Map making in Left 4 Dead 2

In the beginning, Valve created the Source Engine. And the level was without form and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the spirit of Gabe Newell moved upon the face of the Hammer World Editor. And Gabe said, “Let there be zombies”, and there were zombies. To most gamers, this rendition of the birth of a level may as well be true. While in a broad sense we appreciate the complexity of even the simplest game, most of us can’t conceive of the work required to turn the gibberish that is game code into a tangible place where Infected roam.

Above: The almighty blue square that dilineates the Finale sequence

“It’s a toilet,” we reason, “of course it flushes. What else would it do?” And then we criticize the toilet for not having real-time physics, and that its scripted nature somehow diminishes its complexity and value. But when the proverbial toilet stops flushing, do we have any idea how to fix it? Or do we simply stand there, staring at our un-flushable bog, trying to remember where we put the emergency bucket?

Certain that we could show how easy it is to create a paradise where survivors and zombies might come together in violent union, we loaded up Hammer, the Source Engine’s level editor. A level begins empty: blackness mapped only by a grid. World geometry is built with three-dimensional blocks called brushes. These must form the foundations of the level.

Above: The invisible world. This is what a level really looks like. Much like the real world, a L4D2 player sees but a glimpse of what’s really going on around them. When seen through the developer’s eyes, a finished level is a confusing color-coded mass of box-shaped proximity triggers, funny little floating icons, AI path-finding information, and invisible “clipping” walls used to control player exploration. So you see, omniscience can be a confusing thing

Such is the metaphysical nature of the Source Engine that the contents of a level must be shielded from the void, lest they be tainted by nonexistence that can ‘leak’ into it, preventing the level from being compiled and subsequently played. We set about constructing a small box-shaped room with orange walls. And then we begin to swear and squint at the monitor like it’s our front door at 3am and weretoo drunk to get the key in. The victory of our orange box has been followed by a disastrous attempt to add an orange corridor.

“Entity weapon_spawn leaked!” Hammer tells us as we attempt to compile the level. One of our corridor’s walls isn’t reaching the floor, and so a small gap now leads to the blackness. We don’t notice this for 10 minutes. The frustration caused by inflexible software and user fallibility settles into a pattern of expletives and subsequent revelations that’s repeated many times. But using Hammer becomes addictive as with every problem solved, a smug sense of triumph overwhelms adversity: we’re clever, because we fixed a problem presented to us by our own ignorance.

Above: Coach holds hands with green Gordon Freeman

As the necessity of building every single wall by virtual hands truly sinks in, our grand plans for spaceships, pirate ships and floating cities are worn away to reveal more realistic aspirations. Everything must be placed. Creating a light requires not only an entity to provide the light, but also a prop to serve as the source of the light.

Contrary to our expectations, light bulbs don’t emit light, nor do fires emit the sound of burning wood without a sound entity to accompany them. The virtual worlds we run around are born of completely independent components whose connections must be configured and defined, and controlled by such a fine web of logic relays, inputs and outputs, that as we stare at our sad little orange box we feel rather deflated.

Above: The true orange box needs only zombies to be good

Darkness is our friend, we reason, as we move through tutorials and create a ladder, a platform, some stairs. The darker the level, the more detail we can imply with the bare minimum of it. From this idea of cheap level design evolves a nobler concept: to use darkness as an artistic opportunity, and a chance for players to accidentally shoot each other.

Having completed our basic training, we manage to construct two box-based orange-walled prototype levels, connected by a simple safe room transition. In spite of the adaptive, intelligent and vindictive nature of the AI Director, the levels cannot be populated with zombies or explored by the Survivor bots until a Nav Mesh has been created. This means generating an ultimately invisible, color-coded map that sits upon any walkable surface the Infected are expected to navigate.

Above: Playing with light and darkness is essential for any L4D map

Zones must be marked for the start and end of a level, and the Director’s zombie-spawning antics must be controlled by other such markers, lest the level simply lack the correct flow. As dynamic as the AI Director may be, like everything else it relies upon an inflexible system that can frustrate as much as any other.

As dawn approaches, we’ve started working beyond the confines of our tutorial-based boxes. We’ve made a multitude of prototypes; of angular temples and darkened roads, of street lamps and forests. They’re all a bit rubbish and most of these ideas will perish before the end, but each one represents the learning of a new technique or solution, and brings us closer to figuring out what the hell we’re actually going to make in the long run.

Above: Zombie is late. Run, zombie, run!


  • Brax1411 - August 18, 2010 11 p.m.

    "Where can I find the downlaod your map (sense you don't want me to copy it), and will anyone feel like playing it for 24hr gameday?" FYI, these two pages represent two out of three articles from PC Zone magazine. My final article will be appearing in the last ever issue of PC Zone, and the three-map camapaign I made will be on the demo disc. So buy it! And I have to say; yes, it's very time consuming. But to be fair, I was learning all of this from scratch. The third and final map in my campaign took aproximately two weeks to complete, and most of that was texture work/bug fixing. So don't be too put off! Making maps is deeply rewarding. When you're not swearing at the screen and smashing your face against the keyboard...
  • CoktorBloktopus - August 18, 2010 12:53 a.m.

    holy time sink Batman a five level campaign must take forever to complete kudos to you guys you truly are super nerds and I say that in the mist loving way possible i wish I had the dedication to do all the shit you do.
  • Zackaro - August 17, 2010 9:05 p.m.

    I loved left 4 dead 1, but never bought left 4 dead 2 till only this week lol, £13 new :O :D.0n the 360 tho, Sadly, my laptop is terrible for games, so hopefully, one day, i'll get a new laptop, and make a Mod map, a long, a shit scary place of hell, rapture in left 4 dead? hmm
  • WickedSid - August 17, 2010 12:37 p.m.

    All Hail Gab- All Glory To The HypnoToad!!
  • teenlonewolf - August 17, 2010 7:34 a.m.

    Holy Cow i didnt know it was THIS hard O.o i have a new found respect for L4D2 Custom map designers now xD
  • elpurplemonkey - August 17, 2010 6:58 a.m.

    This article deserves more than 8 comments (9 now.) Even though I don't play L4D on PC, that was a fascinating read.
  • Dorglesisthebest - August 17, 2010 3:18 a.m.

    I actually never tried making a L4D2 map, but A while ago I made a CSS map with a friend, but we never managed to get it on any dedicated servers, and after all these years I doubt anyone still has it.
  • OHMYGODIMONFIRE - August 17, 2010 12:38 a.m.

    When I first read the article I was convinced I should make a map and play it the day before summer ends. How naive I was.
  • Memph - August 16, 2010 9:23 p.m.

    Been attemting to learn Hammer myself for the past couple weeks, playing with the Swarm sdk. Much, much easier working top-down than going for a full first person viewed map i should imagine. "The two levels continue to grow in this manner for another week: changing in an almost organic response to every new problem that came up or idea we had." That's certainly where the fun is. Starting with just a box, then another box, before long you have corridors, doors and a level to run through. From there set about making it more interesting, tweaking the lighting, multilayering the floors; dropping sections down and elevating others, then there's setting up spawns, hacking/holdout/rush moment placing, adding props, ambient sounds/music, visual effect entities the list goes on and on. Seeing it all take shape and when finally, you can get a group through without anything going wrong gives quite the tremendous sense of achievement, even though the realisation then sets in you're still miles away from completion. The downside indeed is that if it gets you hooked, it's ten times the ravenous time-vampire that any mmo could be. I developed a whole new appreciation and understanding for bug-fixing. When you're faced with however many square meters of coloured lines and icons, terrain/lights/doors/triggers/entities/props/clipping/ai paths and smeg knows whatnot else all linked up to function together, finding that one dodgy link in the delicate chain of triggers, names and settings that's causing it all to go arse over tit can be a monumental task of increasingly hair-tearing frustration with each compile attempt. Damn fun though when it works. There's so many quality and easy-to-follow tutorials, both video and text out there though and with Swarm being the ever tasty flavour of free, there's no excuse really not to at least give it a spin, if you like it try and make something fun!
  • CaptainSpatula - August 16, 2010 8:35 p.m.

    great article man. you went through the exact same learning arc of confusion, exaustion, and omnipotent god like powers that I went through when I discovered the Hammer Editor. it's good stuff, but confusing.
  • MasterV - August 16, 2010 8:28 p.m.

    Hehe, I still remember making a decent map for Battle or Middle Earth 2. It was a little daunting at first, with all the different boxes and paths and spawnpoints, but you get the hang of it. Eventually....
  • abbottfrizzell - August 16, 2010 8:01 p.m.

    I wish I had the time and patience to build a map, but I don't. I have ideas all the time but then i try to do them and either I can't because I have no skills or I do it and it's a pile of shit.
  • TheSugarRay - August 16, 2010 7:52 p.m.

    I wish I had the time make a map. Where can I find the downlaod your map (sense you don't want me to copy it), and will anyone feel like playing it for 24hr gameday?
  • db1331 - August 16, 2010 7:49 p.m.

    The L4D games were great fun. It's just a shame they were ruined by such a terrible community. There is no way I would buy another L4D game unless Valve acknowledges that rage quitters are indeed a big problem and they implement a punishment system for them like Bungie.

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