on entry. It is possible to power out of Turn 3 and through Turn 4 without braking, unless the car has some severe grip problems and/or is extremely loose (i.e., the back end of the car tends to swing about). Turn 5 (100R): If the driver's car is properly tuned, there should be no trouble with powering through this wide right- hand sweeping turn, even when navigating traffic. However, cars which are moderately or extremely loose will have plenty of trouble here, ESPECIALLY if encumbered by traffic. Turn 6 (Hairpin): This left-hand corner is aptly named. Unfortunately, Hairpin comes at the dip following 100R, which can make this corner extremely tricky as the car inherently loses traction; the proximity of the barrier is definitely too close for comfort here due to this drop in elevation (the elevation change is certainly not significant, but it is just enough to cause grip problems in many cars). Turn 7 (MC Corner): This long, sweeping, right-hand corner is another prime place for full-throttle acceleration. Turns 8-10 (Dunlop Corner): This right-left-right chicane will also disappoint Pole Position enthusiasts. Heavy braking will be needed for Turn 8, with moderate braking required for Turn 9. Turn 10 should be easily taken at full acceleration. Fortunately, the barrier forcing cars to take the chicane is easily visible from a distance on approach. Turn 11 (Last Corner): This aptly-named corner is the final sweeping long right-hand corner of the Fuji circuit. Moderately- and extremely-loose cars will have difficulty here; otherwise, only a slight tapping of the brakes MAY be necessary for Last Corner. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: HOCKENHEIM LONG Surrounded by multitudes of trees which make much of the circuit rather dark in wet or overcast races, this is the fastest course used for F1 racing in recent years. If not for the Jim Clark, Brems, and Ayrton Senna chicanes, cars would be flying around the course in top gear all the way from the North Curve (Turn 1) to the entry of the Stadium (Turn 10). Except for the right side of the Pit Straight, there is more than enough room to pull well off the pavement should a car have a serious problem on any part of the circuit. Interestingly, Hockenheim's Stadium segment is very similar to an unnamed final segment at Silverstone. Important Note: These driving instructions are for the old Hockenheim circuit. Pit Straight: This is an extremely short straightaway compared to the rest of the course. Turn 1 (North Curve): This right-hand corner will require moderate braking to keep out of the expansive kitty litter. The Pit Lane rejoins the course from the right at the exit of North Curve. Acceleration out of North Curve is of key importance due to the length of the ensuing straightaway. Straightaway: Immensely lengthy and lined with trees, speed is of the utmost importance here. The entire straightaway is an extremely gentle fade to the right. Drift to the left when you reach the grandstands. Turns 2 and 3 (Jim Clark Chicane): Former games in the series had a patch of pavement heading straight off Turn 2, allowing for shortcutting of the chicane; this is no longer possible, as a nasty barrier blocks any shortcutting attempts. Moderate or heavy braking will be required for Turn 2 (or light braking if not in traffic and using a FLAWLESS racing line which makes judicious use of the rumble strips), but full acceleration can be taken leading out of the chicane. Straightaway: Yet another long, sweeping straightaway which fades calmly to the right, so powerful acceleration out of the Jim Clark Chicane is imperative to keep from getting passed. Drift to the left before entering the Brems Chicane, and begin braking much earlier than for the Jim Clark Chicane. Turns 4 and 5 (Brems Chicane): The original course configuration (used in older F1 racing games) did not have a chicane here, and the original pavement remains. However, the official course suddenly cuts tightly to the right and then cuts tightly to the left to rejoin the old pavement. Moderate braking will be needed for Turn 4, and light braking for Turn 5. This right-left chicane has a continual downhill slope, adding to the difficulty of the chicane. Even with the Flags option disabled, the angle of the old pavement to the official chicane is such that it is impossible to blast through this segment at top speed without spinning the car through the kitty litter. Turn 6 (East Curve): This is a very wide right-hand corner which can be taken at top speed. Strong acceleration out of Brems is key to assist in passing here. Straightaway: This is yet another long straightaway, but without any fades. Drift to the right for the Ayrton Senna Chicane. Turns 7-9 (Ayrton Senna Chicane): DO NOT follow the old course pavement directly ahead unless you really WANT to collide with the brand-new barrier. The official course turns to the left, cuts to the right, and eases left again. It is actually possible to speed into Turn 7 at top speed, lift off the throttle through Turn 8, and accelerate quickly out of the chicane - but this is certainly NOT recommended. Straightaway: The final long straightaway of the course has extra pavement on the left - this could potentially be a place to pass large numbers of cars. This extra pavement begins shortly after the exit of the Ayrton Senna Chicane, and ends at the entry of the Stadium; thus, if you are on this 'extra' pavement entering the Stadium, you will have a better racing line for Turn 10, allowing you to navigate the corner with less. Turns 10-13 (The Stadium): This is similar to the final segment of the Silverstone circuit. However, do not expect to drive The Stadium the same way you would the final segment at Silverstone. Turn 10 (Entrance to the Stadium: Agip Curve): Light braking may be required here, but you should be able to pass through the Agip Curve without any braking at all (especially if your racing line began with the 'extra' pavement on the left before the Stadium). A short straightaway follows. Turn 11 (Continuing through the Stadium: Sachscurve): This is a left-hand wide hairpin turn, requiring moderate braking. Be careful not to end up in the grass, either entering or exiting the corner, and beware the barrier. Straightaway (Continuing through the Stadium): This short straightaway has a fade to the left, followed by a fade to the right. Turns 12 and 13 (Exiting the Stadium: Opel): The first right-hand corner is somewhat tight, and heavy braking will be required here; the old course rejoins the current course from the left on exit, so if you run wide in this corner, you can likely recover here using the old pavement. The final corner of the circuit is a right-hand turn which will require moderate braking. The Pit Lane entry is to the right just before the official Turn 13. Pit Entry: The Pit Lane begins to the right at the entry of Turn 13 (the final corner of the Stadium). ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: HOCKENHEIM SHORT In 2002, the long, traditional Hockenheim circuit was dismantled and replaced by a much shorter version. F1 traditionalists worldwide were FURIOUS about this change, as the shorter circuit is no longer scenic and is really too compact for F1 racing (although still better than A1-Ring in Austria). However, the new, severely-shortened version of Hockenheim still retains its characteristic Stadium section, so at least some measure of the old circuit's tradition and history remains. Interestingly, the new, shorter circuit supposedly now handles more spectators than the old, longer circuit. Pit Straight: This is an extremely short straightaway compared to the rest of the course. Turn 1 (North Curve): This right-hand corner will require moderate braking to keep out of the expansive kitty litter. The Pit Lane rejoins the course from the right at the exit of North Curve. Acceleration out of North Curve is of key importance due to the length of the ensuing straightaway. Turn 2: After a nearly-nonexistent straightaway comes the right-hand 120-degree Turn 2. This corner requires some moderate braking, and it is very easy to slide off the pavement here. Unfortunately, the barrier on the inside of the corner is really TOO close to the pavement, so a driver trying to pass to the inside of a slower car will have literally nowhere to go should the slower car suddenly cut inward in the corner. Just at the exit of Turn 2 is a quick fade to the left. Turn 3: After a brief straightaway is the left-hand 45-degree Turn 3. It is best to begin braking for Turn 4 at the exit of Turn 3. Turn 4: Almost immediately after Turn 3 is the right-hand 135-degree Turn 4, leading back onto the old (longer) Hockenheim circuit just before entering The Stadium. Moderate or heavy braking will be required for Turn 4, although there is a significant amount of paved swing-out room so that those in need of a quick recovery can briefly slam on the handbrake to keep off the outside barrier. Turns 5-8 (The Stadium): This is similar to the final segment of the Silverstone circuit. However, do not expect to drive The Stadium the same way you would the final segment at Silverstone. Turn 5 (Entrance to the Stadium: Agip Curve): Light braking may be required here, but you should be able to pass through the Agip Curve without any braking at all (especially if your racing line began with the 'extra' pavement on the left before the Stadium). A short straightaway follows. Turn 6 (Continuing through the Stadium: Sachscurve): This is a left-hand wide hairpin turn, requiring moderate braking. Be careful not to end up in the grass, either entering or exiting the corner, and beware the barrier. Straightaway (Continuing through the Stadium): This short straightaway has a fade to the left, followed by a fade to the right. Turns 7 and 8 (Exiting the Stadium: Opel): The first right-hand corner is somewhat tight, and heavy braking will be required here; the old course rejoins the current course from the left on exit, so if you run wide in this corner, you can likely recover here using the old pavement. The final corner of the circuit is a right-hand turn which will require moderate braking. The Pit Lane entry is to the right just before the official Turn 8. Pit Entry: The Pit Lane begins to the right at the entry of Turn 8 (the final corner of the Stadium). ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: KNOCKHILL This circuit is a nightmare for car set-ups, as there are many tight corners (some with their own significant elevation changes) connected by significant straightaways. Pit Straight: Pit Straight is on an uphill slope, which may make standing starts somewhat tricky. It is also quite lengthy. Pit Entry is on the left, where the slots of the starting grid are located; this is a very short Pit Lane. Turn 1: This heavy-braking right-hand corner is made even more difficult because it heads downhill. It is very easy to foul up here and get caught out in the sand on the outside of Turn 1. Turn 2: Almost immediately after Turn 1, this left-hand corner requires at least a slight tapping of the brakes to keep to the pavement. Turn 3: Almost immediately after Turn 2, this right-hand corner requires moderate braking to keep to the pavement. Turn 4: Shortly after Turn 3, this gentle right-hand corner can be taken at full acceleration, but care must be taken on the approach to Turn 5. Turns 5-6: This tricky left-right complex requires heavy braking on entry; slowing enough on entry allows for powerful acceleration through Turn 6 and onto the ensuing straightaway. Turn 7: This difficult right-hand corner is on an uphill climb; if there is no traffic in front to provide an idea of where the circuit is, it is virtually impossible to see the layout of the pavement due to the angle of the hill. This opens onto a nice straightaway. Turn 8: This is another right-hand corner on an uphill climb; this time, the corner is nearly a hairpin. Strong acceleration out of Turn 8 is required, as this opens onto the lengthy Pit Straight. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: LAS VEGAS This is a tri-oval which is VERY wide: three-abreast racing is definitely feasible here; four-wide racing MIGHT be possible (primarily on the straightaways), but should never be attempted. Due to the nice width of the circuit, passing is relatively easy - the difficult part could be getting enough of an aerodynamic tow (slipstreaming or drafting) to actually make a pass. The gentle, lengthy nature of the corners means that this is a fast race venue. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: MAGNY-COURS The Magny-Cours circuit is characterized by long, sweeping straightaways, and fairly quick corners. The Adelaide hairpin will almost definitely cause trouble, especially for aggressive drivers, and is one of the slowest corners in modern F1 racing. This is a very fun course to drive (admittedly a very subjective statement), but its layout can produce problems from the standpoint of hearing other cars: Three of its main straightaways are almost exactly parallel to each other with little distance and no large obstacles between them, sometimes making it difficult to determine where other cars are truly located around you as you try to anticipate where the next group of traffic that you will need to navigate is located; listen attentively to the team radio for useful traffic information. The circuit also has extremely wide areas along most of the main course for a car to pull aside should a major malfunction arise. Pit Straight: Following the tight High School chicane, strong acceleration through the Pit Straight creates good passing chances through Great Curve and into Estoril. However, the tightness of the High School chicane and the incredibly close proximity of the Pit Lane barrier requires immense caution and headache-causing concentration as you come onto the Pit Straight. The Start/Finish Line is about halfway down the Pit Straight; the Pit Lane rejoins the course from the left at this point. Turn 1 (Great Curve): In accordance with its name, this is a sweeping left-hand corner which can be taken flat-out unless encumbered by a lot of traffic. Turn 2 (Estoril): Either light or moderate braking will be needed for entering the VERY long right-hand 180-degree Estoril; in either case, you will almost certainly be tapping the brakes repeatedly through Estoril. It is quite easy to roll the right-side tires off onto the grass, and it is just as easy to slip off onto the grass on the outside of Estoril - both can easily occur, whether navigating traffic or driving alone. Straightaway (Golf): The Golf Straight if by far the longest of the course and includes several fades to the right. Turn 3 (Adelaide): The right-hand Adelaide hairpin is EXTREMELY tight. The key here is to brake EARLY, as you will be downshifting from your top gear to your lowest gear rapidly; if you begin braking too late, you will be off in the grass. If you accelerate too soon out of Adelaide, you will be rolling through the kitty litter and losing valuable track position. Even 30MPH is likely to be too fast here. Straightaway: Acceleration out of Adelaide is important for passing other cars here. There are a few fades in the course here. Turns 4 and 5 (Nurburgring): This is a right-left chicane which will require light braking. It is possible to fly through Nurburgring without braking by making use of the bright-green extension on the inside of Turn 5; however, this extension is significantly shorter than it was in F1 Championship Season 2000. Turn 6 (180 Degrees): This is quite true - the official name of this corner is '180 Degrees' according to the official Web site of Magny-Cours. This is a wide left-hand hairpin nestled well within the Estoril hairpin. Running too wide here will put you out in the sand; running too close to the apex could put you up on the rumble strips and force you to lose control. While this corner is not as slow as the Adelaide hairpin, you really do not want to try pushing very much faster here. Straightaway: The third of the three parallel-running straightaways, this 'straightaway' has several fades before the Imola chicane. Turns 7 and 8 (Imola): This right-left chicane should require light braking, except for cars with a flawless racing line. The bright-green extension on the inside of Turn 8 is longer than in F1 Championship Season 2000, which could well be used for top-speed navigation of the chicane. A short straightaway out of Imola sets up the Water Castle curve. Turn 9 (Water Castle): Somewhere between a standard 'J' turn and a hairpin, this is an increasing-radius right-hand corner leading into the final straightaway of the circuit. Turns 10 and 11 (High School): There is a false line of pavement to the right as you near the official chicane; this false pavement runs directly up to an immovable barrier (I believe this is the Pit Entry for other forms of racing at the circuit). The official chicane requires moderate braking on entering, and allows for a VERY short burst of acceleration on exit. If you completely miss this chicane, you will blast through the sand trap and break the front end on a perpendicular barrier blocking any direct access to Pit Lane. Turn 12 (High School): On entry, the Pit Lane begins to the left. The official corner is a TIGHT right-hand turn which requires moderate or even heavy braking; wheel lock is very much a possibility here, especially in wet conditions. If you miss the corner, you will blast through the all-too-brief sand trap and ram directly against a barrier and bounce backward into any cars behind you. Speed is an extreme concern here; it is virtually impossible to go too slow, but going too fast will definitely result in a crash (with great possibility of bouncing into follow-up crashes with other cars, or with another nearby barrier). Pit Entry: The Pit Lane begins to the left at the entry of Turn 12. The Pit Lane has its own sharp right-hand turn almost immediately, so it is best to begin slowing (or rather, barely accelerating) as you leave the High School chicane. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: MANTORP PARK Like Eastern Creek, Mantorp Park uses one of its straightaways as a drag strip. This time, however, the width from standard road course to drag strip is more impressive, allowing road course racers MUCH more room for passing along the drag strip portion of the circuit. This is a high-speed circuit, although strong braking will be required for many corners; fortunately, there is plenty of recovery room in almost all areas of the circuit. Pit Straight: Unlike Eastern Creek, Mantorp Park's Pit Straight does not double as a drag strip; instead, the drag strip is just to the right as cars pass along Pit Straight. The Pit Straight itself is relatively short, so any passing here requires INCREDIBLE power out of the final corner and/or outbraking a competitor into Turn 1. Turn 1: This is a left-hand corner requiring moderate braking. Turn 2: After a too-brief straightaway comes the right-hand hairpin at Turn 2. Moderate braking will be needed here, and light braking may be required throughout, especially if a car is loose. Turn 3: Shortly after the hairpin is a gentle right-hand bend which can generally be handled at full acceleration. Turns 4-5: This is a double-apex right-hand section leading onto the drag strip portion of the circuit. Moderate braking is needed for Turn 4, while full acceleration can be used in Turn 5. However, those who miss the braking zone for Turn 4 can turn in the sand trap and slide sideways onto the staging area for the drag strip, then power ahead at full acceleration without having lost too much time. Straightaway: This is the drag strip portion of the Mantorp Park road course. This is a rather wide stretch of pavement, so there should be no problems with passing slower cars here. Not surprisingly, this is the longest straightaway of the road course. Turn 6: At the end of the drag strip, this right-hand increasing-radius hairpin corner requires moderate or heavy braking on approach, and judicious throttle management throughout to keep from sliding the car off the pavement. Turn 7: Light braking may be required for this left-hand bend. Turns 8-9: This is a double-apex right-hand increasing-radius section leading back toward Pit Straight. Moderate or heavy braking is required for Turn 8, while gentle throttle management can alleviate the need for braking in Turn 9 IF the car has slowed enough for Turn 8. Pit Entry is on the left side of the pavement at the entry of Turn 9. Turn 10: This is a left-hand right-angle corner requiring moderate braking. This leads onto Pit Straight. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: MEXICO This circuit reopened for use in a CART race in November 2002, many months after its originally-scheduled grand opening. Pit Straight is immensely lengthy, but the rest of the circuit consists of mainly high-speed twists and turns. Drivers who prefer slightly-loose cars AND are excellent at countersteering and/or drift-style racing should perform well at Mexico. Turns 1-3: The end of Pit Straight is a moderate braking zone for the right-left-right chicane that begins the difficult twisty portion of the circuit. If not encumbered by traffic, shortcutting across the chicane (or at least making ample use of the rumble strips) will save a lot of time and allow the driver to maintain momentum for the following straightaway. Turns 4 and 5: This is a left-right complex which can be rather tricky. Moderate braking is needed on entering Turn 4, but the car must be slowed even more in order to safely handle Turn 5 without getting caught in the kitty litter to the outside of the corner. Turns 6-13: This is the S-curve section. Interestingly, the corners begin with a right-hand tight corner, then the corners gradually decrease in radius and 'tightness' while the slight distances between the corners keeps growing gradually. After the final corner of this section (the fourth left-hand corner), the S-curve section empties onto another long straightaway which runs through a popular Mexico City baseball stadium. Turn 14: Essentially the Curva Parabolica of Mexico, this right-hand wide hairpin corner can be taken at full acceleration with slight or no braking required. On corner entry, however, there is a rather significant bump - if a car is not tuned correctly, this bump can cause a problem for drivers. Pit Entry is on the right immediately before entering Turn 14. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: MONZA This historic high-speed track hosts a highly partial pro- Ferrari crowd - affectionately known as the 'tifosi.' The 2000 Italian Grand Prix is the race in which a volunteer corner worker was killed at the Roggia Chicane, due to all the flying debris from the first-lap multi-car collision caused by Heinz-Herald Frentzen missing his braking zone. Pit Straight: Strong acceleration out of the Curva Parabolica can create prime passing opportunities along the Pit Straight, the longest straightaway at Monza. The Pit Lane begins on the right shortly after exiting the Parabolica. Turns 1-3 (Rettifilio): The new chicane here is a tight right-left with a gentle right turn back into line with the original pavement. The chicane is blocked by a barrier, but the inside of Turn 1 has a paved 'extension' which may be of benefit. Even with Flags on, shortcutting the chicane TO THE RIGHT OF THE BARRIER can be done at top speed, thus lowering lap times; shortcutting to the left of the barrier results in a Stop-Go Penalty. Turn 4 (Biassono): This sweeping right-hand corner among the thick trees can be taken flat-out. To the left is a long, wide area of sand, but the corner is so extremely gentle that the sand should not be needed for any reason unless you blow an engine or severely puncture a tire. Turns 5 and 6 (Roggia): Despite the flatness of the Monza circuit, this chicane is extremely difficult to see on approach unless traffic is present to mark the pavement for you, so it is very easy to overrun the chicane. This is a very tight left-right chicane, so moderate or heavy braking is required; shortcutting through here at full throttle is possible by making use of the new, narrow, bright-green extensions on the inside of each corner, as the CPU us rather tolerant of shortcutting here (compared to previous incarnations of the game). There is a large sand trap for those who miss the chicane altogether. Turn 7 (First Lesmo): This right-hand corner requires moderate braking. There is a wide sand trap on the outside of the corner, just in case. Beware the barrier on the inside of the corner. About 150MPH is the maximum speed here, or you risk slipping off the course and into the kitty litter. If you shortcut the first two chicanes of the game, this will be the first time you absolutely need to use the brakes. Turn 8 (Second Lesmo): This right-hand corner is a little tighter than First Lesmo, and also has a significant area of kitty litter on the outside of the corner. Moderate braking will be needed here. Again, beware the barrier on the inside of the corner. Generally, about 140MPH is the maximum speed here to keep from sliding off the pavement. Straightaway/Turn 9 (Serraglio): This is really just a fade to the left, but the official course map lists this as a curve. Counting this as a fade, this marks about the halfway point on the longest straightaway of the Monza circuit. There is sufficient room to pull off the course here on either side if necessary, except when passing underneath the first bridge. The circuit is extremely bumpy between the two bridges. Turns 10-12 (Ascari): The Ascari chicane is more difficult than it seems. Turn 10 is a left-hand corner requiring at least light braking. This is followed immediately by a right-hand corner requiring moderate braking. Turn 12 can be taken at full acceleration if you slowed enough in Turn 11. Wide areas of grass and sand are available for those overruninng any part of the chicane. Still, unless encumbered by traffic, experts may be able to take Ascari at full throttle with a flawless racing line which makes use of the rumble strips as well as the bright-green 'extension' on the inside of Turn 10. Unfortunately, F1 2001 does not provide the real course's paved swing-out area at the exit of Ascari. Straightaway (Rettilineo Parabolica): This is the second- longest straightaway at Monza and a prime passing zone, especially with powerful acceleration out of Ascari. Turn 13 (Curva Parabolica): This final corner is a very-wide increasing-radius right-hand hairpin. Light or moderate braking is required on entry, but after about one-third of the way around the hairpin, stand on the accelerator all the way through to Rettifilio. The outside of the Curva Parabolica has an immense expanse of kitty litter, but this really should not be necessary unless you suddenly need to take evasive action to avoid someone else's accident. After the Lesmo corners, the Curva Parabolica is the third and final place where braking is a definite MUST. Pit Entry: Shortly after exiting the Curva Parabolica, the Pit Lane begins on the right. This is perhaps the shortest Pit Lane in all of F1; there is virtually NO room for deceleration once leaving the main course, so cars going in for servicing will begin slowing at the exit of the Curva Parabolica. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: NORISRING Due to the track layout and the surrounding scenery, Norisring primarily has the feel of an inner-city street circuit. The circuit itself is rather small and thus extremely easy to learn, yet it is VERY difficult to master. Pit Straight: The single longest straightaway at Norisring, Pit Straight is also the widest straightaway, allowing plenty of room for passing slower traffic. Pit Entry is on the right side about 1/4 of the way along Pit Straight; the lane for Pit Entry actually begins at the exit of the final corner. Turn 1: Things start with a BANG at this left-hand SHARP hairpin corner. What makes this corner so nasty is that there is virtually NO recovery room for those who miss the braking zone or do not brake hard enough - there is definitely a reason why SEVERE braking is required for this initial hairpin corner. Turns 2-3: Essentially an overglorified chicane, this is a right-left complex which leads the raceway around and behind the main grandstands. Both corners here are perpendicular corners, but the sand on the inside of Turn 2 makes car control virtually impossible if touched. The exit of Turn 3 has a brick extension alongside a brick wall; this extension is more than wide enough to provide an extra lane for passing slower traffic and/or for making a wide sweeping run out of Turn 3. Turns 4-5: Turn 4 is a right-hand kink just before the left- hand hairpin at Turn 5. It is important to begin braking before Turn 4, then slam HARD on the brakes for Turn 5. Fortunately, the exit of the hairpin is onto an unbelievably- wide straightaway (the same width as Pit Straight), so the braking required here is not quite as severe as for the initial hairpin corner at Turn 1. Turn 6: Very quickly after the second hairpin is the left- hand full-throttle kink onto Pit Straight. Those vehicles going to Pit Lane will keep hard to the right here coming off the second hairpin and through Turn 6. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: NURBURGRING From a driving standpoint, the hilly Nurburgring circuit is very much characterized by its tight corners, some of which are semi-blind turns. Tire wear is a definite issue in long races here, especially in wet conditions. Even more important, however, is braking early for almost every corner; perhaps only the narrow streets of Monaco require more braking than does the Nurburgring circuit. Pit Straight: This straightaway is fairly long, but the Start/Finish Line is near the exit of the final corner. The Pit Lane rejoins the course near the end of the Pit Straight, just before the Castrol S. Turns 1 and 2 (Castrol S): Moderate braking is required before entering this right-left 'S' curve. It is quite easy to miss seeing the entry to the Castrol S unless traffic is present to mark the corner for you. Until you know the course really well, expect to find yourself driving straight ahead into the recovery area. Turn 2 is actually somewhat of a double-apex left-hand corner, so do not go too wide initially on exit. Also, be careful not to drive too wide exiting the Castrol S. Caution must be taken here on the first lap of a race, as the traffic truly bunches up here. Turn 3: Light braking or a quick lift of the accelerator will be necessary for this left-hand corner. However, hard braking will be required for the Ford Curve ahead. Beginning at the top of Turn 3, the course moves downhill. Turn 4 (Ford Curve): This is a hard right-hand corner, practically a 'J' curve. The course continues its downhill slope here, which significantly adds to the difficulty of the turn, especially in wet condditions. Braking too late here means a trip through the kitty litter, while riding up on the inside rumble strips usually means losing control of the car. This is definitely NOT a place to pass unless absolutely necessary. Straightaway: The course fades to the left here. If you can accelerate well out of the Ford Curve, you should be able to pass several cars here as you continue downhill. Turn 5 (Dunlop Curve): Severe braking for this hairpin is a must, unless you really want to drive through the sand. Again, rolling up on the rumble strips on the inside of the curve may cause you to lose control of the car; however, I have several times induced slight wheelspin of the right-side tires on the rumble strip, which helped to swing the car around the corner just a little faster. The course continues gently uphill here toward the Audi S. Turns 6 and 7 (Audi S): Entering the left-right Audi S, the uphill slope of the course increases, making it very difficult to see the course more than a few feet ahead. The exit of Turn 6 is the crest of this hill. Unless traffic blocks your racing line, the entire Audi S section can be taken at top speed if you have a good racing line, so good acceleration out of the Dunlop Curve will be very beneficial for passing entering Turn 6 and/or exiting Turn 7. Turn 8 (RTL Curve): With the rise in the course entering the left-hand RTL Curve, this appears to be identical to Turn 6 on approach. However, you MUST use moderate braking entering the RTL Curve, or you will definitely be off in the grass on the outside of the curve. After a short straightaway, this corner is followed by the gentler BIT Curve. Turn 9 (BIT Curve): This right-hand curve will require light or moderate braking, depending on how much acceleration was used in the brief straightaway following the RTL Curve. Turn 10 (Bilstein-Bogen): This is a gentle right-hand semi- corner which can be taken at full throttle. From here to the Veedal S, the course makes its final and steepest upward slope. Turns 11 and 12 (Veedal S): This is an extremely tight left- right made even worse for the drivers by its placement at the very crest of the hill. For those who overshoot the chicane, there is a newly-added barrier to collect you and your car. Turn 13 (Coca-Cola Curve): A 'J' turn to the right, moderate braking is required here to keep from sliding off the course. The entry of the Coca-Cola Curve is also where the Pit Lane begins, so cars may be slowing on approach to go to Pit Lane for servicing. This is the final corner of the circuit. Pit Entry: The Pit Lane begins at the entry of the final corner. It is extremely important to slow down before entering Pit Lane; if you come in too fast, you will certainly damage the front of the car on the barrier. Keep tight to the right for Pit Entry, to allow those continuing the race to have the prime racing line to the left of the pavement. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: ORAN PARK Like Suzuka in Japan, Oran Park includes a bridge where the raceway crosses over itself. However, Oran Park is generally a slower-speed circuit than Suzuka, primarily due to the lack of long straightaways and the many moderate- and severe- braking corners. Fortunately, the circuit is almost entirely flat; even the ascent to and the descent from the bridge is so gradual that elevation is really not an issue when working on car set-ups for Oran Park. Pit Straight: Pit Entry is about 1/3 of the way along Pit Straight, although the entry lane for Pit Entry begins at the exit of the final corner (on the right); this 'extra lane' is also quite useful as a swing-out area for the final corner, if necessary, but a barrier directly against the pavement here still requires some amount of moderate braking for the final corner. Turn 1: This is a gentle left-hand kink which itself can be taken at full acceleration. However, it is best to begin braking well before Turn 1, since the nasty Turn 2 follows IMMEDIATELY. Turn 2: This tight left-hand corner requires moderate or even severe braking. This 135-degree corner leads underneath the bridge, and because there is precious little recovery room, missing the braking zone for Turn 2 will obliterate a vehicle almost instantly. Turn 3: Shortly after passing underneath the bridge is the right-hand Turn 3, a nasty and tight 135-degree corner. With the lack of a recovery area, moderate or severe braking is a MUST for Turn 3. Turn 4: A paved chicane area which is not used for the Grand Prix configuration appears on the right; immediately following this is Turn 4 itself. This is yet another nasty and tight 135-degree corner leading onto the bridge. There is a moderate recovery area to the outside of Turn 4, but moderate or heavy braking is still required to keep off the grass. Turn 5: INSTANTLY beyond the bridge is a junction; the Grand Prix circuit heads to the right here with yet another nasty right-hand corner requiring moderate or severe braking. It is best to begin braking just as the car comes onto the bridge itself. Turns 6-7: Shortly beyond Turn 5, this is an overglorified right-left chicane. Light or moderate braking will be needed here to keep to the pavement. Turn 8: Beyond the overglorified chicane, this is a left-hand corner which needs light or possibly moderate braking. Turns 9-10: Again, this is an overglorified right-left chicane. Expert drivers can squeak through here with no braking whatsoever, but most drivers will likely need light braking to keep to the pavement here. There is also a slight crest on entry here, and a dip exiting Turn 10, and these features can certainly play havoc with a car's handling (especially with lightweight cars). Turn 11: This final corner is on a slight incline as it leads onto Pit Straight. Moderate braking is needed for this left- hand 135-degree corner. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: OSCHERSLEBEN This is a primarily flat circuit, so ride height need not be a problem. However, there are several slow hairpin corners plus plenty of other corners which require moderate braking. The recovery areas around the circuit are not very significant, so it really is best to keep to the pavement at all times. Pit Straight: This is the longest straightaway at Oschersleben. Turn 1: At the end of Pit Straight, this is a semi-gentle left-hand corner. This corner itself does not require braking, but Turn 2 (which follows immediately after the exit of Turn 1) DOES require braking, so it is perhaps best to begin braking just at the entry of Turn 1 at the latest (of course, braking works best in a straight line). Turn 2: This right-hand 270-degree corner requires moderate or even severe braking to keep from sliding off the pavement. Once in the corner itself, careful throttle management is required to keep from overspinning the drive wheels and sending the car sliding off the raceway. Turn 3: After a short straightaway, this is a left-hand hairpin corner requiring moderate braking. The entire turn is banked slightly, but it is definitely not enough to help to 'catch' a car which is carrying too much speed into and through Turn 3. Turns 4-6: This is a triple-apex left-hand complex with requires increasing braking with each corner. Turn 7: IMMEDIATELY following Turn 6, this right-hand hairpin requires moderate braking (if the vehicle is not already slowed enough after the triple-apex section) and feather- light acceleration to remain on the pavement. Turns 8-10: This right-left-right chicane requires increasing braking with each corner. It is possible to completely bypass Turn 9, but this requires running through the kitty litter. Careful acceleration is needed from the apex to the exit of Turn 10. Turns 11-12: At the end of the second-longest straightaway at Oschersleben is an overglorified right-left chicane. It is important to use light or even moderate braking for Turn 11 to avoid the sand trap. By making judicious use of the rumble strips, drivers can save a few milliseconds of time - and may also even be able to make a pass. Turn 13: This is a 30-degree right-hand corner which requires light braking. Turn 14: After a VERY brief straightaway, this final turn is a right-hand 150-degree turn leading back onto Pit Straight. Pit Entry is to the left just before corner entry. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: OULTON PARK Overtaking is often difficult at this tight venue. This circuit is also somewhat rough on brakes in long races, in part due to the traffic jams (especially at the first corner at the beginning of a race). The two lengthy straightaways (one with a tight chicane) can be a great place to pass if gearing and downforce are set correctly. Pit Straight: The Pit Straight here is rather long compared to most, so powerful acceleration is absolutely necessary. Turn 1 (Old Hall Corner): This right-hand corner begins a slow downhill run along The Avenue and Dentons. Slight or moderate braking is required for the corner, put strong acceleration is needed on corner exit. Turn 2 (Cascades): This tricky left-hand corner requires moderate braking as the pavement leaves the Fosters circuit using this left-hand J-turn. This opens out onto the longest straightaway of the circuit, so hard acceleration is needed here to gain race positions before the next corner. Straightaway (Lakeside): Named for the lake to the left of the pavement, strong acceleration is needed here. Turn 3 (Island Bend): This left-hand corner (more of a fade than a corner) can itself be taken flat-out, but moderate braking is really required due to the hairpin which follows almost immediately. Turn 4 (Shells Oils Corner): This right-hand hairpin is rather slow, making this a prime place for passing on braking on corner entry, and for passing on horsepower on corner exit. Turns 5-7 (Foulstons): This tight left-right-left chicane truly disrupts any sense of speed, but can be good for passing on braking FOR EXPERTS ONLY due to the signs blocking a clear run past the chicane. Straightaway (Hilltop): This long straightaway is a wonderful place for high-horsepower cars to pass slower traffic, especially if there are multiple cars all trying to draft off each other. Turn 8 (Knickelbrook): This right-hand corner can be taken at full throttle unless blocked by traffic. A pristine racing line is needed (perhaps with the assistance of the rumble strips) to keep on the pavement. There is a paved chicane on the inside of Knickelbrook, but it is not used for TOCA racing. Straightaway (Clay Hill): This long straightaway has a left- hand bend. Turn 9 (Druids Corner): This right-hand corner will require light braking to keep to the pavement as the car muscles its way along a slow uphill climb. Turn 10 (Lodge Corner): This right-hand J-turn requires moderate braking on entrance to keep out of the sand and grass. Once safely though Lodge Corner, it is imperative to power hard along Pit Straight to make a few passes. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: PHILLIP ISLAND The Phillip Island Grand Prix Circuit is host of both V8 Supercars and some of the high-profile international motorcycle series. The circuit combines high speeds with VERY slow hairpin corners, making car set-up a bit more of a compromise than usual in auto racing. Pit Straight: The final corner is gentle enough that braking should not be necessary, so Pit Straight is FAST. Turn 1: This gentle right-hand corner may not require any braking at all; however, depending on car set-up, moderate braking may be required. In any event, there is plenty of sand to catch those who miss the braking zone. Turn 2: This is a long left-hand hairpin corner requiring moderate braking. The speeds here are definitely slow, but not quite as slow as for the other hairpin corners of the circuit. Turn 3: This is a gentle left-hand corner which should require light braking at most. However, toward the end of the corner, it is imperative to begin braking for Turn 4. Turn 4: The first of the REALLY slow hairpin corners, this right-hand corner requires moderate or even severe braking, depending on if/when braking began in Turn 3 itself. Turn 5: This is a barely-noticeable kink to the right, but this is listed as an official corner on the circuit map. Turn 6: This is another REALLY slow hairpin corner, this time to the left. Moderate or severe braking will be required for Turn 6 as well. Turn 7: This is a barely-noticeable kink to the left, but this is listed as an official corner on the circuit map. Turn 8: Turn 8 is a high-speed sweep to the right, requiring only a light tapping of the brakes if necessary. Turn 9: Light or moderate braking is needed to keep to the pavement in this sweeping left-hand corner. Turn 10: This is the final hairpin corner of the circuit, and it is also very SLOW, requiring moderate or (most likely) severe braking on approach. Turn 11: Coming out of Turn 10, this left-hand corner may require light braking, but throttle management is the true key to remaining on the pavement in Turn 11. Turn 12: This final corner is a long sweeping left-hand arc back onto Pit Straight; Pit Entry is to the left just before corner entry. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: ROCKINGHAM OVAL 'Oval' is really a misnomer in the case of Rockingham Oval. This circuit is essentially shaped like a square with an adjacent triangle attached to its side. If a car is tuned properly, NO braking will be required unless the driver cannot get low enough in a corner and drifts toward the wall. All corners are also banked, although Turn 3 is banked less than the other corners. It may actually be beneficial to simply SLIDE through the corners, depending on car set-up and driver experience. Turns 1 and 2: These are left-hand perpendicular corners, although the corners themselves are long and semi-gentle. Pit Exit is from the left beyond the exit of Turn 2. Turn 3: This is a 45-degree corner. Turn 4: This is a 135-degree corner which is long and semi- gentle. Pit Entry is to the left just before corner entry. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: ROCKINGHAM ROAD This is a 'stadium circuit' (similar to the Indianapolis Grand Prix circuit used in F1 racing) nestled within the Rockingham Oval circuit. Turn 4 of the Rockingham Oval venue is used, as is the Pit Lane and Pit Exit lane; otherwise, the Rockingham Road circuit makes use of the vast infield area. Turns 1-3: Just beyond the Start/Finish Line, the Rockingham Road raceway has a left-right chicane off the oval portion and onto the oval's Pit Exit lane; a barrier prevents drivers from simply powering ahead along the oval. Once on the oval's Pit Exit lane, the pavement makes a gentle curve to the left while merging once again with the oval portion of the venue. (Note that the chicane itself can be straightlined, but moderate braking will still definitely be required.) Turns 4 and 5: This is a harsh double-apex left-hand hairpin off the oval and onto the infield portion of the circuit. This hairpin corner will require moderate or severe braking. Turns 6 and 7: After a short straightaway, this is a pair of right-hand perpendicular corners. Moderate braking will again be needed here for each of these corners . Turns 8 and 9: This is a left-right chicane which requires light or moderate braking, depending on car set-up and traffic conditions. Turns 10 and 11: Again, this is a set of left-hand perpendicular corners. Moderate braking is required for both, but this section can be treated as a single left-hand hairpin turn. Turn 12: This left-hand 135-degree corner requires moderate braking to keep on the pavement. Turn 13: Here is a TRUE hairpin corner to the right, requiring moderate or severe braking. This is perhaps the best place to pass via outbraking an opponent. Turns 14 and 15: This is a pair of left-hand corners. The first of these corners will require moderate braking, but the second corner can be handled nicely at full acceleration. Turn 16: This is also a true hairpin corner, this time to the left and leading back toward the oval portion of the circuit. Moderate or severe braking will be required here; the handbrake can be used here effectively if carrying too much speed into Turn 16. Turn 17 (Oval Turn 4): This is the final corner of the oval portion of the circuit. Note that for the Rockingham Road circuit, however, Pit Entry is on the left at the APEX of this corner. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: SANDOWN This circuit appears easy on the circuit map, but is a very different beast on the pavement; numerous test drives and practice sessions are definitely required to truly come to grips with Sandown. Turn 1: The initial corner is a left-hand near-perpendicular corner requiring moderate or severe braking after the lengthy Pit Straight. There is fortunately A LOT of recovery room for those who miss the braking zone. Turns 2 and 3: This is a right-left chicane which should really require light braking. However, it is quite feasible to straightline this chicane; those with extensive rally racing experience will already be quite adept at this tactic. Turn 4: IMMEDIATELY following Turn 3, this is a NASTY left- hand acute-angle corner which requires moderate or severe braking. Most importantly, the 'recovery area' here is extremely tiny, so missing the braking zone for Turn 4 will definitely result in severe car damage against the barrier on the outside of the corner. Straightaway: This is the longest straightaway of the circuit, with a slight fade to the right just shortly beyond Turn 4. The straightaway also crests at its end. Turns 5-8: This is a left-right-left-left complex which requires harder and harder braking with each corner. The entire complex makes a left-hand 120-degree bend overall, but it is comprised of some rather fast-approaching corners with little recovery room. Turns 9 and 10: This is a right-left chicane requiring moderate braking on approach, but powerful acceleration through Turn 10 and all the way to the end of Pit Straight. Turn 11: With Pit Entry to the right at corner apex, this is a gentle left-hand bend onto Pit Straight which can be taken at full acceleration. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: SEARS POINT Sears Point Raceway is one of only two road courses used in NASCAR racing. This circuit is also notable in NASCAR due to the need for two Pit Lanes - one on each side of the raceway near the Start/Finish Line. Road course and street course specialists will certainly love Sears Point, even if using a standard NASCAR-spec vehicle :-) Pit Straight: There really is NO 'Pit Straight' per se, since the main Pit Lane curves around the outside of final corner (a hairpin turn) while the secondary Pit Lane begins to the inside of this hairpin turn. There is a semi-significant bend to the left about halfway between the final corner and Turn 1. Turn 1: This is a fast left-hand bend taken at full acceleration and beginning an uphill climb. Turn 2: Shortly after the first corner, this is another left- hand bend which can generally be handled at full acceleration. However, due to Turn 3 which closely follows, it is best to begin braking for the next corner at the apex of Turn 2. Turn 3: This is a right-hand blind corner due to the hillside. Those who miss the braking zone and/or forget to turn (the actual corner itself is VERY difficult to spot on approach) may be able to benefit from the wide paved recovery area. Since the recovery area is paved, it is relatively easy to maintain a moderate level of speed and rejoin the race. However, because the recovery area is paved, it is also quite easy to keep on sliding across the pavement and slam into the barrier. Turns 4 and 5: This is a left-right section which dips at the entry of Turn 4, crests, then begins a gentle downhill run toward Turn 6. The elevation changes in this section can cause handling problems, especially for lightweight cars. Turn 6: This is a right-hand right-angle corner around a tire barrier (placed specifically to prevent shortcutting the corner). Those with good drift-racing skills can implement those abilities here (and at Turn 7 as well) to pass one or two cars through the corner (but beware the barrier at the apex). Like Turn 3, Turn 6 has a wide paved recovery area for those who overshoot the braking zone; this recovery area is the largest at Sears Point, so a GREAT amount of effort is required to slide all the way across it and slam into the distant barrier to damage the vehicle. Turn 7: This is a right-hand 135-degree corner around a tire barrier (placed specifically to prevent shortcutting the corner). Those with good drift-racing skills can implement those abilities here (as at Turn 6) to pass one or two cars through the corner (but beware the barrier at the apex). Turn 8: Immediately at the exit of Turn 7, this is a quick left-hand bend which can be taken at full acceleration. Turns 9-14 (S-curves): The raceway keeps switching from left to right, all the way back to Pit Entry for the primary Pit Lane. The overall trend of the raceway here is a gentle downhill slope, although some corners will require light braking to remain on the pavement. Turn 15: This is a tight right-hand hairpin corner with some paved swing-out room (but not very much). Pit Entry for the primary Pit Lane is to the left well before this hairpin corner, while Pit Entry for the secondary Pit Lane is to the right on corner exit. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: SILVERSTONE The Silverstone International circuit shares much of the same pavement as the Grand Prix circuit used for the annual F1 Grand Prix of Great Britain; in fact, the pavement for the two circuits even cross at approximately two-thirds of the way around the International circuit. Once the International circuit leaves the Grand Prix circuit, however, the ensuing S-curves are incredibly tight and tricky, although straightlining by making use of the rumble strips will often help to save time. Pit Straight: The Start/Finish Line is directly at the beginning of the Pit Straight. There is no room for error on the right side of the track, as the Pit Lane barrier is directly against the pavement. Turn 1 (Copse): This is a moderate right-hand corner which can be taken at full speed with a pristine racing line, but be careful to not run off the course at the exit of the turn. The best racing line is to tightly hug the apex, but the Pit Lane barrier is right there against the pavement, so it is imperative to keep the right side of the vehicle from rubbing the barrier. Copse exits onto a long straightaway. Straightaway: The Pit Lane rejoins the main course from the right about 1/3 of the way along the straight. Turns 2-3 (Maggots): This is a left-right S-curve. Turn 2 can be taken at full speed or with very quick tapping of the brakes, but Turn 3 requires moderate braking to keep to the pavement. Turn 4: This tight right-hand J-curve can easily surprise newcomers to this version of Silverstone; fortunately, there is plenty of sand to the outside of the corner to catch the unwary. With the heavy braking required to safely clear this corner, this is a prime place to pass on braking. Turn 5-7 (Ireland): This tight set of S-curves can be taken at full throttle with no traffic by straightlining the corners using the rumble strips. Otherwise, expect to be frustrated by slow traffic in this tight left-right-left complex. There is a fade to the left on exiting Ireland. Turn 8: There is a fade to the left immediately before entering this tight right-hand hairpin, which makes the hairpin itself much more difficult. Fortunately, pavement from the Silverstone Grand Prix circuit crosses the International circuit here, so those who go wide on the hairpin can generally make use of the Grand Prix pavement to recover and get back onto the International pavement. Straightaway (Farm Straight): From the right side, the Grand Prix pavement rejoins the International pavement. Both circuits follow the same pavement for the remainder of the lap. With good acceleration out of the hairpin, good passing opportunities can be made here. Turns 9-13: This final segment of the circuit is very similar to The Stadium at Hockenheim. However, these similar segments cannot be approached in the same manner. Turn 9 (Bridge): Immediately after passing underneath the pedestrian bridge, you will enter a complex similar to The Stadium at Hokkenheim. This is a right-hand corner which can likely be taken at full speed. Turn 10 (Priory): This left-hand corner will require moderate braking. Turn 11 (Brooklands): Another left-hand corner, this one requires heavy braking. There is a small sand trap for those who miss the braking zone. Turn 12 (Luffield): This set of right-hand corners essentially forms a 'U' shape, and requires moderate or severe braking to avoid sliding off into the kitty litter. The entry to Pit Lane is on the right shortly leaving Luffield. Turn 13 (Woodcote): Barely a corner but more than a fade, the course eases to the right here. The right-side barrier begins abruptly here (be careful not to hit it). Pit Entry: The Pit Lane begins to the right between Luffield and Woodcote. The new Pit Lane has a gentle right-hand swing, so you can come into Pit Lane at top speed and have plenty of room to slow. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: T1 CIRCUIT AIDA Aida is a fun and fairly quick circuit. There are many high- speed areas, tempered with a few J-turns to slow the cars. Fortunately, there are NO CHICANES at Aida, which is absolutely great for aggressive drivers. Turn 1: After a moderate-length Pit Straight, Turn 1 is a right-hand J-turn requiring moderate braking and gentle throttle control throughout. While passing on the outside line is indeed possible here, it is not suggested. Turn 2: Shortly after Turn 1, this is a gentle left-hand corner which can generally be taken at full acceleration with a pristine racing line making use of the rumble strips (especially on corner exit)... unless encumbered by traffic. Straightaway: This 'straightaway' has three fades - left- right-left - which can essentially be straightlined; those with experience in rally racing will already have this essential time-shaving skill in their arsenal of racing tactics. Turn 3: Immediately after the final fade of the preceding 'straightaway,' the circuit makes a right-hand bend here as the venue makes a slow rise. This corner requires moderate braking. Note that the crest comes after corner exit, so while speed out of the corner is important, it is quite possible that there will be an incident jut over the rise - therefore, drivers must be prepared to quickly take evasive action coming over the crest. Turn 4: After a second mini-crest comes the right-hand Turn 4. Moderate braking is required here as is a tight racing line along the apex for this J-turn. Turns 5 and 6: Almost immediately after Turn 4 comes a pair of left-hand corners. These are fairly gentle corners requiring only light braking, but the straightaway connecting Turn 5 and Turn 6 is simply too long to permit treating this section like one elongated hairpin corner. Slow cars tend to REALLY slow for the Turns 4-5-6 complex, so powering out of the corners and braking heavily and late entering the corners will help with passing in this section. Turns 7 and 8: This section begins just beyond the pedestrian bridge over the raceway. This is a set of left-right J- turns, each requiring moderate braking. Again, slow cars tend to be REALLY slow here, so powering out of the corners and braking heavily and late entering the corners will help with passing in this section. Turns 9 and 10: This is a pair of VERY gentle right-hand corners requiring NO braking whatsoever, so long as the driver can keep a good racing line. These corners essentially form one wide sweeping elongated hairpin turn to the right. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: VALLELUNGA This Italian venue is primarily a high-speed circuit with semi-gentle curves that require only very light braking, if any braking is required at all. However, on the back side of the circuit, there is a set of hairpin corners which requires moderate or hard braking, thus slowing things down considerably. So long as drivers master this 'additional' section along the back side of the circuit, there should be no problems attaining success at Vallelunga :-) Turn 1: At the end of Pit Straight, this is a gentle left- hand bend. There is pavement which continues straight ahead, but this is not used. Little braking is needed here, if any. Turn 2: Shortly after Turn 1, the raceway makes a gentle right-hand bend. Little braking is needed here, if any. Turn 3: If any, little braking is needed for this long, gentle, sweeping right-hand bend. Turn 4: This is a rather wide hairpin corner to the right, requiring moderate braking on approach and careful throttle management throughout. Turns 5 and 6: This right-left section should not require any braking whatsoever, except perhaps by the most powerful of cars. Turn 7: This begins the tricky section of the circuit. This is a right-hand hairpin corner requiring moderate braking. Note that there is virtually NO recovery room should a driver miss the braking zone for Turn 7. Turn 8: After a brief straightaway, this is an even tighter hairpin corner, this time to the left. Severe braking will be needed here, especially since there is NO recovery area to the outside of the corner until corner exit - and this is primarily a steep hillside which risks to cause a vehicle to flip onto its side or roof. Turns 9 and 10: This left-right section requires light braking for most cars, or moderate braking by high-power vehicles. Turn 11: This final corner is a right-hand hairpin requiring light braking. Drivers must avoid shortcutting the corner even by a few centimeters, as a barrier protrudes all the way up to the pavement itself at the apex of this hairpin turn. Note that Pit Entry is to the left (the inside of the corner) just beyond the apex but before corner exit. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: VANCOUVER Perhaps most popular for the annual CART race (one of three in Canada - the others being in Toronto and Montreal), this is a TIGHT street circuit. This means that there are AT MOST two lanes of racing (and passing in most areas is very dicey at best), and that there is NOWHERE to go in case of a mistake or an accident. Due to the barriers, ALL corners are semi-blind. Turn 1: This is a wide right-hand hairpin corner, with Pit Exit at the apex. This is actually one of the two best passing zones at Vancouver, but passing here means keeping a VERY tight line on corner entry and hoping that the brakes do not lock up and cause the vehicle to slide across the pavement and into the outside barrier. Turn 2: Immediately after Turn 1, this is a left-hand right- angle corner. Turn 3: After a VERY short straightaway, this is a right-hand right-angle corner onto the long back straightaway. Straightaway: This is the longest straightaway at Vancouver. Passing here is possible, but definitely still tricky due to the narrow nature of the circuit. The 'straightaway' has a semi-significant bend to the right about 1/3 of the way along its length, but this can be handled at full acceleration (even with side-by-side racing). Turn 4: This is the other prime passing area, a right-hand right-angle corner. There is some extra room on the inside of the corner, so crossing over the rumble strips can be quite useful for passing. Turn 5: This is a right-hand hairpin corner, requiring moderate braking. If there is no traffic here, some good speeds can be carried through Turn 5. Turns 6-9: This is a left-left-right-left complex which is rather tricky, especially since the raceway narrows between Turns 6 and 7. Harder and harder braking will be required while passing through this section. Turns 10-12: This final section is the trickiest, both to see and to drive. There is an overhead highway on the left side of the raceway approaching Turn 10; at the TINY break in the wall, the raceway makes a hard left-right-left onto Pit Straight. GOING STRAIGHT AHEAD LEADS TO PIT LANE!!!!! Moderate or even severe braking is required to definitely be able to keep to the pavement without banging any of the barriers here at the tiny opening. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: ZANDVOORT This is one of the trickiest race circuits on the planet. While not as technical as Monaco, the difficulty level is still definitely rather high. There are really only two high-speed sections along the entire circuit; the rest of the circuit is filled with twists and turns combined with changes in elevation; for much of the circuit, there is NO room for error, as - similar to a street circuit - the barriers come almost directly up against the raceway itself. Pit Straight: This is one of only two sustained high-speed sections at Zandvoort. Pit Entry is on the right about 1/3 of the way along Pit Straight; the Pit Entry lane begins just after the exit of Turn 14. Turn 1: This right-hand hairpin requires moderate or even severe braking to keep out of the vast area of kitty litter on the outside of the corner. Careful throttle management will also be needed throughout the corner once past the apex. Turn 2: After a quick fade to the left, Turn 2 is a right- hand corner requiring moderate braking. This enters the main area where there are barriers almost directly against the pavement on both sides, so making any mistakes in this section of the circuit can be extremely costly, creating A LOT of work for the pit crew (and thus longer pit stops). Turn 3: IMMEDIATELY after Turn 2, this left-hand hairpin corner requires even more braking. From the apex of Turn 3, the circuit begins a noticeable uphill trajectory, which can make corner exit slightly difficult. Turns 4-6: The raceway crests at the apex of Turn 4, a gentle right-hand bend, then dips at the apex of Turn 5, a gentle left-hand bend; the raceway then crests again at the apex of Turn 6, another gentle right-hand bend. This is the second high-speed section at Vandvoort. At one point, the right- side barrier does give way, but generally, the barriers are almost directly up against the raceway on both sides. Turn 7: Moderate or severe braking will be needed for this long right-hand corner. There is a steeply-banked elongated sand trap on the outside of the corner to help slow runaway vehicles, but it is still possible to slam into the barrier on the other side of the kitty litter; also, should a car slide sideways into the sand, the sudden deceleration rate and the angle of the slope here risks to cause the car to roll onto its side and/or roof. Turns 8 and 9: The circuit map shows these as two distinct right-hand corners, but it is best to approach these as one 270-degree decreasing-radius corner. Moderate braking is needed entering Turn 8, but the braking pressure must be slowly increased to safely make it to the exit of Turn 9. There is a large sand trap to the outside of this section, but by the exit of Turn 9, the raceway is again bounded VERY closely by barriers. Turn 10: Moderate braking is required for this left-hand hairpin corner. There is not much recovery room to the outside of Turn 10, then the barriers again closely protect the raceway. Turns 11 and 12: This is the absolute worst section of the circuit. This is a NASTY right-left chicane: a right-hand perpendicular corner instantly followed by a left-hand hairpin turn around a large sand trap bisected by a barrier. There is NO shortcutting possible here, and those carrying too much speed into this chicane will DEFINITELY destroy the front of the vehicle on the barrier. Turns 13 and 14: These final two corners again appear as distinct turns on the race map, but should also be treated as one massive hairpin corner. Turn 13 may require light braking by high-power vehicles, but ALL cars should be able to power through Turn 14 at full throttle. This leads onto Pit Straight. ============================================== DRIVING INSTRUCTIONS: ZOLDER This circuit can be fun but tricky, especially in wet racing conditions. It is generally a high-speed circuit, but the chicanes and few tight corners will certainly test a driver's guts. Turn 1: This left-hand corner will require light braking to remain on the raceway. The outside of the corner begins with a good recovery area, but by corner exit, the outside barrier is almost directly against the pavement. Pit Exit is at corner exit on the right. Turn 2: Turn 2 is a right-hand hairpin corner with a decreasing radius. There is some good sand-filled recovery space on the outside of the corner. Light braking will be required initially, but the braking pressure must be slowly increased in order to remain on the circuit itself. Turn 3: Light braking will be needed with most vehicles to keep them on the pavement for this right-hand corner. There is little room for error on either side of the pavement through Turn 3. Turns 4-6: On approach, the back side of the paddock area is to the right of the raceway. Then the circuit makes a left- right-left chicane which requires moderate braking. Turning too soon will be costly, however, as the left-hand barrier does not give way until after the apex of Turn 4. The inside of Turn 5 is filled with sand, so straightlining this chicane may not be very beneficial. Fortunately, the swing rate of the corners is not very great, so turning left just a little bit can allow drivers to make ample use of the inside rumble strip for Turn 5, and then straightline Turn 6; however, if encumbered by traffic, this tactic will likely result in a collision with one or more competitors. Turn 7: This left-hand bend can be taken at full acceleration. However, at corner exit, it is best to begin braking for the next corner. Turns 8-10: This is a rough right-left-right chicane with a much wider swing rate than the former chicane, so straightlining this chicane will never be a viable option. Due to the much greater angle of each corner, moderate or even severe braking will be required to slow enough for safely negotiate Turn 8 and properly set up the approach for Turn 9. Most cars should be able to handle full acceleration from the apex of Turn 9 through Turn 10. Turn 11: Except for the most powerful of vehicles, this right-hand corner can be taken at full acceleration. There is a nice recovery area to the outside of the corner, however, for those who may need to make use of its services. Turn 12: This left-hand bend can be handled at full acceleration without problems. Turns 13-15: Severe braking is required for Turn 13, a right- hand J-turn. Exiting Turn 13 leads into a gentle left-right chicane which can be handled at full acceleration. Turns 16 and 17: After passing underneath an advertisement comes a 'junction.' Pit Entry is directly ahead, whereas the main circuit makes a left-right chicane. Moderate braking will be needed to slow enough to handle the chicane without getting bogged down in the sand trap. Like the initial chicane of the circuit, the left-side barrier protrudes all the way to the apex of Turn 16, so it is not possible to turn early to have a better racing line. Because of the 'junction' setting here, those going to Pit Lane should remain hard to the right side of the circuit (perhaps even with the right-side tires just slightly OFF the pavement) to allow the best-possible racing line for those remaining on the circuit itself. ============================================== ============================================== ============================================== DIAGRAMS This section contains the diagrams referred to earlier in the guide. Ascari Chicane (at Monza): * * * * * *** * ***************** Bus Stop Chicane (Variant I - Wide Chicane): ******************* ******************* * * ********* Bus Stop Chicane (Variant II - Narrow Chicane): ******************* ******************* *********** Decreasing-radius Corner: ->******************* * * * * * * <-************************* Hairpin Corner: ->***************** * <-***************** Increasing-radius Corner: ->********************** * * * * * <-******************* J-turn ******************* * * * * Quick-flicks (Variant I - Wide Chicane): ************* * ************* Quick-flicks (Variant II - Narrow Chicane): ************* ************** Sample Circuit Using Some of the Above Corner Types Combined: ******|****** ***** * |-> * * * * ** *** * * * ** * * * * * * * * * * * ******** * ** * * * * * ************ ******* * ******* Standard Corner: ******************* * * * * * * * * U-turn: ->***************** * * * <-***************** Virtual Bus Stop Chicane: +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Car #1 ->->->->->-> Car #3 Player Path: ->->->->->->-> Car #2 ->->->->->->-> +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ ============================================== ============================================== ============================================== ONLINE RESOURCES These sites are listed in the order of: game-related sites first, followed by the official Web sites for the circuits used in Pro Race Driver. http://www.proracedriver.com/ The official Web site for Pro Race Driver, covering the PlayStation2, PC, and X-Box versions of the game in both English and Spanish. http://www.codemasters.com/ The Web site for the developers of Pro Race Driver. http://www.codemasters.com/registration/ Players can register their copies of Pro Race Driver online here and receive the two codes mentioned in the Bonus Codes section. http://www.octagonmotorsports.com/ Octagon Motorsports is the owner of many of the circuits used in the TOCA (British touring cars) series, including Silverstone, Brands Hatch, and Oulton Park. http://www.circuit-dijon-prenois.com/ The official Web site for Circuit Dijon Prenois. However, this site is only available in French. http://www.fujispeedway.co.jp/index.html This is the official Web site for Fuji Speedway. There is some English-language information (as well as Chinese- language information), but the core information on this site is only available in Japanese. http://www.bathurst24hr.com/ Unable to find a Web site specifically for the Bathurst circuit, this is the Web site for the new Bathurst 24 Hours, held for the first time in 2002. http://www.mantorppark.com/ This is the official Web site for Mantorp Park. However, the site is currently only available in Swedish; an English-language version of the site is in the works (according to an announcement - in English - posted on the site). http://www.autohausamnorisring.de/ The official Web site for Norisring. This site is only available in German. http://www.oranpark.com/ The official Oran Park Web site. http://www.motopark.de/ This is the official Web site for Oschersleben. This site is only available in German. http://www.phillipislandcircuit.com.au/ The official Web site of the Phillip Island Grand Prix Circuit. http://www.sandownraceway.com.au/ This is the official Web site for Sandown International Motor Raceway. However, the site is extremely slow and virtually unresponsive at the time of the initial writing of this game guide. http://www.bristolmotorspeedway.com/ The official Web site for Bristol Motor Speedway. http://www.a1ring.at/ The A1-Ring official Web site. http://www.clipsal500.com.au/ The official Web site for Clipsal 500 Adelaide (the V8 Supercars annual event). http://www.telmexgigantegranpremiomexico.com/ The official Web site for the annual CART race at Mexico. http://www.monzanet.it/ This is the official Web site for Monza. http://www.circuit-zandvoort.nl/ The official Web site of Circuit Zandvoort in Holland. This site is only available in Dutch. http://www.circuit-zolder.be/ Circuit Zolder's official Web site. http://www.donington-park.co.uk/ The official Web site of Donington Park. http://www.eastern-creek-raceway.com/ The official Eastern Creek Web site. http://www.hockenheimring.de/ The official Web site for Hockenheim (the new shortened version). http://www.magnycours.com/ The official Web site for Nevers Magny-Cours. http://www.nuerburgring.de/ Nurburgring's official Web site. http://www.oranpark.com/ The official Web site for Oran Park. http://www.charlottemotorspeedway.com/ The official Web site for Charlotte Motor Speedway. http://www.lvms.com/ Las Vegas Motor Speedway's official Web site. http://www.knockhill.co.uk/ This is the official Web site for Knockhill; however, as of the initial writing of this guide, this link loads only a single blank page. http://www.rockingham.co.uk/ The official Web site of Rockingham Motor Speedway. http://infineonraceway.com/ This is the official Web site of Sears Point Raceway, now officially known as Infineon Raceway. http://www.ti-circuit.co.jp/ This is the official Web site of T1 Circuit AIDA, but the site is only available in Japanese. http://www.vallelunga.it/ This is the official Web site of the Vallelunga circuit, but the site redirects to a blank page. ============================================== COMPLETELY SUBJECTIVE SECTION Favorite Circuits Adelaide Bathurst Dijon Prenois Donington Park Fuji Hockenheim Short Mexico Monza Oschersleben Oulton Park Rockingham Road Sears Point Vallelunga Zandvoort Zolder Least-favorite Circuits A1 Ring Bristol Charlotte Hockenheim Long Las Vegas Norisring Rockingham Oval ============================================== THANKS Thanks to ikancu from the Pro Race Driver message board on GameFAQs (http://www.GameFAQs.com/) for his clarification on the accumulation of championship points in Career Mode for the purposes of unlocking new racing tiers. ============================================== ============================================== ============================================== CONTACT INFORMATION For questions, rants, raves, comments of appreciation, etc., or to be added to my e-mail list for updates to this driving guide, please contact me at: FEATHER7@IX.NETCOM.COM; also, if you have enjoyed this guide and feel that it has been helpful to you, I would certainly appreciate a small donation via PayPal (http://www.paypal.com/) using the above e-mail address. To find the latest version of this and all my other PSX/PS2/DC/Mac game guides, visit FeatherGuides at http://feathersites.angelcities.com/ ============================================== ============================================== ============================================== ======================================================================= Wolf Feather Jamie Stafford ======================================================================= Just as there are many parts needed to make a human a human, there's a remarkable number of things needed to make an individual what they are. - Major Kusanagi, _Ghost in the Shell_ ======================================================================= What isn't remembered never happened. - _Serial Experiments Lain_ =======================================================================