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 0MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM: 

Author: Warfreak
Version: 1.4
Date Started: 5/3/09

NOTE: This Guide will Contain Spoilers. YOU HAVE BEEN WARNED!

REMEMBER, IF YOU LIKE THIS GUIDE, RECOMMEND IT TO OTHER USERS USING THE LINK
ABOVE. 

IF YOU HAVE ANY STRATEGIES NOT LISTED, PLEASE SEND THEM IN. INPUT IS ALWAYS
WELCOME. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~Watch In Awe, Watch In Awe, Aeria Gloris, Aeria Gloris~~~~~~~~~~~*

Warfreak's Top Tip: Use Ctrl+F to quickly navigate this guide.

Table of Contents
 §1 Introduction
    [1.01] Introduction
    [1.02] Version History
    [1.03] Using Steam

 §2 Road to Independance
    [2.01] Episode One - The Jamestown Colony
    [2.02] Episode Two - The French and Indian War
    [2.03] Episode Three - American War of Independance

 §3 The Grand Campaign
    [3.01] Great Britain

 §A Appendix
    [A.01] Buildings
    [A.02] Infantry Units
    [A.03] Cavalry Units
    [A.04] Artillery Units
    [A.05] Naval Units
    [A.06] Traits
    [A.07] Followers
    [A.08] Technology
    [A.09] Infrastructure
    [A.10] Provinces

[A] Contact Information
[B] Credits
[C] Webmaster Information
[D] Copyright Notice

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Now, Let the Guide Begin (o.0)~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[1.01] Introduction

Welcome to my 47th guide, offically the third guide using my new template
which I hope you will find to your liking, well, it is far superior to the
last one. Anyway, this is the first time for both playing the Total War series
as well as writing for it, though I hope my experience in RTS will make up
for that shortfall. Shall we begin now?

One of the reasons I enjoy writing for Total War is that the English used is
British English, which means my spelling is correct in game. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[1.02] Version History

Version 0.1 [5/3/09]
Basic template complete. Some minor work done. It is rather quick pumping out
a guide, but it is needed to clear out the questions on the message boards.
Completed the first of the two episodes of the Road to Independance, which I
found rather simple, and I am amazed at the amount of work completed on this
update, seeing I have another guide in progress and work was done on that as
well today. 

Version 0.2 [6/3/09]
The Road to Independence is done, a lot of traits and followers are covered,
but more still needs to be done. 

Version 0.3 [7/3/09]
More on buildings, started British Grand Campaign, traits and follows added,
Infrastructure complete. 

Version 0.4 [8/3/09]
Massive Update on Buildings and started on Tech. 

Version 0.5 [9/3/09]
More on Buildings, Tech and Campaign. 

Version 0.6 [10/3/09]
Small update, done some units and buildings. 

Version 0.7 [11/3/09]
Small update, since I'm a bit sick and have limited free time on my hands.

Version 0.8 [12/3/09]
Large update to make up for yesterday, or technically, since this is written
at about 12:11am, its the day before yesterday. 

Version 0.9 [13/3/09]
Black Friday means big update. 

Version 1.0 [14/3/09]
Big update. I mean big. 

Version 1.1 [15/3/09]
Away from PC most of the day, so work is rather limited. 

Version 1.2 [16/3/09]
Eyes droopy, got 4 hours sleep, stupid tea kept me awake with caffeine. 

Version 1.3 [17/3/09]
All technology should be done, buildings mostly done. 

Version 1.4 [18/3/09]
Small update, Wednesday isn't the FAQing day. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[1.03] Using Steam

Empire: Total War is one of the first games that require you, when installing
from the DVD/Retail version to use Steam. First of all, you need to make
sure you have an internet connection, otherwise, you are doomed before you 
start. 

Install the game, but you need the Net first. Steam will prompt you to put in
the serial code, and if need be, create an account if you don't already have
one. It will install the game, and after about 20 minutes, it will be done. Go
grab a cookie or run to the shops to get some eyedrops, you'll need it for 
the ownage of Total War.

Now, if you want to play and you don't have the internet access all the time,
such as dial-up users, access Steam and use the My Games tab. Let the game be
updated via Steam, and wait until it gives the 100% Ready sign. Then, you can
launch the game.

Quit, making sure it works, and head to settings, making sure that the "Don't
Save Account Credentials" Button IS NOT ticked. Now, you can go offline, or
when you next use Steam and you are offline, Steam will access your offline
account and Empire: Total War, since it is 100% Ready, will be able to be 
played offline. 

This is a quick summary of this link

https://support.steampowered.com/kb_article.php?ref=3160-AGCB-2555

So if you are still lost, read there. This part is necessary just to make sure
no one has problems with Steam, and everyone can play it. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[2.01] Episode One - The Jamestown Colony

"In April 1607, three Virginia Company ships sailed into Chesapeake Bay 
 under the command of Captain Christopher Newport. They made landfall on the
 southernmost peninsula in the bay, naming it Cape Henry in honour of the
 Prince of Wales. Life for the early settlers was far from easy, even though
 they ruled themselves.

 Newport returned to England for supplies, leaving Captain John Smith, an 
 acquitted mutineer, in charge. With limited food supplies, the constant
 presence of disease, and the danger of attack by the native tribes, many 
 of the settlers perished within a few months of reaching the New World.

 If this new community is to fluorish they will need food, in the shape of
 farms and fisheries. A cash crop like tobacco will prove the financial 
 viability of the colony to those back home in England and much-needed income
 for the settlers. Complacency, however, is dangerous. The native tribes
 remain a threat."


Well, this is the first of the episodes for the Road to Independence, which
is essentially a tutorial for the game. There are three Chapters in this 
Episode, so basically, this mission is seperated into three, which isn't
all that hard, since it is more or less a tutorial.

				Chapter 1

"You must lead the early settlers to establish Jamestown as a safe a 
 prosperous settlement in this dangerous new world. From time to time, the
 British Government will issue various missions for you to perform. As you
 complete these missions, the wealth and security of Jamestown will improve
 and your influence throughout the whole of the new world will expand."

OBJECTIVE : Peasant Farms
"Your first task in the New World should be the protect of the Jamestown
 Settlement and the survival of its people. By building a farm in the 
 designated area to the west of Jamestown the colonists will be able to
 produce their own food and sustain themselves in the years ahead. 

 Supplies from England are irregular and not guaranteed. You must make
 Jamestown self sufficient in order for this fragile colony to survive."

Reward = Treasury +500

When you start this mission, you get this mission to start off and you need
to build a farm on the nearby Woodland Forest, and you just need to wait a 
single turn before you can have it ready and complete this objective. And 
when that is done, the port of Yorktown is founded, and this provides a n
area to fish.

OBJECTIVE : Fishery
"Taking advantage of the bounty of the oceans will help to sustain your
 growing population. Building a fishery on the eastern coast will improve
 the region's food supply and prepare your people for expansion into 
 northern territories."

Reward = Unlock Chapter 2

Now, you will see that there is a fishery, or rather, port which is named
Yorktown, so you will need to build the fishery there, and it does take two
turns to be fully complete. Just take your time. Meanwhile, you need to 
start recruiting some militia from your settlement via the appropriate
tabs. You need a good mix, and then merge them with your main group led
by John Smith. When the fishery is done, you get hit with the next two
objectives

				Chapter 2

"You have successfully built a farm and fishery in your Jamestown region. 
 The settlement should now grow and prosper, so it is time to deal with the
 threat from local native tribes. You must send an army to capture the
 village to the north east."

OBJECTIVE : Colonial Militia
"Your presense in this new world is not wholly welcome. Increase your military
 strength as a protecting against attacks by the native tribes. Recruit more
 men and increase your army in order to protect the people. 

 The locals will resist expansion in their territory and so "persuasion" by
 musket and shot will almost be required from time to time."

Reward = Treasury +500

OBJECTIVE : Werowocomoco
"To the North East lies the Native America stronghold of Werowocomoco. In 
 order to expand your holdings in Virginiathe threat from this native 
 settlement must be extinguished. Attacks on Jamestown and its surrounding
 farmsteads should cease. Conquer Werowocomoco in the name of the King!

 The settlement was home to the Powhatan princess Pocohontas, a woman 
 renowned for preventing the execution of Captain John Smith."

Reward = Unlock Chapter 3

Now, you need to recruit militia. You only need to recruit one Colonia 
Militia unit, but you only want one, the Jamestown Militia units are a tad
superior and better in terms of combat damage than the colonial Militia. 
Build up an army, merge them with Captain John Smith's army and get them to
get ready for an attack. Despite what the game says, there isn't really an
attack on your settlement, it will be docile, so don't worry about defending
against enemy attacks. 

The Settlement is protected by a bunch of natives. They are led by their
General, Wahunsonacock, and protected by a regiment of Bowmen and two 
regiments of Armed Tribesmen. Even with your initial force, you can easily
take over the settlement, Auto-Complete will save you the hassle of battle
but everyone likes battle don't they?

Conquer the city in any way you see fit and that will complete this chapter
and there is only one more chapter to go. 


				Chapter 3

"Your successful capture of this village has significantly reduced the 
 threat against Jamestown. To fully establish a British foothold in North
 America, you must now capture the remaining native village far to the
 North."

OBJECTIVE : Shackamaxon
"The last Native American town lies to the north, in the foothills of the
 mountain. It is secure and well defended. Fail to capture this place and
 all you have worked for could be lost. By fending off the threat posed
 by native tribes, expansion of the colonies becomes possible. With no danger
 of attack, immigrants from home will be more willing to come to the colonies
 to seek a new life."

Reward = Complete Episode One

Now, the enemy will start to send enemy armies to fight your main one. There
are two that will normally spawn, one is of a lone bowmen regiment, and that
will normally head towards Jamestown. The second, which is tougher, will 
consist of 2 Bowmen Regiments and 2 Armed Tribesmen Regiment, and that will
head to your new settlement of Werowocomoco. 

To prevent that from happening, have your main army intercept both of them,
and if you are lucky, both will be destroyed. However, as a fallback, have
both Jamestown and Werowocomoco defended by militia that you have recruited
in Jamestown, and that should easily fend off the weakened enemy. 

Once those two parties have been wiped off, you need to attack the settlement
of Shackamaxon. Don't take this lightly, you really need reinforcements in 
this battle. They have 2 Regiments of Bowmen but 10 Regiments of Armed 
Tribesmen. Sure, you might have guns, but mass infantry tactics tend to win
the day, so you should at least have 10 Regiments with you. I attacked with
12 Regiments, just to be sure.

When that battle is over, you have completed the first episode. There are
still more to come however. 

"Thanks to your efforts, the Jamestown settlement has prospered! No longer
 reliant on food from England, the settlers can start amassing wealth and
 expanding Britain's colonies in America.

 The Jamestown settlement has made a good start, but complacency is now a 
 dangerous thing. As world of the successful colonisation of the New World
 spreads, more people arrive from the Old World. Other European nations
 have taken note of your success. They too are looking to the New World 
 with a view to possible expansion of their own interests. Although vast,
 these American lands are not endless. Confrontation is inevitable."

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[2.02] Episode Two - The French and Indian War

"The French and Indian War begin as the result of British and French rivalries
 in North America, and were part of a larger, globe-spanning conflict between
 the two nations. In 1754 both countries wanted control of the Ohio Valley,
 an uncharted, but potentially valuable area. Each built a chain of forts
 into the valley to stake their claims, and conflict was inevitable, as 
 struggles between native tribes were used to foment further trouble.

 The war was a tough experience for the British. Both sides quickly realised
 that alliances with local tribes would be an asset. The French were better
 at using the North American terrain to their advantage, and early battles
 saw heavy British losses. However, it was during this conflict that a young
 officer called George Washington began his military career.

 To secure America, the British must remove the French threat. Take control 
 of the Ohio Valley. Fort Niagara must be in British hands if an attack on
 the Southern fort of Louisberg is to succeed, and allow a campaign northwards
 to Quebec and Montreal."

				Chapter 1

"The French have established a series of forts in the Ohio Valley. The forts
 are well defended and will be difficult to take through military force alone.
 Perhaps the Iroquois tribes to the North will provide you with much-needed
 assistance?"

OBJECTIVE : Iroquois Confederacy

"You have been tasked to form an alliance with the local Iroquois tribe. The
 skill and knowledge of their warriors will be of great benefit to you in
 the war against the French. Instigate negotiations by clicking on the 
 Diplomacy button."

Reward = Treasury +500

OBJECTIVE : Fort Niagara
"The British Government has ordered you to capture the settlement of Fort
 Niagara. The fight across the rest of North America cannot continue until
 you have achieved this mission. The only direct route to Fort Niagara is 
 guarded by the heavily fortified Fort Duquesne - although an alternative
 route may exist through the forests in Iroquois territory. Engaging in
 diplomacy with the Iroquois and gaining military access through their lands
 may provide an easier route."

Reward = Unlock Chapter 2

OBJECTIVE : Fort Dequesne

"Fort Dequesne dominates passage through the Ohio Valley. Capture it to help
 establish our dominance in the region."

Reward = Treasury +500

Well, you want to start off this chapter by making friends with the Iroquois.
You need to make them your allies, which is rather useful, and then ask for
military access, as well as a trade agreement. The first one is useful if 
you want to perform a sneak attack on Fort Niagara, the latter is useful
since you get more money from it.

Now, you start off with two armies, one led by William Jackson, and the other
led by George Washington. Washington's force is rather lacking, so you might
want to get some recruits to back up that smaller force. Fort Niagara is 
lightly defended, and if you have military access, you can sneak through
the hills in Iroquois territory and attack. That still leaves Fort Dequesne
standing.

That fort is extremely well defended, however, you can take that form alone
using the auto-battle function with Jackson's starting force, which will 
take a fair amount of casualties. Lay siege to the force, and wait for the
counter attack, since you have the advantage of defending and they have the
job of repelling you. You still will take a fair amount of casualties, about
a 50% loss, so that is rather annoying to rebuild your forces. 

Fort Niagara itself is relatively weak. It is armed with a Calvary and 
Artillery Regiment, 2 Marine Regiments, 1 Native Musketeers Regiment and 2
Firelock Regiments. This is rather a weak force when they are facing a proper
army. 


				Chapter 2

"You have captured Fort Niagara! The Ohio Valley is firmly under British
 Control. However, the war against the French is still being fought across
 the entire Thirteen Colonies, and it is not going well for the British. Far 
 to the North and East, a large French fleet guards the crucial port of
 Louisberg. You must build a fleet to match the French and send an army 
 to capture Louisberg."

OBJECTIVE : Louisberg
"You must capture the crucial French port of Louisberg. The land route is
 long and arduous, so you should build a fleet of ships to transport an army
 to the outskirts of the city. You will not be able to launch an assault on
 the main French strongholds of Quebec and Montreal until this mission has
 been completed."

Reward = Unlock Chapter 3

OBJECTIVE : Dockyard
"If you are to successfull transport an army along the coast to capture the
 port of Louisberg, you will need to build a navy capable of standing up to
 the powerful French frigates. The British Governement has therefore tasked
 you with the construction of a dockyard at the port East of Williamsburg. 
 You will need to dismantle any pre-existing buildings in that port in order
 to construct the Shipyard."

Reward = Treasury +500

Now that you have captured the Fort Niagara settlement, you need to build up
a larger empire, because more money is necessary to build a large fighting
force. Now, you need both your land armies at full strength. The largest of
your armies should take on Fort Oswego, which is right next to Fort 
Niagara. This will take out the first of the French armies that stand in your
way. Repair and make sure that force is at full strength.

Reinforce both armies, and taken on Fort Carillon. It is extremely heavily
fortified, and you need both armies to siege it at the same time to make the
enemy outnumbered. One army might just cut it, but it will be hard due to 
them outnumbering you, and you will take extremely heavy losses. This is the
last of the major French territories near you that you can take. This will
provide you with a large amount of funds.

With all the money flowing in, upgrade all your Fur Trading Posts to ensure
that you get more mohney to play around with. Build the Shipyard, and then 
upgrade it into a Dockyard, and you get the next objective.

OBJECTIVE : Fifth Rate
"The British Government has tasked you with building a navy capable of 
 transporting an army through heavily defended French waters."

Reward = Treasury +500

Now, you need to concentrate on an army, unless you want to take the ground
approach. Given that you have had some good successes on the ground, you might
just want to take on that approach. For the naval approach, you need at least
3 Fifth Rates, with an Admiral, before taking the enemy on.

The French have a good mix of Sloops and Brigs, and they are no match for
your Fifth Rates. A group of 5 Sloops and Brigs vs 3 Fifth Rates ended with 4
sunk, no friendly casualties. Now, you need to land the troops.

If you took the land approach, you need to take down Fort Beausejour, and it
is moderately fortified, but with enough force, you can take it down without
suffering too much in the way of casualties. Now, the big problem is the town
of Louisberg. It is heavily fortified, and it is packed with troops, so two
armies need to be used to bring them down. You need all your heavy firepower
to capture it, or some extremely good flanking strategies. 


				Chapter 3

OBJECTIVE : Quebec
"You must capture the French stronghold of Quebec. You cannot win the war
 against the French if this city is not under your control."

Reward = Complete Episode Two

OBJECTIVE : Montreal
"You must capture the French stronghold of Montreal. You cannot win the war
 against the French if this city is not under your control."

Now, you must move your forces back towards the settlement of Fort Carillon,
which I told you to capture earlier, and this is where you can cross the 
river, and you are immediately greeted by Fort Chambly, which is not too 
heavily guarded, but use both armies to combine and sustain minimum losses. 

Capture that fort quickly, and move both armies towards Quebec, which happens
to be less fortified than Montreal is. This is needed to be done quickly 
before the French take over the fort again or have time to build up more
forces that you need to take down. If you attacked Fort Chambly with two 
armies, fortified/reinforced at Fort Carillon, then losses will be rather
trivial, and you need to press your advantage. 

After taking Quebec, you need to rebuild your forces if they are badly hurt,
and you need to maybe reinforce them. After taking Quebec, you have more money
to play with, and therefore, you can get things done with more firepower than
before. Fort Carillon is a good place to pick up some reinforcements, so send
them over, and get ready to take on Montreal. 

Quickly, move forwards with both armies and use them to siege Montreal and 
finally, finish this chapter once and for all. 

"The French are defeated! You can claim a decisive victory for Britain over
 her long-standing enemy. The British now control North America, giving them
 the valuable resources of the Ohio Valley.

 But this time of peace may be short lived. Britain's policies in America are
 seen as overbearing and repressive by the colonists. Excessive taxes and 
 restrictions on expansion have left the American people longing for freedom,
 not British rule. If this situation continues, the Thirteen Colonies will be
 forced into open warfare to win the right to self government."

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[2.03] Episode Three - American War of Independance

"In 1775, a storm is brewing in America. Following the end of the French and
 Indian Wars, many people in the Thirteen Colonies were increasingly 
 incensed by the British. Laws and new taxes are being imposed from London,
 and "seditious talk" of revolution is no longer a whisper!

 Discontent is widespread, but it is not until a morning in April, 1775, that
 talk becomes warfare. In Lexington, a group of British soldiers open fire
 on local militiamen. This skirmish, the Battle of Lexington and Concord, 
 saw the first shots fired in a conflict that would split families, divide 
 friends, and tear apart an empire.

 As so the fight for America's freedom had truly begun. Until the British 
 are removed from the Thirteen Colonies, Americans shall never truly be 
 free. If the British Army is to be driven out, the Americans will need help.
 Allying yourself with the enemies of the British could provide the 
 experienced troops required to remove them from America once and for all."

			Battle of Bunker Hill

We start off in the Battle of Bunker Hill. This is where you need to hold
the hill against the British invaders, and you are terribly outnumbered in
terms of troops, but you have the upper ground, so this is a good advantage
to counteract the enemy. 

Now, you start off with a good deal of Militiamen, 2 Regiments of Cavalry and
3 Regiments of Artillery. Now, you need to quickly deploy your artillery, 
including the ones at the back, and get them ready to fire at the front on
British assault.

Use your Cavalry, at double speed, to move quickly towards the two sets of
British artillery, one on the hill to your left, and the second to your 
North near the house. Move behind the enemy lines and sneak up on the 
Artillery to get rid of them. This is important because they will be firing
on your own artillery as well as frontline militia.

Now, your militia all need to face an opponent. For every regiment that the
British have on the flanks, you need to have two regiments facing them in
order to quickly defeat them and outflank them. For the frontal assault 
that the British are preparing, use your artillery to fire on them, this
will cause them a fair amount of casualties, and that will be easier for 
your militia.

Now, you have several groups of militia. On your left, there are two 
regiments and you are facing one regiment. The frontline militia should 
all be ready to fire on advancing British troops, and on your right flank,
there are some buildings, garrison them to ensure that your militia don't
sustain too much damage. Your left and right flanks should hold through 
the course of the battle, the Garrisoned building regiment will easily be
able take down several regiments at the expense of a few men.

When your Cavalry has dispatched the Artillery, move and attack the enemy
British troops from the back, and this will cause them a lot of damage.
They will be too focused on the frontline militia, and you can easily 
cause many weakened regiments to be routed before the Cavalry regiment is
routed. 

The British will soon launch an attack from the back on your Artillery, so
move any idle Minutemen columns and your General's Bodyguard to counter the
lone Cavalry regiment. After this, you are faced with a bunch of ragtag
British frontline infantry, so wipe them out. With this, you should easily
win, even though you are outnumbered. 


			The American Revolution

Now, we get to the real battle, to wipe out the British. After your win at
Bunker Hill, you get more experienced units from the battle, so you have
that to your advantage. If you lost, you won't get any extra units. 

Victory Condition: Capture and Hold 15 Regions by the end of Year 1825

This is hard, you are outnumbered on land and on sea, so you will need to
fight a lot of battles early on to save more troops. Now, for your 
empire, you need to do a lot of building, build Farms and Docks in Boston
so you get more income flowing in, and therefore, sustain more troops. 
Also, start developing some technology, and this will make it easier to
sustain a large empire. 

Now, using your existing army, you need to move ahead and capture Maine.
This is the closest Region Capital to you and you have the advantage in
terms of troops. You will need to fight the army led by William Howe so
take them down. Capture Maine, and move one army back to Boston and keep
one in Maine, and reinforce both armies. 

Now, split into single armies, sending one towards New York, and defend a
raid by the British about turn 5. The second army should be kept in Maine
until you are ready to take on Fort Nashwaak. Capture both of them quickly,
sending more reinforcements if you fear that you don't have enough firepower
to take both settlements. 

With Maine and New York under your control, this is where you need to solidify
your power. You should still have plenty of time, and now you have plenty of
money. If you want, although this is entirely optional, you can use the army
in Maine to move east and take Acadia, and they is a wise move, there is a 
Silver Mine there, providing massive income. Movement into Canada, Quebec in
New France and Montreal in Upper Canada are further sources of income, which
allows you to maintain a larger, and more armies to fight the British. Capture
both of them if you want, and reap the rewards. 

The next reason to capture both Quebec and Montreal is that the enemy will
continue to send forces at Maine and try to capture your settlements, so you
might as well capture them just to make sure that the enemy threat to your
settlements are at an end. 

Another optional movement for money is to move the army from New York into 
Iroquois Territory and capture Cayuga, giving more money for you and providing
more funds. All the above territories don't help your objective, but it does
give more money, and makes it easier to crush the British. Conquer where the
Revolutionaries couldn't, take over Canada. 

Meanwhile, you need to start building a navy. This is because the British
will use their fleets to take out your trade routes, which is a problem 
because they are your main source of money. So you really want to make sure
the British fleet remains docked. A small fleet of about 5 Sixth Rates should
easily contain their fleet. 


			The Push South

By now, you have captured a fair amount of regions, and the majority of 
enemy forces are to your south. Keep raising armies, building another army
raising it to three strong armies, and at least 1 fleet, with developed
regions making sure upkeep isn't a problem. 

Philadelphia is a problem because it is heavily fortified, but if you have
the army of about the same size, it shouldn't be too big of a problem because
what the enemy will do when you siege the place is that the enemy will move
and counterattack, in order to repel you, and that is where you have the 
advantage. All you need to do is to crush their counter-attack and then move
on the offensive and retake the city. Meanwhile, the Iroquois will move and
join the British, so you get some more land off them, but even though they
might have the numbers, they don't have many firearms. But still, match them
for numbers and you are bound to win against them. 

With the fall of Philadelphia, you need to push south to continue the 
fall of the British. The Iroquois isn't much of a problem, just defeat 
their raiding parties, or if you want, you can capture both Niagara and 
Detroit, but that involves a large army and you don't have too much time to
move and capture them. 

Now, move south and capture Maryland and Virginia, and that will start to make
the British a bit more concerned. Now, this is where a strong fleet comes in,
you need about 6 Sixth Rates and that should easily take care of any enemy
ships that come along once you capture the region, and force the enemy's
ship out to sea. 

From there, you only have three more regions to capture, Carolinas, Georgia
and Florida. They aren't heavily fortified, so you can move your ships down
and transport an army to capture the settlements. The Cherokee Nations will
soon declare war on you as well, so make sure that other armies are ready
to counter-attack the enemy assault. 

Now, the last state, Florida. You probably need two armies here because the
enemy has fortified Florida up pretty well, to the max, so you need a lot
more firepower to break the siege. 

With that out of the way, you need to capture some more regions, you need a 
total of 15 regions to offically win this, and become the United States. Those
Natives who decided to declare war on you seems to be a good target. 

"Free Americans have thrown off their chains, and driven out the tyrannical
 British oppressors! At last, America is the Land of the Free, as well as the
 Home of the Brave. The remaining British troops leave American shores by the
 shiploads and American independence has been fully, if reluctantly, accepted
 in London.

 Without your efforts, none of this would have been possible. American would
 remain in the hands of the British. Your careful timing and well-timed
 aggression have brought Americans to a new dawn. The dark night of British
 rule is at an end. The bright dawn of a united America lies ahead."

After this, there is a campaign for America, it technically isn't the Grand
Campaign for America per se, but it is the only campaign where you can play
as the United States in freeplay. This will be covered in the Grand Campaign
section. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[3.01] Great Britain

"Great Britain is not a natural creation, but the marriage of seperate 
 kingdoms and people. This new nation has been through a century of
 unparalleled turbulence: an unwelcome joining of Scotland and England; 
 religious strife; civil wars; an executed king; military dictatorship; a
 populist monarch restored; and the overthrow of a second king. Less than 15
 years ago, the hated Catholic James II was forced into exile in the Glorious
 Revolution and a Protestant monarchy restored. A short, vicious war in 
 Ireland put paid to any chance of a Catholic Stuart restoration. Nonetheless,
 the exiled James Stuart has sympathisers, the Jacobites, throughout Britain.
 Despite - or perhaps because of - this turbulent history, Britain is an 
 engine driving the scientific and cultural advancement of northern Europe;
 turmoil foils creativity.

 As an island nation, Britons have always look to, as Shakesphere puts it:

 "... the Silver sea,
  Which serves it in the office of a wall
  Or as a moat defensive to a house ..."

 Britain's strengh lies at sea, but in trade and colonisation as much as naval
 power. Trade taxes pay for the navy; the navy allows unhindered trade. The 
 English Channel keeps the French at bay and, to a lesser extent, the Dutch.
 With Dutchman William III on the British throne, there is ambivalence in the
 traditional rivalry with the Netherlands!

 The English and the Scots like to think they can sleep safe, that no foreign
 invader or tyranny need worry them. They are partly right, as only as long as
 there is no centralised Continential power. A nation that can unit the 
 resources of Europe will surely crush the dream of Albion. This, then, is the
 fundamental aim of Britain: to side with the weak in Europe against the 
 strong - and steal as many overseas possessions as possible while doing it!"

			Victory Conditions

--==Short Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 25 regions by the end of the year 1750, including the 
 regions shown. New France, Georgia, Leeward Islands, Ireland, Gibraltar, 
 Florida, Hindustan, Scotland, England."

--==Long Campaign==--

"Capture and hold 35 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the
 regions shown. Egypt, Malta, Florida, England, Bijapur, Bengal, Georgia, 
 Scotland, Hindustan, Ireland, Gibraltar, New France, Leeward Islands."

--==Prestige Victory==--

"Capture and hold 25 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the
 regions shown. New France, Georgia, Leeward Islands, Ireland, Gibraltar,
 Florida, Hindustan, Scotland, England.

 Be the nation attaining the highest prestige rating at the end of the year
 1799."

--==World Domination==--

"Capture and hold 50 regions by the end of the year 1799, including the
 regions shown. England."


The Grand Campaign is where you basically lead a nation to glory by 
completing the victory conditions that you are shown. I will be giving the 
outline for all campaigns using the Long Campaign victory condition. This is
to ensure the best consistancy in the game. 


				The Campaign

We start off the campaign with a total of 7500 and control of 6 provinces, 
some in America and the rest in Europe. This is on normal difficulty, this is
your average difficulty. 

First turn, you want to first of all, build upgrades, especially in the 
Americas where you can start new industries there, and that will give a nice
boost to income. Also, start building alliances with those nations that are
friendly to you, and trade agreements to anyone you can. Also, in Europe, 
grab one of your fleets and one army, and move them towards the Ivory Coast,
which is at the bottom of the Europe Map, and this will send take some time,
but necessary. 

When you end turn, make sure that CPU moves are off, because that will drag 
your CPU down into the gutter. Also, it will show other nations giving their 
offers to you, and that means some nations will give trade agreements, which 
is nice. Next turn, you get the first objective

OBJECTIVE: Georgia, Cherokee Territory, New France

"The leaders of the Thirteen Colonies suggest that you ensure the future
 domination of Britain in the Americas by consolidating your control over
 the surrounding area. If you succeed in capturing the regions of Georgia,
 Cherokee Territory, and New France, the Thirteen Colonies will be yours to
 command. Be sure to maintain friendly relations with them until this union
 is secured."

Reward = The Thirteen Colonies will join your nation

Georgia and Cherokee Territory are both under the control of the Cherokee
whilst New France is, understandably, under the control of France. You need
to be able to move armies into Georgia and Cherokee Territory, so your 
army in Bahamas and the fleet stationed there will need to be used to 
take the provinces of Georgia and Cherokee Territory. You will need to 
declare war and you might want to call some allies to join you, especially
the Thirteen Colonies. The French however, you will need to wait for a while,
considering your force in Rupert's Land is quite weak, and you need a strong
force to take New France, so bide your time. When it is right, then you need
to strike, and you get the Thirteen Colonies. 

After a few turns, you will have your fleet on the edge of Europe, so send the
fleet to India. You might want to load them up with an large army, one large
army indeed, because you want to take on Mysore, because that is the smallest
empire in India and that will get you a good foothold in India. Or you can
take on Goa, which is owned by Portugal, but that means a European war, which
you probably could win give that you have a decent navy.

On the topic of European wars, I suggest that you keep out of them, breaking
alliances if need be, until you have a larger army. Whilst you have a far
superior navy, you need land units and until you have a few full strength
armies, don't consider a land war. However, the Hurons will declare war on
you sooner or later, so make sure that Rupurt's Hand is well built up because
you need to defend and counter-attack. Take Huron Territory, and keep it from
the French who want to take it from you. You need it to assault France. 

Another point of interest right now is the base in Antigua, held by the
pirates. They are only pirate mobs, but there are over 1000 of them, you will
need to have some sort of numbers to take them over. However, you can easily
raid the port to stop any further pirate threat to your shipping. When you
have the numbers, take over the province. 


			Capturing the Territories

You really need to start building up your ground forces, and if that means
you need to declare war in order to keep the money rolling in, do so. I had
Sweden declaring war on the Thirteen Colonies, both were allies, so lets 
invade Sweden. You need to attack countries not allied to anyone else and
where you have available forces. You will need to declare war on the Mughal
Empire, mainly because you will probably need their provinces. The Maratha
will need to go as well, mainly because you need some of their provinces. 
You will be doing a lot of battling, so Auto Resolve is a nice option. 

By 1720, William III will pass on, and you will be led by Victoria I, armed
with some new traits, so check them out. You still need to conquer the new
territories, so keep an eye out for wars, and take on nations that have no
allies, making it easier to conquer. 

When you conquer, use your navy to your advantage. You can easily blockade
all their trade routes by sea, which get you some extra income, and cut off
their empire, so it makes it easier for a ground invasion. Have three main
armies, one in America, Europe and India, and some smaller armies.


			American Rebellion

By the 1770's, the Americas get more important. If you don't do a good job
there, they will rebel against you, starting the American Revolution, so 
seriously, don't piss them off, just be nice, and lower taxes. Even though
you might win, your Economy will suffer like a waiter when flies are found
in the soup.

If you do want to fight when them, just don't make the same mistakes that
the British did in reality, press the rebels at every chance, blockade their
land and finally, make sure that you limit their numbers by quickly capturing
their cities.


			What You Need To Do

Remember, when you play as Britain, you need to remember that you are a 
massive island. It will be hard for the enemy to invade if you control the
high seas, and an army at home won't hurt. Technology research is extremely
vital to your country, so make sure you always upgrade your tech for better
and strong troops and a stronger economy. 

If you want a hint as Great Britain, naval blockades are a good source of 
money and since you have a large navy, be mindful of that. Also, remember
that your navy needs to be equal in all three theatres, because pirates will
certainly be a big pain. I had to move a European fleet to America because
I neglected to keep an eye on that area. Needless to say, Pirates are quite
strong, they will use Galleons, which are equal to a Fourth Rate Ship of the
Nine.

Technology wise, you will need to concentrate on all aspects. You need to 
play a lot of catchup, so naval techs are going to be important to start, and
other military techs are needed if you are going to be a superpower. 
Economics will be needed as well as Philosophy to advance your buildings to
have a big trading empire.

Therefore, if you want to be as badass as Great Britain was in reality, you
really need to have a lot of tech research. I mean a lot, so you need to
have multiple colleges. Put them in safe zones, such as your mainland because
they will decrease happiness when you develop them into universities. 


			Reader's Suggestions

This is the section of my guide that is devoted to reader's strategies about
how to play and win as Great Britain. If you have any ideas, send them in. 

Submitted by bailiff05

"Hi, I read the latest update on your Empire Total War Guide regarding the 
 Grand Campaign for Great Britain. I am currently in the middle of a World 
 Domination Campaign with Great Britain on normal difficulty and have an 
 alternate method for starting, albeit a very risky one and probably only 
 best for more experienced players.

 For the first few goes I built up a full land army and then the first thing 
 I did was invade France, who only have 2 small armies near the start and 
 only 2 territories. I don’t know whether you figured this out yet, but when 
 you capture France’s territories in Europe, their territories in the Americas
 fall out of their control and the faction is destroyed. Some of these 
 territories then fall under the control of rebels and others under the 
 control of a new faction that arises. The same happened when I destroyed 
 the Spanish in Europe. This obviously makes it much easier to conquer these 
 territories and therefore makes it easy to capture New France as part of the 
 Thirteen Colonies objective. Also when the new faction arises they have no 
 allies or enemies so there aren’t really any ramifications.

 I’ve also gotten to a point where things are getting a little heated in 
 Europe and even my allies are beginning to dislike me because of my 
 expansionism. Whether this is just because I am too powerful or because I 
 have expanded to fast though, I don’t know. However, because I conquered 
 the Americas with relative ease I now have an absolutely ridiculous economy 
 that can support a vast army in Europe."

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[A.01] Buildings

These are all the buildings that will appear in the game, as well as their
description as well as their effect in the game. All will be listed, as well
as what they do. Note that some buildings will have units that cannot be
trained. Some buildings will only allow buildings to be trained in certain
episodes of the Road to Independance Campaign, others in the Grand Campaign
itself. All shall be in alphabetical order.

If a building is capable of producing units, I will not name them because
they are different from faction to faction on what they are able to produce
because as you can easily tell, not all factions have the exact same units.
Also, if the building in question requires another building, it basically
means that the building you wish to build requires the required building to
be on the plot before building. 


--==Admirality==--

"A navy requires an administration to keep ships manned, supplied at sea, to
 keep dockyards well stocked and ready, and bring order to the large 
 organisation.

 Even more than an army, a fleet is a highly technical and very expensive
 organisation. The land-bound officers of an admiralty oversee every aspect
 of organisation, making sure that sea-going captains want for nothing when
 they finally engage the enemy. A dockyard is useless unless someone has
 organisd the supply of timber; the timber remains stacked on the wharf
 until someone approves the naval architect's plans; a completed ship is 
 useless without officers and men; and the crew expects to eat, be paid
 and receive prize money. All of these tasks require clerks, secretaries
 and experienced admirals to keep the inevitable paperwork in order and thus
 the machinery of a navy working.

 Historically, the head of admiralty could expect to have a senior position
 in government and untrammelled access to the monarch or president. He was
 often spending a significant proportional of the national wealth: navies
 and their dockyards were some of the biggest "industrial" enterprises in
 the world during the 18th Century. A powerful and effective navy guaranteed
 that trade could continue, unimpeded by nefarious foreigners!"

 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Enables Research of Sextant, Naval Shore Facilities, Flintlock Cannon,
   Seasoning


--==Army Council==--

"This is the centre of the army's bureaucracy, where clerks and secretaries
 of state labour to make the fighting soldiers' as awkward as possible!

 It is a truism that soldiers that little time for the bureaucrats who
 send them their orders. Some organisation above the level of regiment is,
 however, a necessary evil: supplies must be purchased and distributed,  
 transport organised, officers' promotion lists kept in order, and generals
 given their orders. All this means paperwork, paperwork, and more paperwork!
 Money, and the power to spend it, are vitally important and all government
 secretariats are keen to hold on to both.

 Historically, the government departments that ran armies in the 18th 
 Century were far from being defence ministries or anything approaching a
 general staff. A central war planning function was almost unheard of, and
 often generals were quite unwilling to deal with the authorities at home,
 preferring to control everything themselves. In Europe the army organisations
 dealt with pay and rations: often spending time making sure that colonels
 really did raise regiments they were being paid for! The Ottomans were
 much more organised, and their armies were on a professional footing and
 raised on a national basis, even if some of the units raised were rather
 old fashioned."

 * Requires Military Academy
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 3
 * Enables Research of Light Infantry Doctrine, Shortened Carbines, 
   Platoon Firing
 * Recruits most land based units


--==Army Encampment==--

"Moving an army into an encampment well away from civilians is a useful
 thing to do. Soldiers no longer have easy access to the "demon drink" for
 start!

 Seperating troops from civilians also allows better training and 
 indoctrination. Regiments have the space to practice drills and instil
 discipline in their men. Civilians also have funny ideas, and it is often
 best if common soldiers do not learn of their freethinking and sometime
 disloyal ways.

 An encampment, however, does not always look very military. Apart from the
 fact that soldiers could carry on their civilian trades to supplement their
 army wages, an army encampment would also be thronged with women and 
 children. Soldier's wives were expected to look after their men; wash, cook,
 clean, sew uniforms, act as nurses, and even help bury the dead! A cunning
 officer who once managed "the baggage" well could effectively double the 
 number of hands there were for fetching and carrying. Among the children, 
 young boys could find employment for drummers and musicians from as young
 as ten years of age. Historically, it was not unknown for officers to enrol
 their own children (even babies!) as musicians, so that they gained seniority
 from the date they joined the army!"

 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 1
 * Enables research of Plug Bayonets and Carbines
 * Recruits: Basic Infantry and Cavalry


--==Army Staff College==--

"This institution educates soldiers in more advanced aspects of warfare,
 not just in the theory of tactics.

 Tactics may win battles, but wars were won thanks to information, strategy
 and, above all, supply. An army that is unfed and lost is no use to anyone.
 An army staff college produces officers with the skills needed to deal with
 the many details involved in keeping an army in the field. Apart from an
 understanding of strategy, officers were taught military illustrations (the
 vital skill of producing accurate sketch maps and diagrams), some surveying,
 military law, how to behave like a young gentleman (regrettably necessary in
 some cases), horsemanship, weapons handling and given character-building 
 instruction. The end product is a manwho can be an aide to a general in all
 situations.

 Historically, the British, for example, had an inherent distrust of armies
 as tools of tyranny, and this may have contributed to the low priority 
 given to raising professional standards. Pupils had to fund their studies
 from their own pockets at the Royal Military College! This had an
 additional advantage, of course, in ensuring that only candidates from the
 "right" social class could afford to attend. Other nations were not so
 suspicious of giving soldiers necessary military skills."

 * Requires Army Council
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training): 4
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Enables Research of Machined Rifling, Percussion Caps, Screw Breeches
 * Recruits all land based units


--==Artillery Fort==--

"An artillery fort is a permanent defensive structure, mounting as many heavy
 guns as the builders can afford to emplace.

 An artillery fort has strong walls and parapets with embrasures: gaps for 
 cannons to fire through at attackers. Properly served and loaded with grape
 or canister shot, guns turn the approaches to the fort into death traps for
 any attacking infantry.

 The fort has to be strongly constructed to withstand repeated pounding by
 attacking cannons, and by the recoil of its own pieces. Repeated firing by
 even small cannons, such as nine-pounders, causes tremendous strain on the
 structure. The other risk to the fort is, of course, fire. While the fabric
 of the building itself will not burn, the magazine holding the powder and 
 shot for the fort can catch fire and explode.

 Historically, it is not unknown for defenders to blow their own forts up,
 by accident or design. The powder magazine was a dangerous place, and 
 required rigid abherence to correct procedures by everyone if disaster
 was to be avoided. On one occasion at Fort York, during the War of 1812,
 the defending British set off the magazine as they withdrew to deny the
 contents to the American attackers, killing hundreds of the assault force
 in the explosion."

 * Requires Wooden Fort


--==Barracks==--

"A national army requires central organisation, if only for pay and rations.
 Regiments may be at the perserve at their commanding officers, but the 
 functionaries control the purse strings!

 An army guarantees paperwork of all king, and a secretariat grows to keep it 
 all in order. There is an obvious needs to make sure units receive orders
 and supplies in a timely manner - and without unscrupulous suppliers stealing
 too much money. Headquarters staff must also organise transport in co-
 operation with the navy, keep a list of officers and their commissions, 
 organise parades to impress the great and the good, and offer assistance to
 the civil power in times of need.

 Historically, European armies were organised in an ad hoc fashion in the 18th
 century. Usually, the biggest permanent battle formations were regiments, 
 armies were assembled as-and-when a crisis loomed under the command of 
 favoured general. Even so, the concept of the central command telling
 colonels what to do with their regiments often met stiff opposition. The
 Ottoman and Mughal empires were better organised in theory, and did have 
 larger and permanent battle formations such as corps and divisions."

 * Requires Army Encampment
 * Recuirment Capacity (Units in Training) : 1
 * Enables research of Ring Bayonet, Square Formation, Military Syllabus
 * Recruits: Stronger Infantry and Cavalry


--==Bawdyhouse==--

"A bawdyhouse, whorehouse, bagnio, bordello, brothel, or "School of Venus" is
 a business given over to the selling of sexual services.

 Although considered illegal and immoral in many cultures, prostitution takes
 place on which can only be described as an industrial scale in many cities. 
 It is estimated that in London as many as one in six of the population had 
 some link to the underworld of bawdyhouses. In other parts of the world there
 was less stigma attached to being a prostitute, but the life was always a 
 hard one, open to exploitation and with the constant danger of violence from
 both clients and bawdyhouse owners. Bawdyhouses range from very high-class
 establishments where customers are by invitation only to backrooms in filthy
 taverns - and everything in between.

 Life was hard in 18th Century Europe for women; other than service, there 
 were few honest jobs open to them and prostitution was always an easy option,
 especially for the young and good looking. It became the lot of many by
 default. Probably the most famous representation of the corruption of a 
 woman was Hogarth's "A Harlot's Progress", a series of six illustrations 
 showing a young girl arriving in London, being inveigled into whoredom, and
 then gradually debauched, broken, and finally dead (of the pox). It was the
 fate of all too many."

 * Requires Coaching Inn
 * +3 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +3 Happiness (Middle Classes)
 * Spawn Rakes. Maximum number +1


--==Cannon Foundry==--

"Cannon foundries not only make guns, but also ammunition and the associated
 equipment for artillerymen. They are hot, dangerous places to work.

 The casting of early cannons is more of an art than a science, and few of 
 the weapons produced are standarised weapons. This is the result of casting
 limitations, the quality of the iron and bronze available, and the 
 manufacturing process (cannon casting as an adaptation of bell making). Most
 6-pounders would be around the right calibre, but no two were truly 
 identical. It was enough that the cannon did not burst and kill its crew, 
 and hurled a shot in the general direction of the enemy.

 Cannon foundries are also responsible for making the ball shot used by the
 weapons, but not the powder. No one but a raving lunatic would make gunpowder
 anywhere near a foundry, with the risk of stray sparks and consequent
 catatrophe! That said, making guns, like any casting work, is a dangerous
 business: if the sand moulds are even slightly damp then a steam explosion
 could occur. Anyone nearby is likely to be killed or maimed by hot metal
 and pieces of the mould.

 In 1716, an explosion at the English foundry in Moorfields killed and injured
 many people when metal was poured into a damp mould. Among those hurt were 
 Colonel Armstrong, the Surveyor-General of Ordnance. The foundry itself
 was totally destroyed."

 * Enables research of Canister Shot, Improved Grenades
 * Recruits: Basic Artillery


--==Chapter School==--

"The virtue and value of hard, honest toil are lessons worth teaching, along
 with a clear understand of God's universe and Man's place within it.

 The Protestant faith has always encouraged learning and the associated hard
 work of study among its faithful. Indeed, intellectual effort and its rewards
 are seen as being as worthy as physical labour, something that reflects the
 Protestant work ethic. It has also encouraged a degree of curiosity and free
 thinking about Creation, although within sensible limits. Curiosity is one
 thing, non-conformism and radicalism something else entirely, and hardly
 welcome in society at large!

 Historically, the Protestant work ethic maintained that hard work and
 subsequent worldly success were indicatations of personal salvation. This,
 supposedly, encouraged the faithful to all work the harder. It is, however,
 a simplistic analysis to see that this lead directly to the intellectual,
 industrial and financial successes of Protestant nations in the 18th Century.
 The end of the Catholic strictures against usury (money lending) almost 
 certainly helped fuel mercantile and industrial progress."

 * Requires Church School, Protestant Nation
 * +2 Happiness for the Protestant Population (Lower Classes)
 * Converts the populace to Protestantism
 * Spawns religious agents. Maximum number: +1


--==Church School==--

"The Church has always needed educated men to fill its ranks. It is also 
 important to teach the True Faith to the children of the wealthy.

 In a time where basic education is not a right but a bought-and-paid-for
 priviledge, the education provided by Church Schools was often good, as well
 as being the only option. There is, of course, a Scriptural emphasis in what
 is taught, but the sons of merchants, nobles, and the wealthy can gain a 
 good grounding for life and, possibly, further education. A few gifted pupils
 may be offered charitable scholarships, but these are few and recipients are
 never permitted to forget that they should be showing appropriate gratitude.
 Patronage must always be appreciated!

 Historically, learning has been the preserve of the established Church in
 many countries. A priest was both tutor and confessor in many communities
 and households. It also made sense for the Church to control access to 
 education, for that way heresy and dissent could be stamped out early. For
 non-conformist preachers, offering education to paying cilents was also a
 way of subsidizing their meagre income and spreading the Word of the Lord in
 the process."

 * Requires Town
 * +1 Happiness for the X Population (X is national Religion) (Lower Classes)
 * Converts the populace to X (X is the national Religion)
 * Spawns religious agents. Maximum number: +1


--==Classical University==--

"A university offers young men of good standing the finest of educations and
 the chance to study with the greatest minds of the age.

 Education is vital to those who wish to enter the professions, or make their
 way in government using talent alone. A good, well-trained brain is an
 excellent substitute for birth and social connections. A young gentlemen's 
 studies can be wide ranging, and need not be tied to any particular faculty
 or subject area - an awarded degree or doctorate is proof enough of
 intellectual achievement.

 Historically, in Europe at least, the established church controlled most
 universities, either through paying for them or by laws requiring the tutors
 to take holy orders. Sir Issac Newton was very unusual in that he didn't 
 take orders when he was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at
 Cambridge (a post currently held by Stephan Hawking), arguing that the post
 required the holder to spend time on science, not the Anglican Church. 
 However, the requirement for teachers to accept Church Doctrine did mean
 that universities had a socially conservative outlook. While scholarships
 were available, students had to have money to attend, reinforcing this
 conservatism. While wild, threatening ideas about the world and the way it
 worked did emerge from universities, the institutions were rarely radical
 or revolutionary breeding grounds."

 * Requires College
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * -5 Happiness. Clamour for Reform
 * Conducts technology research. Points per turn: 17
 * Spawns Gentlemen. Maximum Number: +1
 * Enables Research of Seperation of Powers, Joint Stock Companies, Rights of
   Man, National Debt, Wealth of Nations


--==Clearances==--

"Renting to tenants may not guarantee a high enough income for the landowner.
 It can be more profitable to displace people by an animal cash crop.

 Tenanted farm can only generate so much income from rents. With an increase
 in town size, it an increased demand from industry for agricultural products,
 it is more profitable to have herds of animals, not a gaggle of tenants. Meat
 and wool demand increases rapidly as towns grow. Apart from any other 
 considerations, moving people off land also creates large areas where 
 landowners can indulge a passion for hunting. While this generates little
 income, it does give social status.

 The "Highland Clearances" are probably the most famous example of a forced
 change in land usage on a large scale. Contary to popular belief, Highland
 clan leaders carried out most of the Scottish clearances, driving their
 own kinsmen and clans into exile. The chieftans needed to pay for their
 sophisticated life that they could have in Edinburgh and London by 
 reinventing themselves as Scottish gentry. Sheep income earned more money
 than the crofters did."

 * Requires Tenanted Farms, Four Field Crop Rotations
 * +0.7% to Population Growth
 * Reduces the Chance of Food Shortages
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on Yield of Farming Region)
 * Enables research of Selective Breeding, Seed Planting Drill, Advanced
   Irrigation, Steam Pumped Land Drainage


--==Coaching Inn==--

"A coaching inn is a large public house with rooms where weary travellers can
 rest overnight.

 A coach or post-chaise is the only practical and vaguely civilized method of
 getting from A to B overland, other than hiring a horse. Regular runs exist
 between many major towns, run on a commercial basis by private companies, 
 necessitating a series of coaching inns roughly a day's travel apart where 
 passengers can rest overnight. Horses must also be changed at regular  
 intervals if speed is to be maintained. Coach journeys of any length demand
 epic levels of stamina from passengers, hence the need for good inns. The
 condition of most roads is execrable, the suspension on most coaches is 
 somewhat lacking, the schedule is punishing and the risk of robbery by 
 "gentlemen of the road" should not be underestimated.

 The locals, of course, also drink and eat at the coaching inn, and a good one
 will have a high reputation for its cellar and its provender. The usual 
 selection of "entertainment" for gentlemen travellers is available, always
 at the right price!

 The word coach, by the way, comes from the Hungarian "Kocsi szeker" meaning
 "Wagon of Kocs", the place where the first coach was produced."

 * Requires Town
 * +2 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +2 Happiness (Middle Classes)
 * Spawn Rakes. Maximum number +1


--==Coffee Warehouse==--

"Warehousing a cash crop allows control over the supply of goods, and
 therefore greater profits as the vagaries of market prices have less effect.

 By holding onto a crop until the market is "right", plantation owners can
 get the best price for their harvest. They can also calm the violatility of
 the commodity's market by evening out the supply over the course of a year,
 rather than having a harvest glut and then a shortage for the rest of the
 time. A warehouse also allows plantation owners to wait until the seasons and
 winds are favourable for a fast sea journey back to the homeland; shipping
 losses and transit times are both reduced. Finally, Warehousing also allows
 smaller crops to be consolidating for shipping back to the home market, and
 for the crop to be properly graded. The finest parts of the harvest can be
 sold at the highest price, rather than simply being lumped in with any old
 druss."

 * Requires Large Coffee Plantation
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * 40 Sacks of Coffee produced each turn


--==College==--

"A college offers an academic education - a veneer of civilised sophistication
 - to the sons of aristocracy and gentry.

 A college education is expensive, and there are few charity-funded places or
 scholarships for the less socially fortunate. It is a privilieged man who 
 goes to college; money or patronage are needed more than intellect. Although
 there is discussion and teaching of the radical ideas of science and 
 philosophy to the students, the college masters are likely to have a 
 conservative outlook. Most of the students are the same, they are from the 
 top rungs of society's ladder, and they have little interest in seeing the
 natural "status quo" altered.

 Historically, attending college was probably the most boring element in the
 education of "young gentlemen", although the actual work required was not
 that arduous. The "Grand Tour" became fashionable during the 18th Century,
 when the rich would wander Italy (Greece being an Ottoman possession), taking
 in the sites of Antiquity and the great works of the Renaissance. In the
 process they would spend a foutune on Classical-period statuary and relics,
 paintings by the great masters, and anything else that took their fancy. 
 Quite reasonably, the less aesthetically refined, but well funded, would
 seek an exotic "education" in local taverns and bawdyhouses!"

 * Requires School, Empiricism
 * -4 Happiness. Clamour for Reform
 * Conducts technology research. Points per turn: 13
 * Spawns Gentlemen. Maximum Number: +1
 * Enables Research of Utiliarianism, Government by Consent, Divison of Labour


--==College of Divinity==--

"A college of divinity specialises in religious education, inculcating all the
 minutiae of the Protestant faith in its students.

 The graduates of this school are armed with the theological arguments against
 other branches of Christianity, and a sense of mission to spread the truth of
 Protestantism as widely as possible. Intellectual effort is expected over and
 above simple-minded faith.

 Originally, many western European universities based on religious training 
 establishments, where divinity was the main (and sometimes only) field of 
 study. Their graduates were granted doctorates, indicated that they were 
 qualified to teach theology to others. However, the universities were also
 often tied to the established Catholic Church, and Protestantism was a revolt
 precisely against the failings of established religion. Where Protestantism
 replaced Catholicism as the offical state religion, teaching changed to 
 remove "papist" doctrine and error. This did not, however, prevent further,
 lesser schemes such as the rise of non-conformists sects like Methodism.
 These nonconformists also wished to teach their views, and they were often
 denied teaching places at universities."

 * Requires Chapter School, Protestant Nation
 * +4 Happiness for the Protestant population (Lower Classes)
 * Converts the populace to Protestantism
 * Spawns religious agents. Maximum number: +1


--==Commercial Basin==--

"With the addition of exchanges, shipping agents, custom houses, even more
 warehouses and even more docks, a basin becomes an economic powerhouse.

 A commercial basin opens up new opportunities for trade, as agents now put
 together cargoes and charter vessels for merchants who would otherwise
 be unable to trade. Money, rather than sea experience, became the driving
 force for success, and trade does not need to go through the basin to make
 money for the men of property!

 The infamous triangle of trade between Bristol and Liverpool in England, 
 Africa and the Caribbean sugar islands is probably one of the most profitable
 trade routs ever invented. Manufactured goods, guns, cloth and trinkets went
 to Africa, where they were traded to the local warlords. Slaves, carried
 in the most horrendous conditions imaginable, made up the cargo for the 
 middle run, across the Atlantic. In the Caribbean, the survivors were sold,
 and the ship loaded with sugar and rum for the run back to Britain. There
 was some handsome profit in each leg, and the ships were never idle. Even
 better, the merchants of Bristol and Liverpool never needed to see the 
 suffering their commerce caused, always assuming that they cared."

 * Requires Commercian Port
 * Improves Export Capacity (Increases Trade Value)
 * +4 trade routes possible (Sea)
 * +800 Coin to region wealth
 * +7 Coin per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Recruits Basic Battle Vessels, Indiaman


--==Commercial Port==--

"Adding warehouses, additional docks and even the services of excisemen to a 
 port increases the amount of trade that can be done. Now cargoes can be 
 consolidated and shipped onwards. 

 Shipping goods to a home market is only one way of making money from trade.
 There is more to be earned from shipping valuable goods to new markets in
 other countries. The ability to warehouse an incoming cargo and only 
 release it when the price is right also increases profits.

 Most maritime nations - Britain and Holland in particular - had rules that
 enforced a native nationals-only rule for carrying goods into their ports.
 Anything, for example, that arrived in the Port of London should have come
 in a "British bottom". This kind of protectionism in trade also applied to
 colonies and indirectly caused at least one war, the War of Jenkin's Ear
 (1739-48), between Spain and Britain. The Spanish were alleged to have 
 chopped off the ear when Jenkins was caught trading in Spanish territory;
 the British had previously agreed in a treaty not to do this. The war became
 part of the War of Austrian Succession (1740-48) but, incidently, marks the
 first public occasion that "God Save the King" was used as the British 
 national anthem, to celebrate the capture of Pueblo Bello in Panama by
 Admiral Vernon."

 * Requires Trading Port
 * Improves Export Capacity (Increases Trade Value)
 * +3 trade routes possible (Sea)
 * +600 Coin to region wealth
 * +5 Coin per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Recruits: Basic Battle Vessels, Basic Trading Ships


--==Conservatorium==--

"A conservatorium is a school for musicians, specialising in highly cultured 
 music required for church and state occasions.

 While the emphasis on music for a cultured and upper class audience, the 
 education provided by the conservatorium is practical and vocational. Those 
 who pay the fees intend to earn a living as musicians, at the very least in
 an orchestra of a wealthy patron, and, at best, as a composer of some renownm
 able to choose between commissions, patrons, and even nations! A 
 conservatorium has to provide what its customers want, and they generally
 produce well-polished musicians who can pass themselves off, when needed, as 
 professionals or members of the minor gentry. 

 Historically, many of these schools began as either royal academies of music
 or choristers' schools for the great cathedrals. All music had to be 
 performed live, and the need for new, innovative and excitating music at
 every state or religious event required an enormous amount of musicians - 
 and talented composers with prestdigious work rates! Great composers, such
 as Mozart and Handel, were celebrities and royal houses outbid each other in
 an effort to obtain their services as a prestigious ornament to a court."

 * +1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +1 Happiness (Middle Classes)


--==Cotton Warehouse==--

"Warehousing a cash crop allows control over the supply of goods, and
 therefore greater profits as the vagaries of market prices have less effect.

 By holding onto a crop until the market is "right", plantation owners can
 get the best price for their harvest. They can also calm the violatility of
 the commodity's market by evening out the supply over the course of a year,
 rather than having a harvest glut and then a shortage for the rest of the
 time. A warehouse also allows plantation owners to wait until the seasons and
 winds are favourable for a fast sea journey back to the homeland; shipping
 losses and transit times are both reduced. Finally, Warehousing also allows
 smaller crops to be consolidating for shipping back to the home market, and
 for the crop to be properly graded. The finest parts of the harvest can be
 sold at the highest price, rather than simply being lumped in with any old
 druss."

 * Requires Large Cotton Plantation
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * 40 Bales of Cotton produced each turn


--==Craft Workshops (Smiths)==--

"Artisans and their crafts workshops are the basis of all manufacturing work
 and trade. They are vital to the growth of a local economy.

 Craft workshops are the basis of a thriving economy. Each craftsman and his
 family work from dawn to dusk to produce a bale of cloth, carpet, cutlery, 
 swords, guns - anything, in fact that needs to be made. The system has 
 hardly changed in centuries.

 Craftsmen are paid piecework rates, making it in their interests to to have
 the whole family labouring away. Each workshop produces a complete item from
 start to finish of the manufacturing process, and there is little 
 organisation in producing the finished goods. The small-scale approach does
 impose limits on overall production.

 Historically, it was possible for craft-based technique to produce large 
 quantities of goods, but only having entire communities working in the same
 craft. The steel town of Sheffield, England, became a centre of cutlery 
 making (and later steel production) on the strength of its craft-based 
 workshops. The coming of mills would sweep away generations of expertise,
 as jobs were de-skilled and mechanised."

 * Requires Town
 * +400 Coins to Town Wealth
 * +5 Coins per turn to Town Wealth in the region


--==Craft Workshops (Weavers)==--

"Artisans and their crafts workshops are the basis of all manufacturing work
 and trade. They are vital to the growth of a local economy.

 Craft workshops are the basis of a thriving economy. Each craftsman and his
 family work from dawn to dusk to produce a bale of cloth, carpet, cutlery, 
 swords, guns - anything, in fact that needs to be made. The system has 
 hardly changed in centuries.

 Craftsmen are paid piecework rates, making it in their interests to to have
 the whole family labouring away. Each workshop produces a complete item from
 start to finish of the manufacturing process, and there is little 
 organisation in producing the finished goods. The small-scale approach does
 impose limits on overall production.

 Historically, it was possible for craft-based technique to produce large 
 quantities of goods, but only having entire communities working in the same
 craft. The steel town of Sheffield, England, became a centre of cutlery 
 making (and later steel production) on the strength of its craft-based 
 workshops. The coming of mills would sweep away generations of expertise,
 as jobs were de-skilled and mechanised."

 * Requires Town
 * +300 Coins to Town Wealth
 * +6 Coins per turn to Town Wealth in the region


--==Deep Gem Shaft==--

"The term for a gem field is an "occurance", and often the site has a very 
 small surface area. Eventually, the easy stones are found, and the miners
 must dig a shaft to find more.

 Given that miners are paid only for the gemstones they find and not for 
 any other work, the shaft sunk into the ground is often extremely crude. 
 Shoring up and pumping out the shaft may seem like sensible activities, but
 both of these things go unpaid and therefore undone. The mine owners do not
 care about casualties; men who die need no wages, merely hold up production
 and stop others earning.

 The shafts often have to go deep indeed, as gemstones are deposited in very
 small areas. This does not matter. All that matters is finding riches. Few
 miners worry that side tunnels are little more than death traps, given the
 chances of discovering the perfect stone!"

 * Requires Open Gem Pit
 * -1 Happiness from industrialisation (lower classes)
 * +X Coins (Depends on the Yield of the Mine)


--==Dockyard==--

"A dockyard can carry out major shipbuilding work, and usually includes a 
 large number of associated artisans and tradesmen from coopers to 
 victuallers.

 Dockyards also have extensive shore facilities, such as ropeworks, forges,
 furnaces and, possibly most important of all, seasoning sheds. Using "green"
 timber for shipbuilding results in vessels that can work (have a little
 flexibility), something that the French shipbuilders regard as a good thing,
 even though it means that their ships leak in heavy seas. Seasoning wood
 for months or years is prudent, and most other navies follow this practice.

 On more than one occasion in the century, Royal Navy raiding parties made a
 point of destroying stocks of timber, in particular, masts - stored in
 enemy shipyards. The loss of timber stocks not only set back shipbuilding by
 many years, but also ensured that battle damage was hard to make good too. 
 Burning timber rather than stealing it must have gone against the natural
 inclinations of many RN officers and seamen, as their prize money for the 
 goods was also going up in smoke!"

 * Requires Shipyard
 * Recruits: Basic Battle Vessels


--==Drill School==--

"A drill school creates the common practices for an army, and turns a 
 collection of disparate forces into a precise and clockwork killing machine.

 In an age when all battlefield manoeuvres must be performed exactly, drill
 is a necessary part of all military training. Constant repetition of actions
 involved in loading and firing a piece are useful in themselves, but of more
 use is the unthinking obedience to superiors that is, literally, drilled into
 every man in the ranks. When a soldier is concentrating on his place in line
 and on not attracting the attention of his sergeant or officer, he will not
 worry about what the enemy might be doing. Drill also has another benefit 
 for an army too; men busy on the parade ground cannot be getting into trouble
 or finding a tavern!

 In Britain, one aspect of 18th Century drill survives to this day in the form
 of a ceremonial parade called "Trooping the Colour", carried out on the 
 monarch's offical birthday on Horse Grounds, in London. Originally, this 
 parade was not a celebration but a practical exercise: the men needed to know
 what "the colours", or flags, of their unit looked like. The fact that the
 monarch gets to review the soldiers is not the point! In battle, the men 
 would need to be able to rally to, and then defend, these colours on 
 command."

 * Requires Barracks
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training): 2
 * Recruits Intermediate Infantry and Cavalry
 * Enables Research of Wedge Formation, Socket Bayonet, Cadenced Marching, 
   Fire by Rank


--==Drydock==--

"A dry dock is a large brick or stone basin with a set of watertight gates. 
 Once a ship has floated in, the lock gates are shut and the dock drained.

 Within the dry dock, the ship is supported on blocks, and extra timbers are
 used to wedge firmly upright as the water is removed. By carefully timing
 the movement of a ship to take advantage of high and low tides, the amount
 of pumping (by hand) is minimised. Movements into and out of the dock are
 tidal, and work must be finished by the next high tide.

 The advantages of being able to work on a warship and then float it away
 are considerable. Dry docks are equally useful for construction and repair,
 and are often at the centre of a large complex of workshops specialising 
 in every aspect of shipbuilding.

 The organisation required for all this activity means that craft-based skills
 of the master shipwright are still valuable, but naval architects 
 producing plans, drawings and schedules are now a vital part of the process.
 Naturally, the master of the docks can treat the entire enterprise as his
 own (as long as he delivers the ships needed) and award contracts as he
 sees fit to friends and cronies! Offical making profits from the government's
 investment was an accepted cost of business and, provided the men were not
 too greedy, an assurance that they were looking after their interests and
 those of the navy!"

 * Requires Dockyard
 * Recruits all the nation's battleships


--==Engineer School==--

"Military engineering is a highly technical field of study, best carried out
 by trained officers and not left to common soldiery with mattocks!

 The school teaches all the specialised skills that an officer of engineers
 will require, such as surveying, the use of explosives, military 
 architecture, construction, the arts of siege warfare, military illustration
 (used to create maps) and much else besides. Some mundane tactical skills
 are taught as well, but engineers are not expected to command armies and
 issue orders to gentlemen. It is their lot to position guns and advise when
 a breach in a fortress' walls is "practicable", and could fall to an assult.

 Sappers and miners, like artillery experts, had long history of being
 permanent retainers in royal armies of the medieval and Renaissance periods,
 siege works needed experts to demolish castle walls. Thanks to the likes of
 the French Marshal Vauban (1633-1707) and his magnificant fortifications,
 the need for military engineers to create, or break into, defences grew,
 not lessened, during the 18th Century. The elaborate and layered defences
 that he and his successors developed required skilled architects and 
 builders. Engineer officers became a corps of highly educated experts, while
 leaving the hard, mucky work of digging to the rank-and-file sappers and
 pioneers of course!"

 * Requires Ordnance Board
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Enables research of Shrapnel Shot, Percussion Shells
 * Recruits all Artillery


--==Fishing Fleet==--

"A deep sea fishing fleet can bring in a larger catch than inshore boats. Most
 of the catch has to be salted or pickled for return to port.

 Salting relies on preserving the caught fish in dry salt in barrels or boxes.
 This is the method favoured by many fishering along the North African coast. 
 Pickling preserves the catch in brine (sea water with even more added salt).
 In both cases, the salt stops any fungus or other rot from settling in, and
 may even improve the taste of the fish, although the fish will need to soak
 in fresh water before it can be cooked.

 All of this perservative work is required because the fleet ranges far out to
 sea for days at a time, looking for big shoals of fish. The cargo can take 
 weeks to each port, and even longer to reach inland markets, and if salting
 was not used the catch would be both disgusting and lethal to anyone eating
 it!"

 * Requires Local Fishery
 * +0.8% to Population Growth
 * +300 Coins to Region Wealth
 * Recruits: Basic Battle Vessels


--==Fur Exchange==--

"Furs are a mark of luxury and status, as well as a practical way of keeping
 warm. The demand can strip areas of their native fauna.

 Although the medieval sumptuary laws (that defined who could wear what) are
 largely ignored in Europe, the wearing of fur is often restricted to royalty
 and other high-status individuals: the British House of Lords sets out 
 regulations for the fur trimming on peer's robes, while fur is often reserved
 for warloads in the East. Lesser status furs are available to anyone with the
 money to spend.

 In Europe, even artists benefited from the fur trader's work: sable-hair 
 brushes (actually made from a kind of weasel) are extremely good for 
 watercolours, as they come to a fine point and hold paint well. Watercolour
 landscapes became very fashionable during the 18th Century, both to own and
 to paint. Painting watercolours became an accomplishment for marriageable
 young ladies, a delicate art to show off their sensibilites. In the process,
 watercolours became an important part of tourism, as they allowed the rich to
 record what they had seen on their travels."

 * Requires Fur Market
 * 40 Fur Pelts produced each turn


--==Fur Market==--

"There is almost an insatible demand for fur. Pelts are traded for trinkets
 and manufactured goods, including firearms.

 Trade in furs is highly profitable, and almost any item can be parleyed into
 a good deal for pelts. Shipping fur back to the home market can be more of 
 a problem, as transport in the wilderness relies heavily on finding 
 navigable river routes.

 By 1700, the Hudson Bay Company was well established and expanding its 
 operations into previously French-dominated territories. It had been set up
 in 1670, in London, by a royal charter to trade with the natives of Canada. 
 The company traded English wool blankets to the native tribes in return for
 beaver pelts, and became the de facto colonial British government in 
 Canada. Some of its trading posts become sites of substantial fortifications.
 In this, it matched the East India Company's success in the Eat. It did much
 better than the EIC in surviving to the present day; the again, the EIC had
 a spectular lack of success in pursuading Mughal India to take heavy 
 woollen blankets as trade goods!"

 * Requires Fur Trader
 * 25 Fur Pelts produced each turn


--==Fur Trader==--

"Fur trader are explorers and backwoodsmen, practical men in search of the 
 wealth that the wilderness contains: animal pelts.

 Exploiting natural animal resources is one of the cheapest and most 
 effective ways of making profit from virgin territory. It takes training,
 luck and money to extra mineral wealth, but anyone - if they are tough 
 enough - can hunt, or with the natives for pelts.

 Historically, men looking for animal pelts for the finest furs explored
 swathes of North American and the Siberian wilderness. In America, it was
 beaver pelts that drove the traders further into the hinterland; in
 Siberial it was sable pelts that drove traders deeper into the wilds. Demand
 for furs at home in Europe was almost insatiable, probably helped by a cold
 period in climate and a singular lack of effective central heating!"

 * 15 Fur Pelts produced each turn


--==Fur Trader / Native==--

"With the desire for furs every increasing, trading in them is a lucrative
 business.

 Trading in fur can be a long-winded affair until the final customer is 
 reached, as moving furs from the wilderness relies heavily on finding river
 routes to transport them. The use of wooden canoes allows the furs to be sent
 great distances in a much shorter thing than if they had been sent by land.

 Historically, many European outsiders that became "woodsmen" actually took
 up the native way of life, adopting their clothing, lodgings and customs. 
 Some married native women, thus creating bonds to the tribe that came with 
 the benefit of free and easy trade."

 * 15 Fur Pelts produced each turn


--==Fur Trading Post==--

"A building in the wilderness specifically used as a meeting place for the 
 trading of furs and manufactured goods. 

 As European influence increased, the tribes recognised the need to hold 
 more territory, if only to deprive the invaders of the best lands."

 * Requires Fur Trader/Native
 * 25 Fur Pelts produced each turn


--==Global Trading Company==--

"A massive enterprise controlling a nation's trade to one part of the 
 globe, or in certain commodities.

 Trading companies can be enormous, with fleets of armed merchant ships
 carrying all manners of cargo. The successor to the medieval adventurers,
 they generate fantastic wealth from their operations. Usually granted a 
 government monopoly in either a geographical area or in a set of trade
 goods, the companies can also act as a privatised diplomatic service in
 distant corners of the globe. They are known to do deals with local 
 potentates for trade concessions, military access, tax farming and they 
 have taken over native governments by imposion their "advisors."

 Historically, the great East India companies of Britain, France, and the
 Netherlands were armed, quasi-independent mercantile mini-states. The  
 British East India Company was wealthy almost beyond imagining: its trade
 represented about one-sixth of the British national income. Like the 
 French "Compagnie francaise pour le commerce des Indes orientales" and 
 Dutch "Vereeningde Oost-Indische Compagnie", the "John Company" has its
 own fleet and army. In India it fought wars and had its own foreign policy,
 giving the British government little choice but to support its actions.
 In modern times only petrochemical, mining and arms companies have commanded
 considerable power over nations."

 * Requires Commercial Basin
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Improves export capacity (increases trade value)
 * +5 Trade Routes Possible (Sea)
 * +1000 Coins to Region Wealth
 * +9 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Battle Battle and Trade Vessels


--==Gold Mine==--

"Mining is a dirty, dangerous business. Men hack out all manner of valuable 
 minerals by hand, risking life and limb for the mine owner's profits.

 Lit only by candles (which they must by themselves) or lamps with naked  
 flames, most miners are labouring in conditions that resembles hell on 
 Earth. In some mines firedamp (methane) is a constant risk thanks to the
 candles - an explosion can happen at any time. The risk of a slow death is
 there tool; stone dust and poisonous minerals such as arsenic: ruin a man
 as surely any explosion.

 there were also accidents. Miners are paid only for the valuable minerals
 that they extrace, so there is little incentive to carry out much work
 for safety's sake. Pit props may keep the roof from collapsing, but putting
 them in does not earn any payment - the miners may even be charged for the
 materials! And it is not just men who labour below ground. Women often pull
 carts from the working face to the surface. Children needed less space and
 air than adults, and make ideal support workers, clearing tunnels and 
 bringing food and water to the miners. In smaller seams, children are the
 perfect labourers.

 All of this is secondary, however, to the business of making money, and 
 mining can be a very profitable industry."

 +X to Region Wealth (Depends on the Yield of the Mine)


--==Government Chambers==--

"An imposing meeting place for the "great and good" to offer their advice
 to the local governor, and influence the course of local politics.

 The monarch acts within the law and with the consent of the governed in a 
 constitutional monarchy. This is what distinguishes the system from the 
 crude absolutism of rule by the sovereign's whims and foibles: laws limit
 what the Crown can do, what taxes can be levied, and how people can be 
 treated. In such a system, it is wise for the people to be consulted, and 
 to be seen to be consulted, even if the sovereign's appointed governors 
 actually make the decisions. Often, executive power is handed down to a
 local council of worthies: men wealthy and well connected enough to have a 
 stake in the survival of the state. They can be trusted to act loyally, in 
 the best interests of the monarch, themselves and the people.

 Historically, appointed governors oftten took it upon themselves to select
 local men to advise them about local matters. For example, there was a 
 tradition in English colonies overseas for landowners to offer their services
 and best advice to the London-appointed governors, whether it was welcome or
 not!"

 * Requires Government Council, Constitutional Monarchy
 * +3 to Repression in the Region
 * +6% Coin bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 2
 * Recruits: Basic Infantry and Cavalry


--==Government Council==--

"A constitutional monarch's powers are limited by law, as are those of 
 appointed governors. Viable consultation can ease the use of even these
 limited powers.

 While the people do not have to be listened to, it is a wise course of action
 to consult them in local matters. The process may be real or a fig leaf, but 
 one result is that the council takes the blame for poor decisions, not the
 Crown or its governors, beys to thalurs! The propertied classes and local
 dignitaries on the council almost certainly owe their advisory status to 
 their wealth or social position: democracy may play a part, but the 
 franchise is likely to be very limited indeed. The lower social orders are
 unlikely to be given any say in how they are governed. 

 This lack of broad consultation is not as bad as it sounds. The government
 cannot overstep the bounds of its powers. There is a contract (or even an 
 informal understanding) between government and governed as to what the Crown
 may do without the consent of the people (ther people being those with a 
 stake in the country - men of property in other words). Historically, this
 is essentially the model that the British arrived at: the King and his
 ministers ruled, but needed Parliament to raise taxes and pay for 
 everything!"

 * Requires Governor's Residence, Constitutional Monarchy
 * +2 to Repression in the Region
 * +4% Coin bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment capacity (units in training) : 1
 * Recruits: Infantry and Cavalry Units


--==Governor's Mansion==--

"In an absolute monarchy, the monarch's person is the wellspring of all 
 authority. Lackeys - no matter now mighty - serves at the Monarch's pleasure
 and need take no account of locals!

 Absolute monarchy is an effective and sometimes brutal form of government. 
 The monarch's powers are not limited in any way. What the monarch decrees 
 simply happens. If it does not, heads roll, often literally!

 The machinery of provincial government receives the same authority from the 
 Crown. A governor, thalur or bey (depending on the nation in question) has 
 the power to do anything to his subjects, providing he delivers what his
 monarch requires - and this is usually tax income and soldiers. Any other 
 considerations can be put to one side; it is the duty of subjects to obey in
 an absolute state, and those who dare argue back are quite rightly treated
 as faithless rebels.

 Historically, absolutism was the main form of Government in many 18th century
 states. Louis XIV of France was speaking the truth when he repeatedly claimed
 "L'Erat, c'est moi!". Like many absolutists and their apologists, he
 sincerely believed that he was responsible for his actions only to God."

 * Requires Governor's Residence, Constitutional Monarchy
 * +2 to Repression in the Region
 * +4% Coin bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment capacity (units in training) : 1
 * Recruits, Infantry, Cavalry and Artillery units


--==Governor's Residence==--

"As a province grows, the central government appoints its own governor with
 greater powers, rather than relying on the services of a member of the local,
 minor gentry. 

 No matter what his title - Lord Lieutenant (to the Monarch), Governor, Pasha,
 Thalur - the man appointed to oversee a province is a minor monarch, even in 
 a republic! His main duties are tax raising and defence, and he is the 
 government's man rather than a senior member of the local community. He is
 both protector and enforcer. He can enforce the law as he sees fit, ignore
 it when inconvenient and even grant pardons. He can impress men into military
 service and use them against any who dare to rebel. He has to power of life 
 and death over his subjects - although he may have to use the justice system
 rather than simply having people shot. And, best of all, in an age of 
 "interest" he has the power to fill his own and his friend's purses at the
 state's expense. 

 Historically, office holders in the 18th Century (almost regardless of 
 country or government style) seemed to have trouble keeping the state's money
 out of their own pockets. It was acceptable for a man to appoint himself or 
 a friend as a contractor, tax farmer or monopolist and make a handsome 
 profit."

 * Requires Magistrate, Constitutional Monarchy
 * 1 to Repression in the Region
 * Recruitment Capacity (units in training) : 1
 * Recruits: Infantry and Cavalry Units


--==Grand Opera House==--

"This impressive setting for musical performances allow the audience to 
 delight in novel entertainments, and admire the good taste of the house's
 patron.

 Little expense is spared on a grand opera house, particularly in the "front
 of house" area where the audience are to be found. A grand opera house is 
 a maginificant structure, the equal to any palace in terms of luxurious
 appointments and detailing to overawe the visitors. The staged can be 
 equally elaborate, featuring enormous casts and intricate settings. This is
 conspicious consumption raised to a high art, even before the music starts!

 Many rulers in the 18th Century acted as a patron of the arts, and opera in
 particular. Apart from being fablously and famously expensive (therefore
 demonstrating the patron's wealth), the musical form was also growing in
 popularity and quality. The staging and music of opera advanced tremendously
 during the period, with works from composers of genius such as Mozart, 
 Handel, and Scarlatti. Emperor Joseph II of Austria, the "music king", was
 particularly fortunate that his love of the art coincided with a flowering
 of musical talent in Europe. He used the arts as a subtle tool of 
 nationalism, promoting a Germanic culture within Austria."

 * Requires Opera House
 * +3 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +3 Happiness (Middle Classes)


--==Great Arsenal==--

"A great arsenal is a government-owned facility, intended to manage the 
 manufacturing and development of long guns and all the paraphernalia needed.

 The development of new cannons is an expensive and sometimes risky business,
 and one that the state likes to keep under its immediate control. No 
 government likes to contemplate rebellion, but central control of heavy
 artillery and its production is a wise policy. Rebels without cannons are
 an annoyance; with large guns, rebels can become revolutionaries!

 Large guns are necessary for armies (and navies for that matter) to operate
 effectively. The ability of a nation to projects it power in war is, in a
 large part, measured by the size and variety of its artillery train.

 Historically, the arsenals of many states were peacetime stores for
 cannons, shot and powder; domestic peacekeeping by an army rarely required
 artillery. Once cast, a cannon barrel could spend decades in storage before
 mounted on a carriage and used in anger. Gunpowder, too, could spend 
 neglected years in storage, and this caused all kinds of problems when it 
 was finally issued to gunners. Money for the upkeep of stores also caused
 problems, too often ending upin the pockets of the Masters of Ordnance
 and his friends!"

 * Requires Ordnance Factory
 * Enables Research of Carcass Shot
 * Recruits Intermediate Artillery


--==Great Ashram==--

"An ashram offers wisdom and learning to all those who come within its 
 walls.

 This retreat from the cares of the world is a place of peace and 
 tranquility, as well as a place of profound learing and contemplation. 
 Not quite a monastry, or matha, an ashram is bound by an informal code
 of conduct laid down by the religious leader or sage who leads it.

 Traditionally, the ashram are detacted from everyday concerns, and 
 concentrate to the spiritual development of the students. Some act as
 schools for children too. Even though they are places of peace, not 
 everyont who makes a pilgramage to an ashram has peaceful intent. The
 journey, both internal and external, can teach a warrior much about the
 business of warfare and some ashrams do offer a form of martial arts
 training. In the Hindu epic: The Ramayana, warrior princes receieve
 weapons training at an ashram."

 * +4 Happiness for the Hindu Population (lower classes)
 * Converts the populace to Hinduism
 * Spawns religious agents. Maximum number: +1


--==Great Estates==--

"The largest estates can have a huge acerage turned over to the pleasure of 
 their owners. Pleasure in a carefully manicured nature is secondary to the
 need to make money!

 The largest estates are a statement of wealth, complete with dazzling 
 palace-like grand houses in the latest styles and built without thought to
 the expense. Landowners and the great nobility vie with each other to produce
 not just homes, but idealized landscapes around them. Where the terrain is
 not dramatic enough, it is ruthlessly reorganised to suit the owner's tastes.
 In the interests of art and beauty the workers, their homes, and their farms
 are removed from the land.

 Historically, a group of landscape architects in Europe completely remodelled
 many country estates into idyllically perfect vistas for their clients. They
 created the fantasy of a natural landscape, improving on what was there to
 make entirely "artificial" (and this is not a term of disapproval at the 
 time) parkland dotted with romantic ruins and gothic follies. In the process,
 men like Lancelot "Capability" Brown remade hills, flooded valleys, moved
 rivers, destroyed entire villages and displaced people without mercy. Many
 of these amazing houses and gardens still exist today, if only as tourist
 attractions."

 * Requires Clearances
 * +0.9% to Population Growth
 * Reduces the Chance of Food Shortages
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on Yield of Farming Region)
 * Enables Research of Threshing Machine


--==Great Museum==--

"This splendid structure is a celebration of national greatness, celebrating
 the progress of a country towards its current perfection.

 Some objects in the collectoin are the spoils on war, gifts from travellers,
 the items collected on the whims of past rulers, and intriguing curios 
 from around the world. This is, in many ways, the national equivalent of a 
 savant's "cabinet of curiosities": a miscellany of interesting things,  
 collected simply because they were interesting. The other half of the 
 collection is a clear demonstration of national prowess in all fields, be
 that a piece of intricate machinery, a work of superlative craftsmanship,
 the largest cannon in the world, and so on. It is understandable if a 
 certain chauvinism creeps into the enterprise, it is an exercise in 
 national trumpet-blowing!

 Historically, private museums and displays had developed from the collections
 in "cabinet of curiosities", and some of these had ended up as government or
 royal property. The world-famous British Museum began this way, when Sir Hans
 Sloane's collection was left to George II so that it could be preserved for
 the nation. Now a wonderful collection of antiquities, the Museum was 
 intended to be a universal collection, and had natural history, geology, and
 science exhibits."

 * Requires Grand Opera House
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * +4 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +4 Happiness (Middle Classes)


--==Great Parliament==--

"The seat of parliament in a constitutional monarchy, as the monarch has 
 become a ceremonial figurehead with deliberately limited powers.

 Parliamentary government involves the elected representatives of the people
 forming a government with the monarch's consent - although the ministers who
 emerge from the system may not be entirely to the monarch's taste! While the
 sovereign can at least have an advisory role, and choose chief ministers, 
 those ministers determine national policy. Unless a ministry can command 
 majority support in parliament, its policies, of left or right, radical 
 or conservative, will fail.

 The terms "left" and "right" to define political views in an elected system
 come from just before the violent birth of the French Republic, with the
 absolutist Louis XVI was moving towards a constitutional monarchy. The
 liberal deputies of the "Third Estate" in the "Estates General" (a 
 parliament called by Louis) sat to the left of the assembly president's 
 chair, while the nobility (the "Second Estate") with more conservative views
 sat on his right. The terms "left" and "right" have continued to this day,
 usually in a disapproving fashion. Louis' success with his constitutional
 experiments was limited: the guillotine ended his reign in a sudden and 
 cravat-ruining fashion!"

 * Requires Government Chamber
 * +5 to Repression in the Region
 * +10% Coin Bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training): 3
 * Recruits basic militia


--==Gunnery School==--

"A practical education in the arts of gunnery and the uses of firepower can be
 a very useful thing for an officer of artillery.

 Gunners see themselves as a "race apart" from army officers, and with good
 reason. They are skilled specialists who have spent years studying their 
 trade. In the wrong hands, cannons can be as dangerous to their users as to
 the enemy, so gunners are actually expected to know what they are about. 
 Unlike army officers, who have often obtained their rank through the purchase
 of a commission, gunners are promoted on seniority and merit. It is not 
 enough to stand around looking brave; a gunner needs to understand military
 surveying and drawing, mathematics, ballistics, some military engineering, 
 and have a grasp on technical matters. This can create tensions between
 "gentlemen" officers and the gunners practicing a "trade."

 Historically, many corps of artillery and gunnery schools are older than
 national standing armies, as they can date their foundations back to the
 times when a Master of Ordinance or Artillery was part of a royal household.
 The most famous artillery student is, of course, Napoleon Bonaparte; his
 interest was considered surprising given his background as a member of the
 minor nobility."

 * Requires Great Arsenal
 * Enables research of Explosive Rockets
 * Recruits Strong Artillery, Mortars and Howitzers


--==Gunsmiths==--

"A gunsmith is an indispensible asset with the skill to produce and maintain
 firearms.

 The Europeans brought guns to the Americas, but the native tribes have not
 been slow to adopt them. A gun is a status symbol for a warrior, and needs
 care if it is to work properly. The smiths of many tribes have learned to
 repair and even manufacture firearms, following the invaders' patterns.

 For the most part, Native American tribes gained guns through trade or from
 vanquished foes. One of the earliest guns to become available to them was 
 a lightweight, smoothbore, French flintlock musket, thanks to the trading
 and political policies carried out in New France (Canada). The French gave
 "their" natives guns in the hopes of discomforting British Settlers."

 * Requires Practice Range
 * +800 to Region Wealth
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Queue) : 1
 * Recruits: All Native American Infantry


--==Horse Breeder==--

"Horses are incredibly valuable and those who look after them command great
 respect.

 The keeping and training of horses is a noble profession, as wealth can be
 measured in a tribe's horses. The beasts are so revered that a breeder will
 bring his prized horses into his home in bad weather.

 The Spanish conquistadors reintroduced horses into America during the 
 sixteenth century. Their arrival had a profound effect on the Native American
 peoples and their way of life. It became a great achievement to steal the
 best horses from neighbouring tribes."

 * Converts the Populace to Animism
 * Recruitment Capacity (units in training) : 1


--==Hunting Grounds==--

"A large area inhabited by a variety of wild animals hunted for the meat and
 pelts.

 Hunting is a way of life, and the methods and techniques used have been 
 handed down for generations. The seaons play a huge role in the way hunting
 parties operate: in autumn when the grasses are dry, fire is used in hunting.
 Once a herd of animals is located a large arc of fire is started while, the
 hunters pick the animals as they run from the flames.

 The re-introduction of the horse into the Americas meant that tribes could
 hunt over a greater range for extended periods of time. On the Great Plains,
 some young braves you pursue buffalo for months on end."

 * Converts the Populace to Animism
 * Recruitment Capacity (units in training) : 1


--==Improved Settlement Fortifications==--

"At settlements grow there is a need for more elaborate defence in depth. The
 fortifications are designed to intimidate any attacking force, and then kill
 them.

 Extensive fortifications cost huge sums of money and much effort. There is 
 little point in constructing them unless they are well maintained and needed
 for the future survival and prosperity of the town. A defensive wall is good 
 for a sense of security, but does not feed a hungry family after a poor local
 harvest! As a practical matter, then, these fortifications are erected along
 borders and around towns of real strategic significance. 

 The defences are laid out according to the latest military fashions, and as
 well as built as any purely military fortification. This can cause local 
 problems, as prime building land is either used for the fort themselves, or
 must be kept clear to provide excellent fields of fire. During long periods
 of peace, the city fathers must resist the temptation to cover the killing
 zones with houses and commercial properties!

 Historically, fortresses created by Marshal Vauban of France dominated their
 towns for centuries. The fortresses of Strasbourg, in Alsace, are typical
 of his work, and were a clear geographical boundary until the end of the
 19th Century.

 * Requires Settlement Fortifications
 * +1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +1 Happiness (Middle Classes)
 * Surrounds city approaches with a ring of star forts, protecting it from 
   assault
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Ironmaster's Works==--

"Hot, mortally dangerous, clamorous and flithy, the forges and works of the
 ironmasters are, for some, a presentment of Hell on Earth.

 Blacksmiths can only produce small quantities of good quality iron, and
 small items, thanks to their reliance on muscle power for all work. The
 ironmasters have the financial backing and imagination to scale up the
 production of iron, and use water power to force air into the furnaces and
 power machines to work the metal. Where there is a plentiful supply of 
 coal, water and ore, the ironmasters can make a profit.

 The Industrial Revolution and the modern world we now live in owe their
 existance to one small valley in Shropshire, England. Coalbrookdale had
 good supplies of water and coal and this encouraged Abraham Darby to
 establish his coke-burning foundry there to make iron (there had been
 foundries in Coalbrookdale before, producing cannon shot among other things).
 Charcoal-powered furnaces were becoming uneconomic, as the demand for wood
 outstripped supply, hence the switch to coal and coke. Darby's methods were
 revolutionary and the family business went from strength to strength. The
 production of high-quality iron generated demand for more; the Iron Bridge
 at Ironbridge, for example, demonstrated that iron was a superb construction
 material, thanks to the efforts of Abraham's grandson, also called Abraham."

 * Requires Iron Workshops
 * +X to town wealth (Depends on Yield)
 * +11 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enables research of Machine Tools, Puddling Furnaces, Steam Engine


--==Iron Mine==--

"Mining is a dirty, dangerous business. Men hack out all manner of valuable 
 minerals by hand, risking life and limb for the mine owner's profits.

 Lit only by candles (which they must by themselves) or lamps with naked  
 flames, most miners are labouring in conditions that resembles hell on 
 Earth. In some mines firedamp (methane) is a constant risk thanks to the
 candles - an explosion can happen at any time. The risk of a slow death is
 there tool; stone dust and poisonous minerals such as arsenic: ruin a man
 as surely any explosion.

 there were also accidents. Miners are paid only for the valuable minerals
 that they extrace, so there is little incentive to carry out much work
 for safety's sake. Pit props may keep the roof from collapsing, but putting
 them in does not earn any payment - the miners may even be charged for the
 materials! And it is not just men who labour below ground. Women often pull
 carts from the working face to the surface. Children needed less space and
 air than adults, and make ideal support workers, clearing tunnels and 
 bringing food and water to the miners. In smaller seams, children are the
 perfect labourers.

 All of this is secondary, however, to the business of making money, and 
 mining can be a very profitable industry."

 +X to Region Wealth (Depends on the Yield of the Mine)


--==Iron Workshops==--

"Blacksmiths are the heart of many communities. Their skills make tools for
 the farm, the home and the workshop alike.

 Smiths make everything that the world of work uses, from ploughshares, 
 horseshoes and sickles to knives, nails, and wagon tires. They even make
 the machinery to make more machines, as they make tools for themselves and
 other crafts not to mention the working parts of many workshops. The people
 with the surname "Smith" (or its equivalent) shows the historical importance
 of ironworking!

 The job is, however, dirty and dangerous. Fire is an ever-present danger, 
 and working with red hot metal has risk all of its own. It breeds tough,
 hardy, independent men with an unsentimental eye for profit.

 Making iron requires a great deal of charcoal as fuel. This means that the
 secondary industry of charcoal burning uses large tracts of woodland to make
 charcoal, and is one of the main limitations on iron production. It is almost
 impossible to produce enough charcoal, year after year, to keep the furnaces
 burning because managed woodlands don't grow fast enough."

 * Requires Craft Workshop (Smiths)
 * +X to region wealth (Depends on the wealth of the town)
 * +8 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enables research of Basic Steam Pump, Coke Blast Furnace, Measuring Tools


--==Iron Workshops / Natives==--

"Workshops create tools and trade goods for the tribe.

 A workshop is a vital resource for the community, whatever it produces. 
 These small-scale industries have a large role to play in the tribe's 
 prosperity and survival.

 Beads, for example, were an important craft produce in Native American
 society. They were used in ceremonial jewellery and clothing as a form 
 of currency where barter was not used. Despite the large number of people
 involved in craftwork, the tribes never used anything more powerful than
 human muscle in their industries."

 * +X to region wealth (Depends on the wealth of the town)
 * +8 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enables research of Basic Steam Pump, Coke Blast Furnace, Measuring Tools


--==Jesuit College==--

"The Catholic Church has educated the social elite for many centuries, and
 the Society of Jesus provides a vigorous training for young minds.

 Originally formed as the Church's "shock troops" of the Counter-Reformation,
 the Jesuits have long used education as a weapon in their struggles against
 Protestant heresy. Their colleges gives Catholic students an excellent 
 grounding in many disciplines, as well as making sure that their faith is
 certain and sure. A few pupils receive scholarships or charity, but the 
 majority of them are the children of the social elite in Catholic nations.
 Jesuit Colleges have an essentially conservative bent, and exist to confirm
 the existing political and social order (and the Church's over-arching
 authority) in the minds of the students, not make them question the world.

 The Society of Jesus had a long tradition of intellectual excellence, a 
 legacy of its duty to debate with Protestant reformers of the Church. Many
 of the Vatican's best scientists and thinkers have been found among its
 ranks. The Jesuits also have a long tradition of educating the laity, and
 still provide a secular and religious education that is the equal of any
 other in the world."

 * Requires Church School, Catholic Nation
 * +2 Happiness for the Catholic Population (Lower Classes)
 * Converts the Populace to Catholicism
 * Spawns religious agents. Maximum Number: +1


--==Large Coffee Plantation==--

"Plantations are a very successful method of growing cash crops to meet demand
 in the home market. For the owner, a large plantation is a prestigious 
 investment.

 The profits, however, can be substantial, and this wealth is often reinvested
 in recreating an upper-crust lifestyle for the plantation's owning family.
 This is true even in republics; egalitarianism only extends so far, and 
 rarely includes the field hands doing the back-breaking labour! Owners behave
 with staggering levels of brutality towards their workers, regardless of 
 whether or not they are formally slaves. Partly, of course, it is fear that
 leads them to behave this way: the workers outnumber the overseers many times
 over.

 A large plantation is also an island of home luxuries in an alien land. 
 Owners have money to import anything and everything from home, and some take
 the opportunity to behave like kings in their own tiny empires. They are the
 propertied classes, the ones with influence, and few people at home really
 care about their methods."

 * Requires Small Coffee Plantation
 * 25 Sacks of Coffee produced each turn


--==Large Cotton Plantation==--

"Plantations are a very successful method of growing cash crops to meet demand
 in the home market. For the owner, a large plantation is a prestigious 
 investment.

 The profits, however, can be substantial, and this wealth is often reinvested
 in recreating an upper-crust lifestyle for the plantation's owning family.
 This is true even in republics; egalitarianism only extends so far, and 
 rarely includes the field hands doing the back-breaking labour! Owners behave
 with staggering levels of brutality towards their workers, regardless of 
 whether or not they are formally slaves. Partly, of course, it is fear that
 leads them to behave this way: the workers outnumber the overseers many times
 over.

 A large plantation is also an island of home luxuries in an alien land. 
 Owners have money to import anything and everything from home, and some take
 the opportunity to behave like kings in their own tiny empires. They are the
 propertied classes, the ones with influence, and few people at home really
 care about their methods."

 * Requires Small Cotton Plantation
 * 25 Bales of Cotton produced each turn


--==Large Spice Plantation==--

"Plantations are a very successful method of growing cash crops to meet demand
 in the home market. For the owner, a large plantation is a prestigious 
 investment.

 The profits, however, can be substantial, and this wealth is often reinvested
 in recreating an upper-crust lifestyle for the plantation's owning family.
 This is true even in republics; egalitarianism only extends so far, and 
 rarely includes the field hands doing the back-breaking labour! Owners behave
 with staggering levels of brutality towards their workers, regardless of 
 whether or not they are formally slaves. Partly, of course, it is fear that
 leads them to behave this way: the workers outnumber the overseers many times
 over.

 A large plantation is also an island of home luxuries in an alien land. 
 Owners have money to import anything and everything from home, and some take
 the opportunity to behave like kings in their own tiny empires. They are the
 propertied classes, the ones with influence, and few people at home really
 care about their methods."

 * Requires Small Spice Plantation
 * 25 Pounds of Spice produced each turn


--==Large Sugar Plantation==--

"Plantations are a very successful method of growing cash crops to meet demand
 in the home market. For the owner, a large plantation is a prestigious 
 investment.

 The profits, however, can be substantial, and this wealth is often reinvested
 in recreating an upper-crust lifestyle for the plantation's owning family.
 This is true even in republics; egalitarianism only extends so far, and 
 rarely includes the field hands doing the back-breaking labour! Owners behave
 with staggering levels of brutality towards their workers, regardless of 
 whether or not they are formally slaves. Partly, of course, it is fear that
 leads them to behave this way: the workers outnumber the overseers many times
 over.

 A large plantation is also an island of home luxuries in an alien land. 
 Owners have money to import anything and everything from home, and some take
 the opportunity to behave like kings in their own tiny empires. They are the
 propertied classes, the ones with influence, and few people at home really
 care about their methods."

 * Requires Small Sugar Plantation
 * 25 Loaves of Sugar produced each turn


--==Large Tea Plantation==--

"Plantations are a very successful method of growing cash crops to meet demand
 in the home market. For the owner, a large plantation is a prestigious 
 investment.

 The profits, however, can be substantial, and this wealth is often reinvested
 in recreating an upper-crust lifestyle for the plantation's owning family.
 This is true even in republics; egalitarianism only extends so far, and 
 rarely includes the field hands doing the back-breaking labour! Owners behave
 with staggering levels of brutality towards their workers, regardless of 
 whether or not they are formally slaves. Partly, of course, it is fear that
 leads them to behave this way: the workers outnumber the overseers many times
 over.

 A large plantation is also an island of home luxuries in an alien land. 
 Owners have money to import anything and everything from home, and some take
 the opportunity to behave like kings in their own tiny empires. They are the
 propertied classes, the ones with influence, and few people at home really
 care about their methods."

 * Requires Small Tea Plantation
 * 25 Chests of Tea produced each turn


--==Large Tobacco Plantation==--

"Plantations are a very successful method of growing cash crops to meet demand
 in the home market. For the owner, a large plantation is a prestigious 
 investment.

 The profits, however, can be substantial, and this wealth is often reinvested
 in recreating an upper-crust lifestyle for the plantation's owning family.
 This is true even in republics; egalitarianism only extends so far, and 
 rarely includes the field hands doing the back-breaking labour! Owners behave
 with staggering levels of brutality towards their workers, regardless of 
 whether or not they are formally slaves. Partly, of course, it is fear that
 leads them to behave this way: the workers outnumber the overseers many times
 over.

 A large plantation is also an island of home luxuries in an alien land. 
 Owners have money to import anything and everything from home, and some take
 the opportunity to behave like kings in their own tiny empires. They are the
 propertied classes, the ones with influence, and few people at home really
 care about their methods."

 * Requires Small Tobacco Plantation
 * 25 Barrels of Tobacco produced each turn


--==Local Fishery==--

"No one can afford to ignore a plentiful, cheap source of food. Inshore 
 fishing can bring in good catches. 

 A local fishery, however, only takes fish from waters nearby, and most 
 fishermen use small boats, thus limiting the overall size of the catch.
 There is always a surplus that can be sent inland to supplement local food
 supplies. While catches can be seasonal as fish come and go according to the
 tides and currents, it is rare for the catch to fail completely. Fishing is 
 a dangerous activity; each year the sea claims it's share of fishing fleets
 and the lives of many men.

 Historically, fish was an important food staple all over the world. There 
 were religious prescriptions that encourages the eating of fish such as
 the Catholic requirement not to each flesh on a Friday. Islamic jurisprudence
 sees fish with scales as halal (permissible), while some authorities hold 
 that shelled sea creatures are haraam (forbidden). Given the bottom-dwelling
 nature of mussels, clans, and so on and the risk of inherent food poisoning
 if they are improperly stored or cooked, this is a sensible precaution."

 * 2 Turns to Build
 * +0.6% to Population Growth
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on the Town's Wealth)
 * Recruits: Sloop


--==Logging Camp==--

"Virgin forests are a vital strategic as well as economic resource. A logging 
 camp allows the tall timber to be cut and used locally or shipped to the home
 country.

 Apart from its obvious uses in construction and as fuel, timber is vital for
 shipbuilding. All vessels of the period are entirely wooden, and need 
 hundreds of tons of good quality lumber, of many kinds, each. Frames and  
 structural members, for example, are made of oak. Buildings also use a large 
 amount of wood both in the structure and during the building process as 
 scaffolding.

 Historically, the forests of the eastern seaboard of America was extremely
 useful strategic resources, as they became an excellent source of the trees
 needed for masts and yards for the British Royal Navy. By their nature, masts
 need tall trees! Other types of timber became important cash crops, such as
 mahogany found in the Far East, prized for its strength and beauty."

 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on Yield of the Forest)


--==Lumber Mill==--

"A water-powered lumber mill produces logs and sawn timber from prime forests.
 Its semi-finished product can then be sold on local markets or shipped to the
 home market. 

 It is more efficient to ship half-finished planks and logs than tree trunks,
 this increasing profits from logging. Even though most of the equipment used
 is brought in from home, a lumber mill on a good site can easily repay the
 investment. The hard work needed to dig a mill pond and race, as well as 
 carefully position a waterwheel is also handsomely repaid when a powered saw
 starts work. 

 Historically, it was possible for a logging operation to denude a forest of 
 all its profitable trees, in the process causing terrible environmental 
 damage. Without the trees, the soil is soon gone, washed away in the first
 strong rains. It then becomes impossible for any kind of forest to 
 re-establish itself. This worried hardly anyone in the 18th Century (there
 were exceptions - some men did go out of their way to plant trees so that
 navies would never be without supplies), as the world had been given to 
 men to subdue, and there were always more trees in the next valley."

 * Requires Logging Camp
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on Yield of the Forest)


--==Magistrate==--

"The magistrate is, for common people, the government made flesh. There may be
 a president or governor on the coinage, but it is the magistrate's 
 pronouncements that really matter!

 Law and order are the basis of good, bad and indifferent government. 
 Appointed as a judge for his local standing, the magistrate of a region often
 acts as an administrator, tax collecter, thief-taker, leader in charitably 
 good works, military recruitment and father figure to his community. A 
 magistrate usually represents both the state and the landed classes. It is 
 his task, as often as not, to protect the rights of property than of people,
 even when a republican regime is in power - liberty and equally are all very
 well, but the deserving rich need to be sure their wealth is safe!

 Magistrates also often have the power to raise troops as formed units, and to
 send convicted men into the military as a punishment. The magistrate, 
 therefore, becomes the first line of defence against the mob in times of 
 disorder."

 * +1 Repression in the Region, Constitutional Monarchy
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 1
 * Recruits: Infantry Units


--==Major Fishery==--

"A major fishery is a complex network of workshops and small industries, all
 providing the equipment needed for large scale fishing.

 Life for a fisherman is hard, with months at sea in harsh conditions chasing
 the shoals. Ashore, there are many people working to exploit the catch. Apart
 from the craftsmen directly involved in ship and boat building, chandlers, 
 net weavers, and the like, there are also smokehouse operators, coopers, salt
 merchants, shippers - and in some parts of the world, the inevitable press 
 gangs looking for experienced sailors. 

 Historically, hunting the largest "fish" of all - whales - was extremely 
 profitable and, depending on the species, highly dangerous. Whalers used 
 hand-thrown harpoons, often from large rowing boats launched from a mother
 ship. A wounded whale could easily destroy its hunters' flimsy craft. Again
 depending on the type, whales were taken for their meat, whalebone (baleen,
 the "comb" used to filter out plankton when feeding) and their blubber, which
 was rendered down into whale oil (actually a kind of runny wax) used in 
 lighting, cosmetics and industry."

 * Requires Fishing Fleet
 * +1.2% to Population Growth
 * +400 Coin to Region Wealth
 * Recruits: Basic Battle Vessels


--==Military Academy==--

"A military academy is a training establishment for young officers, those who
 must rely on talent, rather than connections or wealth, for perferment.

 In most countries, military command is limited to those in the ruling 
 classes. There is a quite sensible belief that only those with a stake in  
 the survival of society will defend it properly. However, they are 
 counter-arguments to the effects that military matters are complicated, and
 "gentlemen amateurs", no matter how well connected, are not good enough,
 Military academies, therefore, teach the theory and practice of the military
 sciences. The graduates, however, are sometimes regarded as common tradesmen
 because of their knowledge.

 The French were the pre-eminent military power of Western Europe, and lead 
 the way in military training with the creation of a "Ecole Militaire" in 
 1751 to educating promising cadets from poorer backgrounds. It was later
 re-organised and re-named as the "Ecole des Cadets-gentilshommes" or "School
 of Young Gentlemen" which subverted the original intent, although Napoleon
 Bonaparte was a graduate of the new school. By contrast, the United 
 Kingdom's military schools mostly provided an education for the orphans of
 serving officers, with no more than the hope that the pupils would go into
 the army. The Ottoman military system included the Janissaries, a class of
 warrior-administrators, selected and indoctrinated as children, who 
 effectively ran the Ottoman Empire."

 * Requires Drill School
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training): 2
 * Enables Research of New Model Bayonet Drill, Diamond Formation, Reorganised
   Procurement, Fire and Advance
 * Recruits Intermediate Infantry and Cavalry


--==Military Governor's Barracks==--

"Barracks provide more than simple housing blocks for regular military forces.
 The buildings also serve to remind the local people who is in charge.

 They are a statement in brick and stone that the military are present to 
 defend the state and keep order. Usually constructed around a drill square,
 they are a carefully segregated military would deliberately kept from the
 civilians beyond. The walls present a blank, defensible, and intimidating
 face to the outside world. It can be important to keep troops away from the
 assorted temptations of flesh and the bottle. Civilians also harbour 
 unsuitable, unmilitary ideas of disobedience and disloyalty - there must be
 limits to what an army can permit its men to think!

 Historically, in Europe the fashion for building barracks blocks seemed to
 mirror the fascination with the Classical World of Greece and Rome. Among its
 other achievements, the Roman army had stantardised designs for military
 buildings; armies in the 18th Century began to be similarly standardised.
 Governments employed good architects too: Nicholas Hawksmoor, for example,
 built the garrison barracks at Berwick-upon-Tweed for the British government.
 He was almost the equal of Sir Christopher Wren in talent if not in lasting
 fame, and produced many fine churches to replace those lost in the Great Fire
 of London."

 * Requires Military Governor's Encampment
 * +1 to Repression in Region
 * +2% Coin Bonus to Region Tax Income
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 2
 * Recruits: Basic and Intermediate Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery


--==Military Governor's Encampment==--

"Moving an army into an encampment well away from civilians is a useful
 thing to do. Soldiers no longer have easy access to the "demon drink" for
 start!

 Seperating troops from civilians also allows better training and 
 indoctrination. Regiments have the space to practice drills and instil
 discipline in their men. Civilians also have funny ideas, and it is often
 best if common soldiers do not learn of their freethinking and sometime
 disloyal ways.

 An encampment, however, does not always look very military. Apart from the
 fact that soldiers could carry on their civilian trades to supplement their
 army wages, an army encampment would also be thronged with women and 
 children. Soldier's wives were expected to look after their men; wash, cook,
 clean, sew uniforms, act as nurses, and even help bury the dead! A cunning
 officer who once managed "the baggage" well could effectively double the 
 number of hands there were for fetching and carrying. Among the children, 
 young boys could find employment for drummers and musicians from as young
 as ten years of age. Historically, it was not unknown for officers to enrol
 their own children (even babies!) as musicians, so that they gained seniority
 from the date they joined the army!"

 * Requires Governor's Residence
 * +1 to Repression in the region
 * +2% Coin bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 1
 * Recruits: Basic Infantry, Cavalry and Artillery


--==Modern University==--

"This is a centre of learning and original thought, where the sciences and 
 arts of Mankind are extended.

 The investigation of the universe, and disputation over the results, are not
 done out of any sense of altruism, of course. National pride in intellectual
 achievement is an important motve in the work undertaken. Personal pride and
 ambition are also stern taskmasters. But what is significant is that the 
 ideas, theories and fact generated at the university are not kept within 
 the academic elite. This flowering of learning informs and inspires artists, 
 poets and musicians, and well-read laymen too. The practical benefits of the
 advances made here percolate out into the wider national society, improving
 life for the ordinary people in ways both small and dramatic.

 In the 18th Century, great universities and the great minds they attracted
 were sources of nationalistic pride. Sir Issac Newton was lauded across 
 Europe for his work at Cambridge in England. The University of Gottingen 
 aided the development of "German-ness" by publishing research and standard
 texts in German as well as Latin (the traditional language of learning).
 Gottingen was also unusual in, rather daringly, letting lecturers teach any
 book with reference to the State of Church!"

 * Requires Classical University
 * -7 Happiness. Clamour for Reform
 * Conducts technological research. Points per turn: 24
 * Spawns Gentlemen. Maximum Number: +1
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Enables research of Citizenship, Secular Humanism, Free Trade Doctrine, 
   Abolition of Slavery, Classical Economics


--==National Academy==--

"An academy is a "gentlemen's club", of sorts, for the greatest minds of a 
 nation to gather for discourse, lectures, debates and some very nice dinners.

 Academies concern themselves with all aspects of national, cultural and 
 scientific life. From the most abstract of mathematical conundrums to the
 collection of natural wonders and the study of languages and lexicography,
 nothing is outside the interests of academicians. The members are, by and
 large, selected by their peers, although individual governments do use their
 influence to secure places for worthy men - and these learned societies are
 not above granting membership to royalty in the hope of securing patronage!

 Large projects were matters of national prestige. The Academic francaisem
 was charged with the collation of an offical French dictionary. The epic
 voyage of Captain Cook, RN, in 1768-71 was partly influences by the desire
 of the British Royal Society to observe the transit of Venus across the
 Sun from Tahiti. Other nations sent observers to, among other places, Canada
 and Siberia - Cook got the nicest destination! By observing the event from
 different sides of the Earth, parallax made it possible to calculate the 
 size of the solar system and establish the astronomical unit.

 * Requires National Observatory
 * +2 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +2 Happiness (Middle Classes)
 * +8% to Technology Research Rate
 * Spawns Gentlemen. Maximum Number +1
 * Enhances National Prestige


--==National Observatory==--

"An observatory is a centre of many scientific studies, not just astronomy. 
 All the phyiscal sciences are advanced here.

 The study of the heavens leads to advances in mathematics, and improvements
 in scientific instrument making, horology, and perhaps most importantly of
 them all, navigation and surveying. Accurate star charts and lunar tables 
 (showing the phases of the moon) enable sailors to accurately determine
 their position at sea, and a navy that can navigate accurately is one that
 can carry out its duties effectively. An observatory is also a centre for
 national prestige, as discoveries made and published reflect well on the
 institute and the nation that funds its work.

 Historically, observatories were vital in the development of navigation
 and accurate clocks. This is why the zero-degree longitude line passes 
 through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London (until 1884 most states
 used their own nationalistic reference points.) Indeed, the nationalism
 of astronomy often leads to the ignorance of the observations and 
 deductions of non-European astronomers.

 Astronomers could also be outrageous flatterers. After he discovered what
 he thought was a new planet, Sir William Herschel chose the name "Georgium
 Sidus", or George's Star, in a transparant bit of sucking up to his patron,
 King George III. Other astronomers also flirted with the name "Herschel" 
 then settled on "Uranus" for the new planet."

 * Requires Opera House
 * +4% to Technology Research Rate
 * Spawns Gentlemen. Maximum Number +1
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * +2 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +2 Happiness (Middle Classes)


--==Naval Board==--

"Ships at sea were a visible sign of naval power but without organisation, 
 they are worthless. A naval administration keeps the fleets at sea running
 smoothly.

 More than simply organising supplies, fleet movements, promotions and pay,
 a naval administration also draws up plans for the future: it oversees
 construction of new dockyards and naval facilities, husbands scarce 
 resources (some sea-going officers would say a little too carefully), and
 collects navigation charts and improved ship designs from all over the 
 world. The navy secretariat studies anything worthwhile to make the sea 
 service more effective or (better yet) cheaper!

 As navies increased in size during the 18th Century, the support 
 organisations ashore become correspondingly large. The Royal Navy was the
 largest "business" in the world, employing tens of thousands of workers 
 to produce everything needed for the fleet from ropes to nails, yards to
 swivel guns. The functionaries needed to oversee this enterprise had to 
 be clever, clear thinking and reasonably honest; a man would give a 
 lucrative contract to friends, if he could, but not if it risked the good
 of the Service. Other nations never really matched the efficiency of the
 British Royal Navy system, and their fleets at sea suffered as a result."

 * Requires Admiralty, Naval Shore Facilties
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Enables Naval Architecture Advances, Improved Grape Shot, Longitude 
   Watch, Reformed Naval Administration, Carronades, Lime Juice and 
   Sauerkraut, Copper Bottoms


--==Naval College==--

"This school provides a theoretical and academic education in all matters
 of seamanship to young men desirous of a career in the naval service.

 The college exists to provide the practical mathematics needed for safe
 navigation, a theoretical understanding of the mysteries of ship building
 (a complex subject, given the rigging of most ships), gunnery, swordsmanship,
 the manners of gentlemen, some Classics, perhaps a foreign language, and the
 laws and usages of war. The final product is a junior officer who is 
 presentable, but not necessarily useful aboard a ship! A stupid or ill-
 prepared man could sink his ship and kill his crew as surely as any enemy,
 and to master their chosen profession newly-minted officers must go to sea.

 In the 18th Century, virtually every navy recognised the need for 
 professional naval officers. While men had nothing more to offer than good
 breeding could do a fine job in command of armies, ship's captains really
 needed to know their jobs, otherwise their careers really would end on the
 rocks! The better navies of the time operated as a "moderated meritocracy" -
 influence and connections still counted, but ability, training and character
 counted for more."

 * Requires Naval Board
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Enables Rifled Cannons, Improved Coppering, Sheet Lead Cartridges, Top
   Gallants, Preserved Food


--==Naval Hospital==--

"A naval hospital gives high quality care to the sick and wounded. A sailor
 who finds himself looked after here can count himself lucky!

 The navy pays for doctors and surgeons to cure his infirmities: he has a
 bed in a clean ward, and best of all, he cannot spend his pay on drink and
 loose living. From the navy's point of view, their men are returned to duty
 quickly and cannot desert or be "crimped" (pressed into service) by 
 unscrupulous carers.

 Historically, illness abaord ship could be a serious problem: "ship fever"
 (typhus) could destroy a crew more surely than a battle. It was traditional
 to put the sick ashore and leave them in the dubious care of lodging house
 and tavern owners. Death was the most likely outcome for the patient. The
 British Royal Navy constructed hospitals ashore to look after their sick
 and wounded: skilled seamen, it has to be said, were not easy to find, and
 taking good care of them made excellent sense. Better health care for sailors
 also came in small matters, such as the Royal Navy's "portable soup", a kind
 of dried beef stock that made a hot meal with the addition of hot water
 and a few vegetables. Good food aboard ship was as important as good 
 doctoring ashore."

 * Requires Drydock
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Recruits nearly all battle worthy ships


--==Open Gem Pit==--

"Wherever gems are found, men will work in the most foul of conditions in the
 hope of striking it rich.

 This is simply an open pit - the word quarry is hardly appropriate, as that
 would imply some sort of organisation - where workers scrabble in the mud
 to find gemstones. As miners are only paid for what they find, it is possible
 for men to work for days or week shifting mud and rock without seeing a 
 single penny. The prospect of find that one, valuable strike is enough to
 keep them going, even when the risk of the pit collapsing is great.

 Others work the spoil heaps, searching for valuable stones that have been
 thrown aside in the rush to delve into the earth. What with the diggings,
 the shantytown that surrounds the working, and the spoil heaps, an open pit
 is an eyesore. It is also some of the most valuable real estate in the
 world.

 * +X to Region Wealth (Depends on Yield of Gem Field)


--==Opera House==--

"An opera house was a sumptuous feature for the performance of highly 
 stylized musical plays. Society figures attend to be seen rather than for
 amusement.
 
 No expense is spared in making an opera house a grand venue. An opera house
 rivals many great palaces with the luxury of its fixtures and fittings, as
 these public areas for the audience are more important than the 
 entertainment. Theatrical contrivances and mechanical tricks may make the
 staging as grand as the music, but for the elite it was the gossip, plotting
 and backbiting that is the real pleasure of a night at the opera.

 In the 18th Century opera was done in the Italian "serious" style, a musical
 form that influenced many non-Italian composers such as Mozart. The plots
 were intentionally simple, based on Classical themes, usually tragic and 
 often had a highly conservative bent - as befitted the tastes of the patrons
 paying for the music. Many are still performed today. One fashion that has
 (mercifully) ended is the use of castrati singers: young men gelded so 
 that their voices did not break and remained in the soprano range."

 * Requires Conservatorium
 * +2 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +2 Happiness (Middle Classes)


--==Ordnance Board==--

"This council of state is charged with looking after all matters relating to
 the production and use of artillery.

 The committee is in charge of the design, development, casting and storage
 of artillery pieces for all the armed forces. The members are also in charge
 of powder production for the army and navy too, all too often with the 
 bureaucratic muddle and rivalry that this can cause. The Ordnance is an
 important national asset because artillery is very expensive and yet a 
 measure of national power.

 Historically, great guns and siege weapons always required specialists to
 operate them, men quite seperate from common soldiery. In charge was a 
 Master of Ordnance, a man of some importance in medieval royal households.
 His duties of looking after the king's artillery train eventually required
 a large staff of gunners, founders, powder makers, mathematicians, surveyors,
 and even wagon drivers. In time, all of these men came under the control of
 the Board or Council of Ordnance, depending on the state involved, and
 they extended their responsibilities to take in the management of fortresses
 and, in some cases, the manufacture of all weapons for the army and navy."

 * Requires Gunnery School
 * Enables Research of Quicklime Shells
 * Recruits nearly all artillery


--==Ordnance Factory==--

"An Ordnance factory is a large-scale enterprise dedicated to the design and
 manufacture of guns and their associated equipment for the army and navy.

 The large-scale manufacturing of cannons is a monopoly often retained by the
 state, even in a republic: there is no need for anyone other than a 
 government to own large cannons! The creation of large guns is also a  
 difficult and expensive business, and the state is the only authority that
 can afford to do it. The number of guns available is therefore a measure of
 national prestige, and the ability to produce guns (rather than buy them from
 foreigners) is equally prestigious. An Ordnance factory adds lustre and
 firepower to armies. 

 Historically, most Ordnance factories began as royal establishments, giving
 the crown in each nation a source of cannons. These were needed for reducing
 the castles of recalcitrant barons! Even though politics moved on, the
 state control of cannon production remained. The royal household, or near- 
 ministrial status of the Master Gunner or Master of the Ordnance is proof
 that artillery was an important part of national or royal prestige. Size
 really did matter! The Ottoman Turks had a strong tradition of artillery
 production, in particular heavy siege guns."

 * Requires Cannon Foundry, Canister Shot
 * Enables Research of Explosive Shells
 * Recruits More Artillery


--==Palatial Estate==--

"A royal palace set in its own magnificant gardens and parkland, complete with
 annals, artfully arranged woodlands, and a tame population of beautified
 peasants and animals.

 This is a pure statement of the nation's wealth and power. No expense is 
 spared in order to give the monarch a suitable setting. Apart from the
 landscape itself, which is carefully ordered to banish wild nature and the
 lower orders, the palace itself is a magnificant structure, unrestrained 
 by any budgetary constraints. This is a setting for balls, masques,
 intrigues, and plots, all under the watchful eye of the monarch and his
 inner circle.

 Versailles was probably the most magnificant example of this kind of 
 palace. From the palace itself to the mock farm (complete with sheep washed
 in eau de cologne) for the Queen to play at being a shepherdess, no 
 expense was spared. It was a very public projection of the wealth and the
 prestige of the Bourbons and of France itself. The place was designed  
 to overawe and confound lesser men with its sumptuous, sybaritic comforts."

 * Requires Great Estates
 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * +0.9% to population growth
 * Reduces the chance of food shortages
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on Yield of Farm)


--==Parliament Chamber==--

"This is the beating heart of the nation, where the representatives of the
 people meet to form a government for their sovereign.

 An assembly of the great and good passes law in the monarch's name for the
 good order of the state, and not all these laws will be necessarily wanted
 by the monarch. A good deal of hard-headed bargaining between the sovereign,
 his ministers and the parliamentary assembly ensures that while no one is
 entirely happy, no one is ever entirely excluded from the exercise and
 benefits of power. The assembled represenatives allow the monarch to collect
 taxes, and in return, the state protects the liberties of subjects. The 
 monarch is as bound by laws as his subjects.

 Despite the involvement of the people in government, there need be no broad
 franchise. Property requirements, social class and religious affiliation 
 often limit the entitlement to a vote. However, that the monarchy bothers
 to consult its subjects even to a limited extent is a remarkable thing: the
 sovereign has ceded power to the people and stuck by this contract, 
 recognising that mostly-willing subjects are better than unwilling slaves
 cowed into obedience."

 * Needs to be the Capital, Constitutional Monarchy
 * +4 to Repression in the region
 * +8% Coin Bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 2
 * Recruits Militia


--==Peasant Farms==--

"The basis of all agriculture is the humble peasant, labouring in the field
 to bring in his master's crop, or to keep his master's animals alive.

 Day-to-day life for a peasant farmer has barely changed in a thousand years.
 It is a short, hard life of abject poverty and backbreaking labour. He can
 expect nothing better than to work and die in the same village, tilling 
 the same fields, his life bounded by the same horizon. Peasant farms are not
 terribly efficient: the landowners have little interest beyond their rents
 and tithes. The problem for them is that peasant economies are, by their very
 nature, cash poor and most income is in kind, and there is a limit to where
 you can spend a goat!

 Historically, life for a peasant was pretty much the same all over the world:
 work from dawn to dusk. In Russia, the peasants were serfs tied to the land
 and the property of the landowner as much as any cow or goat. In India, 
 peasants were a caste locked into their social position by hallowed custom. 
 The system eventually broke down in Western Europe thanks to 
 industrializatio needing a constant supply of workers and changes in land
 usage."

 * 1 Turn to Build
 * +0.3% to Population Growth
 * Reduces the chance of food shortages
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on Yield of Farming Region)
 * Enables research of Common Land Enclosures, Improved Animal Husbandry


--==Pleasure Gardens==--

"An ornamental garden, laid out in a formal style with pleasant walks to show 
 off horticultural workers and the fashionable elements of society equally.

 Public gardens are for the enjoyment of the leisured classes, and this 
 usually means the moneyed classes. The chance to wonder through a carefully
 tended landscape, enjoy a rural idyll and, possibly, a fashionable "pique-
 nique" while being seen by one's peers is definitely a pleasure of the rich.

 Historically, pleasure gardens often catered to a wide cilentele, not all of
 whom came to enjoy the flowers. Visitors who stayed after dark could enjoy
 entertainments of a very non-horticultural; though similarly earthy, nature. 
 The character of the gardens changed as night fell: they became the haunt of
 prostitutes, gambliers, mollies and the foully debauched. Vauxhill Gardens in
 London, for example, were notorious as playgrounds of vice and disgusting 
 iniquity, were a meal, a whore (of any kind) and a drunken evening of sin 
 were available to anyone with sufficient funds, if they could avoid a 
 mugging. The elaborate theatricals and fireworks staged at Vauxhill were 
 merely a bonus for watching revelers!"

 * Requires Theatre
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * +5 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +5 Happiness (Middle Classes)
 * Spawns Rakes. Maximum number: +1


--==Practice Fields==--

"An open space for warriors to practice horsemanship, break in and train 
 horses, and practice basic Cavalry tactics.

 Horses raised and trained in a tribe are used to constant human contact - 
 the lack of fences means that someone must always stays with the herd. 
 Horses are respected and never saddled: in turn riders develop their skills
 and fight better while not in the saddle!

 Historically, native warriors are accustomed to hunting with bows from
 horseback, and they adapted quickly to firing guns while mounted. Although
 slower to reload, guns had status value for the warriors that carried them
 into battle and on the hunt."

 * Requires Warrior Lodge
 * Converts the populace to Animism
 * Recruitment Capacity (units in training) : 1
 * Recruits All Native American units


--==Rice Farm==--

"By introducing organisation beyond the simple hand-to-mouth methods of 
 peasantry, rice yields are improved. 

 Rice does require extensive earthworks in terms of ditches, dykes, and 
 watercourses. Without a substantial and controllable supply of fresh water,
 crop yields will suffer. By moving away from a peasant-level growing 
 pattern, where each farmer is responsible for only his fields and nothing 
 else, a rice farm takes maximum advantage of the available land and water
 supply.

 Although rice is an important crop, it is not a complete diet in itself. 
 The causes and cures of dietery "diseases" (actually, deficiencies) where
 dimly understood by 18th century medical men, if indeed they were seen as
 being problems caused by a poor diet at all. Doctors knew fresh food helped
 people with scurvy, by why this worked was a complete mystery. Other dietery
 mysteries, such as beriberi, were equally impenetrable. In that case, white
 rice, often seen as a higher-status dish than brown, un-husked rice, can be
 the cause of beriberi. Rice husk often contains a relative large amount of
 thiamine (vitamin B1), the lack of which causes beriberi, a crippling 
 condition. The causes and cures of beriberi, which was endemic in some parts
 of Asia, remained unknown until the early 20th Century."

 * Requires Rice Paddies
 * +0.6% to Population Growth
 * Reduces the chance of food shortages
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on the Yield of the Rice Field)


--==Rice Farming Estates==--

"Large plantations allow for capital investment in rice production and 
 planning beyond the next harvest. Yields can rise as a result.

 The key, of course, to all large estates is the profit to be made by the
 owners and a general increase in trade beyond immediate markets. Plantations
 are hacked out of the surrounding forests and land made productive if there 
 is a home market to be satified. Foodstuffs always find a ready market, and
 rice is an easy commodity to ship without too much spoilage.

 Historically, rice growing eventually became an important part of the 
 economy in colonial Georgia and Carolina and, in turn, had a direct impact
 on the already-thriving slave trade. Slaves from rice-growing areas of
 Africa attracted a premium price because they were more useful to plantation
 owners, and this naturally influenced where slaves traders procured their
 unfortunate wares. Knowledgeable Africans were victimised by the trade and
 shipped to America precisely because of their skills; a strong back was 
 always useful, but a skilled labourer was much more useful - and profitable."

 * Requires Rice Farm
 * +0.9% to Population Growth
 * Reduces the chance of food shortages
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on the Yield of the Rice Field)


--==Rice Paddies==--

"Rice is a staple foodstuff for many people, and produces the best crops when
 grown in a system of flooded fields.

 Paddy fields require breakbacking labour by farmers to plant, maintain and
 harvest the rice crops. Flooded fields do not readily lend themselves to any
 kind of labour-saving devices; and all domesticated draft animals (other than
 the water buffalo) suffer when used to cultivate rice paddies. A large amount
 of manual labour is also required to maintain the elaborate system of 
 waterways and dykes needed to keep fields flooded to the right depth. Too 
 much water will ruin a rice crop just as surely as too little. All of this
 needs manual labour, a class of peasants to work the land constantly. 

 Historically, rice is one of the oldest cultivated crops; no one is quite 
 sure when and where it was first domesticated. Humans have domesticated wild
 rice streams more than once in seperate parts of the world, including dry 
 field varients that grow like other cereals. Rice remains one of the vital
 food crops of the world."

 * +0.3% to Population Growth
 * Reduces the chance of food shortages
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on the Yield of the Rice Field)


--==School==--

"A school offers education to the children of those willing to pay the fees.
 In some schools, subsidies from religious or charitable groups may be 
 available.

 Education is not a right or even considered much of privilege in many 
 societies. The skills of reading (a little), hunting, and beating 
 recalcitrant servants are the only worthwhile accomplishments of "proper
 gentlemen". A smattering of religious education puts a veneer of civilisation
 on top.

 The emerging middle and mercantile classes value education a good deal more
 highly, and pay for it to be drummed into their children! A few schools, 
 mostly the work of charities and religious bodies, exist to teach the 
 children of the deserving poor, or give orphans some kind of start to life.

 The British system of state education and "public schools" (which are
 actually non-state private schools) owe its confusing terminology to this
 period. Public schools were open to the public - the public who could pay - 
 while private schools took pupils as they saw fit. British mass "state
 education" would have to wait for another century. State education existed
 in some countries, but always ran the risk of creating an imbalance between
 learning and obedient loyalty if it was extended much beyond those with a 
 real stake in society."

 * Requires Town
 * -3 Happiness. Clamour for Reform
 * Spawns Gentlemen. Maximum Number: +1
 * Conducts technology research. Points per turn: 9
 * Enables research of Empiricism, Physiocracy, Social Contract


--==Seminary==--

"This Catholic establishment educates those hoping to join the priesthood, 
 making sure that their instruction is firmed routed in Church dogma.

 The syllabus concentrates on giving students the theological, spiritual
 and philosophical tools needed to carry out their duties, as well as a 
 solid "Classical" education to produce men who will be well-respected 
 members of society. Where science and the natural world are touch upon, it
 is always with an emphasis on how they reveal God's grand plan of creation.
 A seminary is not intended to produce an enquiring mind, only a very 
 disciplined one.

 Historically, the seminary system owes its existance to the forces of the
 Counter-Reformation, a movement that aimed to defeat the heretical, 
 Protestant views of Martin Luther and his ilk. The Council of Trent 
 recognised education as a weapon in its struggles against schism. The Church
 required an educated and intelligent group of priests, who could argue 
 successfully in its defence. While the 18th Cenutry is seen as the "age of
 Enlightenment", the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation had yet to play
 themselves out completely and the Church's place in the hearts of men, 
 affairs of state and God's universe was still open to argument. In parts of
 Europe, the Catholic Church was still a tremendous force for social, 
 political and scientific conservatism."

 * Requires Jesuit College, Catholic Nation
 * +4 Happiness for the Catholic population (Lower Classes)
 * Converts the populace to Catholicism
 * Spawns religious agents. Maximum Number: +1


--==Settlement Fortifications==--

"Defences constructed around a town will hold off many attacks, but cannot be
 expected to hold off heavy attacks forever. 

 Settlements defences are seldom allowed to be truly impregnable defences. 
 Practical matters such as cost, or the need to house a growing population, 
 often stop city fathers from investing fully in their own defences. Instead,
 their defences are good enough to deter a casual attack, and good enough to
 hold up an enemy's advance. Interlocking fields of fire can sweep attackers
 off the glacis as the defenders reap a terrible toll. It takes a disciplined
 approach to reduce a settlement's fortification to a point where a breach is
 "practicable" and the town can be taken. 

 Historically, the town garrison was often offered the "honours of war" and  
 allowed to march away with their weapons, but only if they gave up without a
 fight. The townsfolk were likely to be spared of any indignity. Once, 
 however, the attackers had launched an assault, then the town, its 
 inhibitants and the garrison were fair game for any amount of pillaging and
 looting. The assault was a dangerous business, and a lawless orgy afterwards
 was often the soldiers' reward."

 * Surrounds city approaches with a ring of artillery forts, protecting it 
   from assault


--==Shipyard==--

"A shipwright needs somewhere to build ships, even if this is only a slipway
 and a timber yard - but any piece of firm foreshore will do for smaller
 vessels!

 The services of a smithy within the yard are also very useful, as most ships
 use a surprising amount of bespoke ironwork in their construction, not to
 mention hundreds of nails. A shipward cab produce smaller vessels and carry
 out repairs and maintenance too. Careening is a regular chore for wooden 
 vessels: hulls become fouled with weeds and barnicales that cause drag and 
 slow the vessel. A shipway has all the gear necessary to empty a ship, then 
 haul it onto a beach or slipway so that it can be scraped clean and washed
 by the tides.

 Historically, shipwards needed a good source of timber close by, or were on
 the estuaries of navigable rivers (so that wood could be shipped from 
 further inland to the yard). Buckler's Hard on the Beaulieu River in the New
 Forest in southern England is a typical shipyard in where it was constructed.
 However, it is larger than many, and had an exclusive staff of artisans and
 could handle two ships at once. The shipwrights of Buckler's Hard built HMS
 Agamemnonm, Admiral Horatio Nelson's favourite ship, in 1781; many of the
 crew were equally attached to their captain, and followed him to later 
 commands."

 * Recruits: Basic Battle Vessels


--==Silver Mine==--

"Mining is a dirty, dangerous business. Men hack out all manner of valuable 
 minerals by hand, risking life and limb for the mine owner's profits.

 Lit only by candles (which they must by themselves) or lamps with naked  
 flames, most miners are labouring in conditions that resembles hell on 
 Earth. In some mines firedamp (methane) is a constant risk thanks to the
 candles - an explosion can happen at any time. The risk of a slow death is
 there tool; stone dust and poisonous minerals such as arsenic: ruin a man
 as surely any explosion.

 there were also accidents. Miners are paid only for the valuable minerals
 that they extrace, so there is little incentive to carry out much work
 for safety's sake. Pit props may keep the roof from collapsing, but putting
 them in does not earn any payment - the miners may even be charged for the
 materials! And it is not just men who labour below ground. Women often pull
 carts from the working face to the surface. Children needed less space and
 air than adults, and make ideal support workers, clearing tunnels and 
 bringing food and water to the miners. In smaller seams, children are the
 perfect labourers.

 All of this is secondary, however, to the business of making money, and 
 mining can be a very profitable industry."

 +X to Region Wealth (Depends on the Yield of the Mine)


--==Small X Plantation / Native==--

"An area of land given over to the growing of a crop for trade.

 Plantations can turn a large profit for their owners, providing the seasons
 are kind. The divisions of lands into small sections under a series of 
 private owners means that profits can be made for personal gain. These
 profits can them be used to buy a plantation owner power and prestige 
 within their society. As land-holding becomes concentrated in the hands of
 a few people, the chance for profit and for investment in those lands also
 grow. Income is not diluted into feeding many farmers and their families. 

 With large plantations it also becomes practical to hold slaves on a larger
 scale. The slave trade was not something that was carried out only by 
 Europeans. Many Native American tribes were also in the habit of keeping 
 slaves - both bought from traders and captured in warfare - to work their
 lands."

 * 15 Units of X produced each turn


--==Small Coffee Plantation==--

"A plantation is an estate carved from the virgin forests of a new territory
 for growing one cash crop for export to the home market. 

 There are tremendous profits to be made in growing crops to satisfy the 
 demand for luxury goods in Europe and elsewhere. There are also tremendous
 risks: crops may fail, slaves may revolt and, once a cargo is gathered, the
 ship carrying it home may sink!

 Plantations are labour-intensive, especially during harvest time. They may
 not be necessarily profitable without indentured or slave labour. Slaves
 are self-explanatory, but indentured labour was the result of the European 
 taste for transporting convicted felons to their colonies. Once a criminal
 record, several years of forced or cheap labour was imposed on him or her,
 and this indenture could be traded to a plantation owner. It was possible
 to buy out an indenture and become free, an option that was rarely available
 to slaves.

 Originally, the English word "plantation" was used to refer to any colony
 "planted" in a new location, even the Scottish settlers in Ulster were a 
 plantation. There was no implication of farming one cash crop." 

 * 2 Turns to Build
 * 15 Sacks of Coffee produced each turn


--==Small Cotton Plantation==--

"A plantation is an estate carved from the virgin forests of a new territory
 for growing one cash crop for export to the home market. 

 There are tremendous profits to be made in growing crops to satisfy the 
 demand for luxury goods in Europe and elsewhere. There are also tremendous
 risks: crops may fail, slaves may revolt and, once a cargo is gathered, the
 ship carrying it home may sink!

 Plantations are labour-intensive, especially during harvest time. They may
 not be necessarily profitable without indentured or slave labour. Slaves
 are self-explanatory, but indentured labour was the result of the European 
 taste for transporting convicted felons to their colonies. Once a criminal
 record, several years of forced or cheap labour was imposed on him or her,
 and this indenture could be traded to a plantation owner. It was possible
 to buy out an indenture and become free, an option that was rarely available
 to slaves.

 Originally, the English word "plantation" was used to refer to any colony
 "planted" in a new location, even the Scottish settlers in Ulster were a 
 plantation. There was no implication of farming one cash crop."

 * 2 Turns to Build
 * 15 Bales of Cotton produced each turn


--==Small Spice Plantation==--

"A plantation is an estate carved from the virgin forests of a new territory
 for growing one cash crop for export to the home market. 

 There are tremendous profits to be made in growing crops to satisfy the 
 demand for luxury goods in Europe and elsewhere. There are also tremendous
 risks: crops may fail, slaves may revolt and, once a cargo is gathered, the
 ship carrying it home may sink!

 Plantations are labour-intensive, especially during harvest time. They may
 not be necessarily profitable without indentured or slave labour. Slaves
 are self-explanatory, but indentured labour was the result of the European 
 taste for transporting convicted felons to their colonies. Once a criminal
 record, several years of forced or cheap labour was imposed on him or her,
 and this indenture could be traded to a plantation owner. It was possible
 to buy out an indenture and become free, an option that was rarely available
 to slaves.

 Originally, the English word "plantation" was used to refer to any colony
 "planted" in a new location, even the Scottish settlers in Ulster were a 
 plantation. There was no implication of farming one cash crop." 

 * 2 Turns to Build
 * 15 Pounds of Spice produced each turn


--==Small Sugar Plantation==--

"A plantation is an estate carved from the virgin forests of a new territory
 for growing one cash crop for export to the home market. 

 There are tremendous profits to be made in growing crops to satisfy the 
 demand for luxury goods in Europe and elsewhere. There are also tremendous
 risks: crops may fail, slaves may revolt and, once a cargo is gathered, the
 ship carrying it home may sink!

 Plantations are labour-intensive, especially during harvest time. They may
 not be necessarily profitable without indentured or slave labour. Slaves
 are self-explanatory, but indentured labour was the result of the European 
 taste for transporting convicted felons to their colonies. Once a criminal
 record, several years of forced or cheap labour was imposed on him or her,
 and this indenture could be traded to a plantation owner. It was possible
 to buy out an indenture and become free, an option that was rarely available
 to slaves.

 Originally, the English word "plantation" was used to refer to any colony
 "planted" in a new location, even the Scottish settlers in Ulster were a 
 plantation. There was no implication of farming one cash crop." 

 * 2 Turns to Build
 * 15 Loaves of Sugar produced each turn


--==Small Tea Plantation==--

"A plantation is an estate carved from the virgin forests of a new territory
 for growing one cash crop for export to the home market. 

 There are tremendous profits to be made in growing crops to satisfy the 
 demand for luxury goods in Europe and elsewhere. There are also tremendous
 risks: crops may fail, slaves may revolt and, once a cargo is gathered, the
 ship carrying it home may sink!

 Plantations are labour-intensive, especially during harvest time. They may
 not be necessarily profitable without indentured or slave labour. Slaves
 are self-explanatory, but indentured labour was the result of the European 
 taste for transporting convicted felons to their colonies. Once a criminal
 record, several years of forced or cheap labour was imposed on him or her,
 and this indenture could be traded to a plantation owner. It was possible
 to buy out an indenture and become free, an option that was rarely available
 to slaves.

 Originally, the English word "plantation" was used to refer to any colony
 "planted" in a new location, even the Scottish settlers in Ulster were a 
 plantation. There was no implication of farming one cash crop." 

 * 2 Turns to Build
 * 15 Chests of Tea produced each turn


--==Small Tobacco Plantation==--

"A plantation is an estate carved from the virgin forests of a new territory
 for growing one cash crop for export to the home market. 

 There are tremendous profits to be made in growing crops to satisfy the 
 demand for luxury goods in Europe and elsewhere. There are also tremendous
 risks: crops may fail, slaves may revolt and, once a cargo is gathered, the
 ship carrying it home may sink!

 Plantations are labour-intensive, especially during harvest time. They may
 not be necessarily profitable without indentured or slave labour. Slaves
 are self-explanatory, but indentured labour was the result of the European 
 taste for transporting convicted felons to their colonies. Once a criminal
 record, several years of forced or cheap labour was imposed on him or her,
 and this indenture could be traded to a plantation owner. It was possible
 to buy out an indenture and become free, an option that was rarely available
 to slaves.

 Originally, the English word "plantation" was used to refer to any colony
 "planted" in a new location, even the Scottish settlers in Ulster were a 
 plantation. There was no implication of farming one cash crop." 

 * 2 Turns to Build
 * 15 Barrels of Tobacco produced each turn


--==Somerset House==--

"This is a national government building, purpose-built to house many of the
 important departments of state in a suitably awe-inspiring style.

 Built on the Strand, Somerset House was in a neo-classical style, and was
 not unusual in having its own water gates and docks in the basement. 
 Eightteenth Century roads were fairly appalling, so the River Thames was the
 main highway through London and well frequented by Government officals.The
 Thames was also the main sewer for London, which may have made it difficult
 for casual onlookers to distinguish between politicans and lumps of dung.
 
 When Somerset House was designed, it was intended to be a home for most of 
 the Government, at least according to the Act of Parliament in 1775 that
 enabled the work. Among other departments, space was to be available for
 the Salt Office, the Stamp Office, the Tax Office, the Navy Office (later 
 the Admiralty), the Navy Victualling Office, the Public Lottery Office,
 the Hawkers and Pedlar Office, the Hackney Coach Office, the Surveyor 
 General of the Crowns Land Offce, the Auditors of the Imprest Office, the
 Pipe Office, the Offices of the Duchies of Lancaster and of Cornwall, the
 Office of the Ordinance, the Bargemaster's House, and the King's Barge 
 Houses. Over the next decades, additional building work allowed the Royal
 Academy, the Royal Society and the Society of Antiquities to find rooms, 
 not to mention the University of London as some government tenants either
 moved out or were closed down."

 * Maximum Level of Government Building in London
 * +1 Happiness (Middle Classes)
 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +5 to Repression in the region
 * +10% Coin Bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training): 3
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Recruits Militia


--==Spice Warehouse==--

"Warehousing a cash crop allows control over the supply of goods, and
 therefore greater profits as the vagaries of market prices have less effect.

 By holding onto a crop until the market is "right", plantation owners can
 get the best price for their harvest. They can also calm the violatility of
 the commodity's market by evening out the supply over the course of a year,
 rather than having a harvest glut and then a shortage for the rest of the
 time. A warehouse also allows plantation owners to wait until the seasons and
 winds are favourable for a fast sea journey back to the homeland; shipping
 losses and transit times are both reduced. Finally, Warehousing also allows
 smaller crops to be consolidating for shipping back to the home market, and
 for the crop to be properly graded. The finest parts of the harvest can be
 sold at the highest price, rather than simply being lumped in with any old
 druss."

 * Requires Large Spice Plantation
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * 40 Pounds of Spice produced each turn


--==State Capitol==--

"This magnificant building is the embodiment of the Republic and of the 
 people's continuing involvement in their own laws and governance.

 The state capitol of a republican province is the seat of government, and
 place where the to the good government of their region. At regional level
 government is usually divided into an upper and lower chamber, although both
 are elected. The regional governor himself may still be an appointee of the
 central government, a useful way of balancing local and national interests.
 All that said, little expense is spared on the capitol building itself, as
 this is a considerable source of pride and unity.

 Despite the seemingly democratic nature of the system, there is no guarantee
 that anything approaching all the adult population will actually have a vote.
 Historically, the extension of the franchise to the popular majority is a 
 late development in many democracies and republics. The US state of New 
 Jersey, for example, allowed women the vote after the Revolution in 1775,
 only to take the right away in 1807!"

 * Requires State House
 * +3 to Repression in the Region
 * +6% Coin bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 2
 * Recruits: Basic Provincial Militia


--==State House==--

"A republic stands for government of its people, for the people and (to some
 extent) by the people, and it is here that the people's representatives meet
 to discuss local issues.

 Republics maintain representative government structures at a local level,  
 with each province eventually having its own assembly as it becomes rich or
 populous enough to justify it. Locally elected worthes enact local laws,
 appoint of form the judiciary, raise militias, and exercise all the other
 functions of government, sometimes with a degree of common sense.

 Represenative government is the basis of a republic, although the 
 qualifications needed to be a voter are often restrictive. Represenation
 of "the people" is not necessarily democratic: most republics prevent the
 unwashed masses from voting by having property, age, sex, class or religious
 restrictions. Of these, property and social classes qualifications are by
 far the most common - the logic being that only men of substance have a 
 properly vested interest in their nation's survival, and the wisdom to
 exercise their franchise correctly. Historically, even the Founding Fathers
 of America were very careful in establishing that only men with property
 could vote - universal suffrage was an alien and frightening idea!

 * Requires Governor's Residence
 * +2 to Repression in the region
 * +4% Coin bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Queue) : 1
 * Recruits: Basic Infantry and Cavalry


--==State Madrassa==--

"A madrassa is an Islamic place of learning, where Muslims can study not only
 their faith, but also the law, jurisprudence, science and history.

 These schools are often attached to mosques, but they do not offer religious
 instruction alone. Those who wish to do so many study the Qur'an, and become
 honoured as a "hafiz" when they have memorised the whole text. Others may
 choose a wide syllabus and learn additional subjects such as history, logic,
 shari'ah law, the Hadith - the recorded sayings and deeds of the Prophet,
 peace be upon him - and correct intrepretation of the Qur'an. Those who
 finish their studies will gain status as scholars and imams, and become 
 leaders in the wider commu?nity expected to intrepret the law and religion
 for their fellow Muslims.

 Historically, some Madrassas offered their pupils an even wider choice of
 subjects, including Arabic literature, English, French, Dutch as other 
 useful trade languages as well as science, mathematics and world history.
 The scholars produced were intellectually round individuals, often better
 prepared for later studies than the counterparts in Europe. They were 
 even madrassas that specialised as medical schools."

 * +4 Happiness for the Muslim Population (lower classes)
 * Converts the populace to Islam
 * Spawns religious agents. Maximum Number: +1


--==Steam Drydock==--

"A steam drydock is a magnificant achievement of an industrializing nation:
 a manufactory of ships without equal!

 The kind of beam engines used to pump water around a canal system (and drain
 mines) can drain a drydock efficiently. Using steam to power these engines
 is an obvious keep, but once steam engines are in a dockyard this goes 
 far beyond pumping seawater around.

 This can be used to drive sawmills, lathes, even block-making machines and
 as the lifting power for dockside cranes. The efficiency gains - admittedly
 with some new risk of fire, as the main shipbuilding material is wood - are
 impressive!

 The scale of the military-naval industry could be large in maritime 
 nations, even discounting civilian yards. The British Royal Navy dockyards
 were the largest industrial organisation in the world during the 18th
 Century, and could make every part of a warship from a mast to a nail;
 guns were the exception, and they came from the Board of Ordnance. The 
 ropewalk at Chatham, Kent, produced anchor ropes and was the longest brick
 building in Europe when constructed. It is still producing high quality
 ropes for ships today. The dockyards were so important that damaging them
 by fire or explosion carried the death penalty - something not actually
 repealed until 1971 (two years after the UK death penalty was finally
 abolished for murder)."

 * Requires Drydock
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Recruits all Battleships


--==Steam Engine Factory==--

"This huge workshop creates the steam engine that provide motive power for 
 other factories and their machinery; it is a birthplace of a new industrial
 age.

 Steam-powered machines offer a way of creating unlimited goods of many kinds
 in an efficient manner. This enormous ironworks designs, develops and 
 creates new static steam engines of many kinds, from the beam engines used
 to pump water out of mines, to the stationary engines used to haul plateway
 wagons, and the complicated expansion engines that provide power to other
 machines. Each new technical advance can be applied to work of the shop
 itself, and other manufactories soon benefit from any improvements, if they
 pay for the engineers' work.

 The "shock of the new" in the 18th Century was immense and nowhere more so 
 than in the factories and mills that steam engines made possible. Workers'
 lives were transformed overnight, and they had to master many strange new
 concepts: steam engines could be dangerous things. It's worth remembering
 that many workers were killed by poorly installed or maintained engines, 
 boiled alive thanks to steam explosions or mangled by a lack of safety 
 features. Safety valves to release excess pressure were fitted not only to
 save lives, but also the expense of rebuilding if a boiler did explode!"

 * Requires Ironmaster's Works
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * +X Coins to region wealth (Depends on the wealth of the town)
 * +14 coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enables research of Interchangable Parts


--==Steam-Powered Cloth Mill==--

"A mill powered by steam engines can produce cheap goods of good, reliable
 quality on large machines.

 Profits from the mill can be enormous, as the machines run day and night,
 for as long as the steam engines have coal and water, and there are raw
 materials to process. Usually there is a central engine, and power for
 various machine is transferred by a series of axles and belt drives. Powered
 machinery is dangerous, and injuries among workers are common. This is 
 particularly true among child workers, who are small enough to crawl beneath
 the looms and fix problems as they occur. It is all to easy to get caught
 in the whirling machinery and lose a limb, or worse.

 Historically, workers saw steam power as a threat to the livelihoods. "Plug
 riots" where workers destroyed boiler plugs to render steam engines useless
 were common in Britain. The Luddite movement was so threatening that
 machine breaking was made a capital crime, and men were executed for it.
 The French term "sabotage" originally referred to workers throwing their 
 wooden sabots (shoes) into machinery to cause stoppages. The running of 
 mills night and day did create jobs, but it also introduced the tyranny of
 obeying the clock through shift works."

 * Requires Water-Powered Cloth Mill
 * Enhances national prestige
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on the wealth of town)
 * +18 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enables research of Mass Production


--==Steam-Powered Sugar Mill==--

"A sugar mill allows the refinement of raw sugar cane into processed sugar,
 a delicacy easily transported to the almost insatiable home market.

 A sugar mill takes sugar cane and crushes it to extract the juice: when
 powered by steam, the crushing gears can extract much more juice from the
 plants. The juice is boiled down until it crystallizes as sugar of various
 grades. As might be imagined, the process is hot (especially in tropical
 climates) and dangerous to the workers: injuries from being dragged into
 the machinery are not uncommon.

 Milling improvements allowed more sugar cane to be processed, and make the
 whole process more efficient as well. Historically, even though European
 demand seemed to have no limits the price of sugar actually fell over time
 as manufacturing improved. A healthy trade in machine parts for mills also
 grew up between Europe and the sugar-growing regions."

 * Requires Sugar Warehouse
 * 60 loaves of sugar produced each turn
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Steam-Pumped Gold Mine==--

"As soon as a mine delves below the water table, water is a problem and  
 flooding a constant danger.

 Pumping or lifting the water allowes the miners to reach richer, deeper
 mineral seams. A steam beam engine, linked to a pump, can lift enough water
 to make it economically sensible to dig deep shafts.

 Historically, Thomas Newcomen was the first develop a practical "atmospheric"
 engine for draining deep mines sometime around 1710. His design had problems
 and was very inefficient, but it worked well enough to be widely adopted 
 where coal was cheap. It was an atmospheric engine because the steam cooled,
 thus sucking the piston down the cylinder. The need to repeatedly warm and
 cool the machine made it wasteful.

 Jame Watt's beam engine design was altogether more efficient. He had a 
 seperate steam condenser, and kept the cylinder at a constant temperature.
 He as also lucky in his choice of working partner, Mathew Boulton, who proved
 an astute business manager and lobbyist; he even pursuaded the British
 Parliament to extend their patent, guaranteeing them further profit!

 * -1 Happiness from Industrialisation (Lower Classes)
 * +X Coins to Region Worth (Depends on the Yield of the Mine)


--==Steam-Pumped Iron Mine==--

"As soon as a mine delves below the water table, water is a problem and  
 flooding a constant danger.

 Pumping or lifting the water allowes the miners to reach richer, deeper
 mineral seams. A steam beam engine, linked to a pump, can lift enough water
 to make it economically sensible to dig deep shafts.

 Historically, Thomas Newcomen was the first develop a practical "atmospheric"
 engine for draining deep mines sometime around 1710. His design had problems
 and was very inefficient, but it worked well enough to be widely adopted 
 where coal was cheap. It was an atmospheric engine because the steam cooled,
 thus sucking the piston down the cylinder. The need to repeatedly warm and
 cool the machine made it wasteful.

 Jame Watt's beam engine design was altogether more efficient. He had a 
 seperate steam condenser, and kept the cylinder at a constant temperature.
 He as also lucky in his choice of working partner, Mathew Boulton, who proved
 an astute business manager and lobbyist; he even pursuaded the British
 Parliament to extend their patent, guaranteeing them further profit!

 * -1 Happiness from Industrialisation (Lower Classes)
 * +X Coins to Region Worth (Depends on the Yield of the Mine)


--==Steam-Pumped Silver Mine==--

"As soon as a mine delves below the water table, water is a problem and  
 flooding a constant danger.

 Pumping or lifting the water allowes the miners to reach richer, deeper
 mineral seams. A steam beam engine, linked to a pump, can lift enough water
 to make it economically sensible to dig deep shafts.

 Historically, Thomas Newcomen was the first develop a practical "atmospheric"
 engine for draining deep mines sometime around 1710. His design had problems
 and was very inefficient, but it worked well enough to be widely adopted 
 where coal was cheap. It was an atmospheric engine because the steam cooled,
 thus sucking the piston down the cylinder. The need to repeatedly warm and
 cool the machine made it wasteful.

 Jame Watt's beam engine design was altogether more efficient. He had a 
 seperate steam condenser, and kept the cylinder at a constant temperature.
 He as also lucky in his choice of working partner, Mathew Boulton, who proved
 an astute business manager and lobbyist; he even pursuaded the British
 Parliament to extend their patent, guaranteeing them further profit!

 * -1 Happiness from Industrialisation (Lower Classes)
 * +X Coins to Region Worth (Depends on the Yield of the Mine)


--==Subsistence Farms==--

"An area set aside for the care and cultivation of livestock and crops.

 Livestock and crops were a valuable commodity, allowing the population to 
 grow without relying on what food can be found by hunting and gathering. They
 provide a constant food source, more than the meat brought in by hunting 
 parties.

 Although the processes involved in keeping farms went against the grain of
 Native Americans' religion, they did keep crops. They tended to favour corn,
 beans, and squash, crops they referred to as "the three sisters."

 * +0.1% to population growth
 * Reduces the chance of food shortages
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on the Yield of the Farm)


--==Sugar Warehouse==--

"Warehousing a cash crop allows control over the supply of goods, and
 therefore greater profits as the vagaries of market prices have less effect.

 By holding onto a crop until the market is "right", plantation owners can
 get the best price for their harvest. They can also calm the violatility of
 the commodity's market by evening out the supply over the course of a year,
 rather than having a harvest glut and then a shortage for the rest of the
 time. A warehouse also allows plantation owners to wait until the seasons and
 winds are favourable for a fast sea journey back to the homeland; shipping
 losses and transit times are both reduced. Finally, Warehousing also allows
 smaller crops to be consolidating for shipping back to the home market, and
 for the crop to be properly graded. The finest parts of the harvest can be
 sold at the highest price, rather than simply being lumped in with any old
 druss."

 * Requires Large Sugar Plantation
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * 40 Loaves of Sugar produced each turn


--==Star Fort==--

"A star fort is an enormous system of bastions and defensive positions with
 interlocking fields of fire: an intimidating obstacle to any attacker!

 In the Medieval period, castles had relied on high walls to make them 
 impregnable and to give them a sense of overwhelming grandeur - part of their
 purpose was simply to intimidate lesser men. With the advent of gunpowder
 artillery, a different defensive scheme was required. Fortifications sank 
 into the ground, protected by enormously thick walls, deep counterscarps
 and a sloping bank or glacis that would, hopefully, cause cannon shots to
 ricochet over the defences rather than penetrate.

 Passive defence, however, is not enough. The layout of projecting bastions
 in a star fort creates interlocking fields of flanking fire to destroy 
 attackers as they approach over the sloping glacis. In theory, no 
 attacker should reach the wall without coming under sustained and murderous
 attack from the defenders. The star shape evolved so that no part of the 
 defences would be "blind" to fire from somewhere within the fort. The
 whole structure is, in fact, one massive killing zone for artillery weapons
 and defensive musketry.

 Historically, the most notable creator of star forts was the French military
 engineering genius, Marshall Varban (1633-1707); his name is virtually
 synonymous with the design. His defences at Verdun were still in use during
 the battle there in 1916 during the First World War."

 * Requires Artillery Fort


--==Tea Warehouse==--

"Warehousing a cash crop allows control over the supply of goods, and
 therefore greater profits as the vagaries of market prices have less effect.

 By holding onto a crop until the market is "right", plantation owners can
 get the best price for their harvest. They can also calm the violatility of
 the commodity's market by evening out the supply over the course of a year,
 rather than having a harvest glut and then a shortage for the rest of the
 time. A warehouse also allows plantation owners to wait until the seasons and
 winds are favourable for a fast sea journey back to the homeland; shipping
 losses and transit times are both reduced. Finally, Warehousing also allows
 smaller crops to be consolidating for shipping back to the home market, and
 for the crop to be properly graded. The finest parts of the harvest can be
 sold at the highest price, rather than simply being lumped in with any old
 druss."

 * Requires Large Tea Plantation
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * 40 Chests of Tea produced each turn


--==Tenanted Farms==--

"Tenent farmers are a large social step up from the humble peasant. They
 may toil as hard, but they do so for their own profit not that of a distant
 master. 

 Tenanted farms primarily produce cash crops. The landlord expects his rent
 to be paid, so subsistence farming is a waste of time, as it will not 
 guarantee any income. Successful tenants, who develop their land, can become
 quietly wealthy men and may be able to buy their farms.

 For a landlord the main benefit of tenanted farms is that income from them is
 in cash, not kind. Absentee landlords can live the high life in a city; they
 rarely need trouble themselves with the mud and muck of the countryside - as 
 long as they have trustworthy agents and tenants! A leisured class of 
 "gentlemen farmers" and rentiers therefore arises, all thanks to the efforts
 of tenant farmers.

 Historically, tenanted farms made good profit but, like all farming, were 
 subject to the vagaries of weather. Tenancies could be, and were, passed down
 the generations of families, something that allows tenants to see a point in
 developing "their" land with their cash surplus."

 * Requires Peasant Farms, Common Land Enclosures
 * +0.5% to Population Growth
 * Reduces the Chance of Food Shortages
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on Yield of Farming Region)
 * Enables research of Four Field Crop Rotation


--==Thakur's Court==--

"As a province grows, the central government appoints its own governor with
 greater powers, rather than relying on the services of a member of the local,
 minor gentry. 

 No matter what his title - Lord Lieutenant (to the Monarch), Governor, Pasha,
 Thalur - the man appointed to oversee a province is a minor monarch, even in 
 a republic! His main duties are tax raising and defence, and he is the 
 government's man rather than a senior member of the local community. He is
 both protector and enforcer. He can enforce the law as he sees fit, ignore
 it when inconvenient and even grant pardons. He can impress men into military
 service and use them against any who dare to rebel. He has to power of life 
 and death over his subjects - although he may have to use the justice system
 rather than simply having people shot. And, best of all, in an age of 
 "interest" he has the power to fill his own and his friend's purses at the
 state's expense. 

 Historically, office holders in the 18th Century (almost regardless of 
 country or government style) seemed to have trouble keeping the state's money
 out of their own pockets. It was acceptable for a man to appoint himself or 
 a friend as a contractor, tax farmer or monopolist and make a handsome 
 profit."

 * Requires Zamindars Court
 * 1 to Repression in the Region
 * 2% Coin Bonus to region tax income
 * Recruitment Capacity (units in training) : 1
 * Recruits: Infantry and Cavalry Units


--==Theatre==--

"Sensation and spectacle for the people can keep them occupied and 
 entertained, not to mention distracted from politics.

 A night at the theatre is a bawdy, rambunctions, rowdy, exciting, and novel
 experience. The theatre holds up a mirror to society, and sometimes society
 does not like what it sees. The audience shows little respect, heckling is an
 art, and performers play to their claques rather than follow the text. Yet
 each great performance, each actor-manager, each new work, is eagerly  
 followed by the chattering classes.

 Historically, theatres could mean a great deal of trouble for the 
 authorities. Riots were not uncommon if unpopular or provocative plays were
 staged, and David Garrick, the leading light of the London stage, was forced
 to kneel in apology before a fickle audience he had offended. They were in 
 the process in completely wrecking his theatre and his liveihood! Because of
 this public excitability, and the potential for subversive propaganda, in the
 interests of "public morality" all governments closely monitored theatre
 performances. Indeed, Great Britain only scrapped censorship in theatres
 in 1968 when the Lord Chancellor's Office no longer required London theatres
 to have approval for every production."

 * Requires Bawdyhouse
 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +4 Happiness (Middle Classes)
 * Spawns Rakes. Maximum Number: +1


--==The British Museum==--

"The British Museum is a collection of curiosities, antiquities and books that
 is the envy of the civilized world.

 Many 18th Century gentlemen collecters exhibited a "cabinet of curiosities"
 to friends and rivals. Competition for the most noteworthy and prestigious
 items soon meant that "cabinets" were often whole rooms or suites set aside
 for this expensive hobby. Studying the curiosities themselves also became a 
 respectible field of scholarly endeavour by antiquarians, a strange collection
 themselves of dusty, rum coves with limited social skills.

 The British Museum began as one of these collections, but George II donated
 the Old Royal Library, thus guaranteeing that every book ever published in
 Britain would end up on its library shelves. Further equally generous gifts,
 such as Garrick's library of plays, and shrewd purchases made sure that the
 collection of antiquities grew at a prodigious rate. Sir William Hamiliton
 (the husband of Emma Hamiliton, the mistress of Admiral Horatio Nelson) 
 profited quite handsomely when he sold his collection of Roman and Greek
 items to the Museum. He had collected them, as a hobby, for next to nothing
 while the ambassador of Naples, Italy. It probably took his mind off being
 cuckolded.

 The Museum also became home to spoils of exploration and conquests: objects
 collected during Captain Cook's expedition to the South Seas were exhibited
 at the museum for a time. The Rosetta stone also ended up in the Museum,
 having been captured from the French after Napoleon's abortive attempt to
 conquer Egypt."

 * Highest level of Museum in London
 * +5 Happiness (Middle Classes)
 * +5 Happiness (Nobility)
 * Enhances National Prestige


--==Tobacco Warehouse==--

"Warehousing a cash crop allows control over the supply of goods, and
 therefore greater profits as the vagaries of market prices have less effect.

 By holding onto a crop until the market is "right", plantation owners can
 get the best price for their harvest. They can also calm the violatility of
 the commodity's market by evening out the supply over the course of a year,
 rather than having a harvest glut and then a shortage for the rest of the
 time. A warehouse also allows plantation owners to wait until the seasons and
 winds are favourable for a fast sea journey back to the homeland; shipping
 losses and transit times are both reduced. Finally, Warehousing also allows
 smaller crops to be consolidating for shipping back to the home market, and
 for the crop to be properly graded. The finest parts of the harvest can be
 sold at the highest price, rather than simply being lumped in with any old
 druss."

 * Requires Large Tobacco Plantation
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * 40 Barrels of Tobacco produced each turn


--==Trading Port==--

"Shipping goods of any kind by land is difficult and expensive. Any item that
 has to travel more than a few miles goes by ship wherever possible.

 Most good are simply terrible, and bulk cargoes (such as coal) must go by
 ship anyway: it is the only way of moving goods cheaply and relatively 
 quickly. It also makes the whole world a marketplace, even if the customers
 are not sure what to make of the goods being sent (British merchants 
 insisted on exporting heavy woollen cloth to India for years, even though
 there was no obvious market for it.)

 Coastal trade can be also very profitable. For example, a "cheese fleet" 
 did nothing but shuttle back and forth between London and the northwest of
 England, bring Cheshire cheeses to the London market. By a happy accident
 of geology, Cheshire had rock salt mines that provided a preservative for 
 the local cheese to make the sea journey to London. Although salty, this
 was undoubtedly healthier than most foods on a gentleman's table in the 
 18th Century!"

 * Improves Export Capacity (Increases Trade Values)
 * +2 Trade Routes Possible (Sea)
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on the Town's Wealth)
 * +3 Coins Per Turn to Town Wealth in the region
 * Recruits: Basic Battle Vessels, Basic Trading Ships


--==Tribal Drill Grounds==--

"A forming training area for tribal warriors to perfect battle skills and 
 learn necessary discipline.

 Protecting family and land is the first responsibility of a young warrior.
 Learning weapon skills during the hunt gives the man the skills of a fighter;
 learning to fight alongside others makes him a useful warrior, and a credit
 to his tribe. 

 Historically, warriors used the bow and arrow with astounding skill, thanks
 to constant hunting. Other daily tools such as the hatchet-like tomahawk were
 useful in war too. Oddly, in some tribes it was the custom to bury tomahawks
 once a war was ended (hence "bury the hatchet"). The tribes however, never
 developed an organised approach to warfare to match that of the European
 invaders."

 * Settlement of Conquered Native American Tribe
 * Converts the populace to Animism
 * Recruit Capacity (Units in Training) : 1


--==Vineyards==--

 A vineyard is a farm dedicated to the growing of grapes and the production
 of wine, but on a relatively small scale.

 Wine is one of the pleasures of life for all classes of societies and, along
 with ale, is the standard drink of many Europeans thanks to poor quality 
 water supplies in towns and cities. No one actually cares about the public
 health implications of wells and open sewers in close proximity to each
 other!

 The patterns of growth and consumption of wine in the 18th Century often had
 some odds roots. The British tale for "claret" (Bordeaux wines) dates back to
 the Middle Ages when the English monarchy controlled the region. Much of the
 earliest "New World" wine was supposedly the result of plantings by the
 Catholic Church to ensure that they had a supply of wine for Mass. Grape 
 varieties can have similar odd origins: Shiraz, for example, started as Syrah
 grapes, originating in Persia and were brought back to France around the time
 of the Crusades. There were many more local grapes varieties today, because
 pests from America wiped out older types in the 19th Century.

 * +0.2% to population Growth
 * Reduces the chance of Food Shortages
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on the Yield of the Land)


--==Warrior Lodge==--

"A lodge set aside for warriors and the elders of the tribe to discuss matters
 of importance before deciding policy.

 As European influence increased, the tribes recognised the need to hold more
 territory, if only to deprive the invaders of the best lands."

 * Converts the populace to Animism
 * Recruitment Capacity (units in Queue) : 1
 * Recruits most Native American Units


--==Water-Powered Cloth Mill==--

"A water-powered cloth mill allows the operation of large weaving machines, 
 beyond what human muscles can power and, consequently, larger profits.

 The waterwheel is one of the oldest sources of motive power in the world. 
 Watermills have been grinding flour since Classical times, and used to power
 tools for nearly as long. Ultimately, waterpower relies on gravity. Damming
 streams to make millponds to provide a head of water is futile unless the 
 water is there in the first place; the expense is pointless if the mill
 itself is not a lot lower than the water supply. Steep-sided valleys and
 plentiful rain therefore determine where watermills are likely to be 
 economically viable propositions.

 Once the waterwheel is turning, it drives a series of axles. Individual 
 machines take power by a pulley-and-leather-belt system. This limits the
 overall size of the mill, because a wheel can only drive a limited number
 of machines thanks to friction and the fundamental inefficiencies of a 
 gearless drive. Thanks to few or no safety features - and leather strapping
 moving at high speed - a mill is a dangerous place to work. Any unlucky
 worker trapped by the machinery will be crippled or killed in seconds, and
 probably have their wages stopped for causing the mill owner to lose 
 profits during the cleaning of blood and body parts."

 * Requires Weaver's Cottage
 * +X to Town Wealth (Depends on Wealth of the Town)
 * +14 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enables research of Punch Card Looms, Power Loom


--==Weaver's Cottage==--

"The move from very traditional craft to a more formal "cottage industry" 
 allows trade and manufacturing to expand significantly.

 A "cottage industry" is literally that: one where whole families live and  
 work in their cottages at the same craft. Once the whole community is 
 engaged in the same trade, output can be relatively substantial, but
 limited by the skills of the workers. There is some division of labour 
 involved: family women tend to be the yarn producers, while men operate the
 manual looms. From dusk to dawn, the machines have to work in order for 
 families to survive; they are paid piecework rates, so must work quickly.

 Historically, weaving was a substantial industry but entirely cottage-based
 before the rise of water and steam-powered mills in Yorkshire, England. Cloth
 and "piece" halls in market towns allowed the consolidation of bulk shipments
 from many small suppliers. The system, however, was incapable of producing 
 goods of a consistant quality (as each weaver worked to his own standards), 
 and could not be scaled to match demand. Artisans took years to master their
 trades, not the weeks it took to install a new machine in a powered mill."

 * Requires Craft Workshop (Weavers)
 * +X to region wealth (X depends on wealth of the town)
 * +10 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enables research of Spinning Jenny, Spinning Mule, Flying Shuttle


--==Weaver's Lodge / Native==--

"Trade goods are valuable to a tribe, barter allows access to many items
 that cannot be made by the people themselves. As trade becomes increasingly
 valuable many are seeking an additional source of income through business
 run from home.

 Wool is a by-product of farming sheep for food, and weavers can make it 
 into useful cloth for trade and clothes. To begin with, weaving is a 
 "home industry", but eventually there is enough work to make specialisation
 worthwhile.

 There are other forms of weaving, of course. Basketwork is an important craft
 for many tribes, if only to create storage for grain and food to last the
 harsh American winters."

 * +X to region wealth (X depends on wealth of the town)
 * +10 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enables research of Spinning Jenny, Spinning Mule, Flying Shuttle


--==Wineries==--

"A winery takes the product of seveal vineyards and produces wine on a large
 scale, shipping much of it in casks to distant markets.

 Glass is expensive, and it is better to ship casks to market and then have 
 the consignment bottled by wine merchants to suit local tastes. The casks can
 then be broken down for easy shipment back for refilling. The maturing 
 process in the casks is a happy accident that improves the flavour of the 
 wine!

 The 18th Century was a period when food adulteration was common - whitening
 flour with chalk, for example - and wine was no exception. Watering was the
 least offensive and probably safest practice, as the alcohol would kill 
 infectious parasites and germs in the water. Also common was the practice of
 sweetening wine by adding various chemicals, including lead. Lead was known
 to be poisonous, but without legislation to protect customers, there was
 nothing that could be done to stop vintners adding whatever they wanted to
 wine."

 * Requires Vineyards
 * +0.4% to population Growth
 * Reduces the chance of Food Shortages
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on the Yield of the Land)


--==Wine Estates==--

"A wine estate represents a substantial investment in wines, land and time.
 wine is lovingly produced, carefully aged, and sold on at a premium.

 The entire process is still subject to the vagaries of weather, soil and
 time. It is quite possible for an estate to produce a truly great wine
 one year and a foul one the next because, while standards were improving,
 there are still a great many variables that are only dimly understood.

 In some parts of the world, a great wine estate is a prestigious possession,
 over and above it's economic value.

 And the value could be great indeed: the 18th Century was a time of 
 prodigious boozing in Europe, Georgian Englishmen, for example, apparently
 had bottomless gullets even by contemptorary standards, as the available 
 water was not always fit to drink. Contary to the popular belief of the
 time, excessive drinking was not the cause of gout (an agonising inflammation
 of the joints) only a contributory factor. Gout is triggered by a high-
 protein diet (as favoured by the wealthier classes of the period), and the
 liberal use of toxic lead compounds to sweeten the wine probably did little
 to help matters!"

 * Requires Wineries
 * -1 Happiness from Industrialisation (Lower Classes)
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * +0.6% to population Growth
 * Reduces the chance of Food Shortages
 * +X Coins to Region Wealth (Depends on the Yield of the Land)


--==Wooden Fort==--

"A wooden fort is a substantial defensive work, built from logs and supporting
 earthworks. 

 As a defensive work, it is well able to withstand enemy attacks when 
 properly defended by stalwart men, a garrison should expect to hold out 
 against attacks for some little time. The walls are high enough to give a 
 good firing position to any defenders, and any aggressor had better bring a
 ladder or particularly acrobatic attackers to siege! The walls are only the
 most visible part of the defence: the surrounding trees and undergrowth are
 cut back to provide a clear firing - and therefore killing - ground for the
 defenders. This cleared ground often extends well beyond musket range, to
 deny attackers the chance to approach unseen.

 Unlike a stockade, a fort is a relatively permanent structure and, as such,
 it serves to mark ownership of territory as much as to command the 
 surrounding area. Forts are positioned with an eye to using existing terrain,
 commanding any strategic approaches (such as passes and river crossings) and
 intimidating the natives."

 * Built by armies


--==Zamindar's Court==--

"The zamindar is an overseer of taxes. His word is more than law for the
 peasants; it can be life and death if he chooses to take all of their  
 surplus crop and more.

 The land-holding system of the zamindar (the word comes from the Persian
 for "landholder") outwardly has much in common with feudal systems common
 in Europe and Japan. Land tenure is given to office holders and nobles. 
 However, as an overseer of taxes a zaminder only holds his lands as long
 as he pays the stipulated revenue to the central government. He is, in 
 effect, a tax farmer: his income and profit are dependent solely on his
 ability to tax his lands. He also carries out judical and military duties
 for his tenured lands.

 Historically, the zamindari system suvived both the end of Mughal rule and
 the British Raj. Tax farming allowed the European trading companies to take
 over as zamindars themselves (and make a profit), even before the Mughal
 collapse, as they could pay governments for the right to collect taxes."

 * +1 to repression in the region
 * Recruitment Capacity (Units in Training) : 1
 * Recruits Basic Infantry

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[A.02] Infantry Units

Units are basically units that you need to use on the battlefield to fight
for you. There are many units, and not all of them belong to one faction, many
will be available to all factions, some will be exclusives. 

Units are seperated by characteristics. 

Men basically means the maximum number of people in the regiment. Guns means
the amount of cannons that are on the artillery or battle vessel.

Range means the maximum distance the unit can shoot the enemy. The bigger the
value, the further the maximum shooting distance of the unit is. If it is 0,
then the unit is a melee unit.

Accuracy is another trait. The higher the value, the chances of the unit 
hitting the enemy is greater. That means a value of 35% means that there is
only a 35% chance that a musket ball will hit the enemy. Of course, the higher
the better, again, 0 means melee. 

Reloading skill is one where the higher the value, the faster the unit will
reload their muskets and hire, the higher, the better, and the lower the 
chance of a misfire. 0 again means melee.

Ammunition means the amount of ammo your troops have. The higher, the more
ammo your troops will carry with them, because you need to remember that ammo
is a limited resource for all gunpowder units. 0 again means melee.

Firepower is specifically for siege units, the stronger, the more damage
it will do. 

Melee Attack is the amount of damage that you units will do in close quarters
so it either means the unit is melee or the unit attached bayonets to their
weapons. 

Charge Bonus is where you have your units, in melee mode, rush headfirst into
the enemy front lines. This will amplify the damage that your units will do 
and reduce the amount of damage taken.

Defence is basically the defence of the unit. It sort of works that it 
increases the amount of hits they can take before they die. The more, of 
course, the better. This is replaced by Hull Strengh on ships.

Speed is for naval vessels, and basically means the speed of the unit, as 
you can guess, useful on the map and in battle. 

Manoeuvrability is the turning speed of the boat, useful in battle because
turning means the rate you can swing around and give another broadside. 

Finally, there is morale. This is the morale of the unit, which means the
amount of damage they will take before they retreat out of the battle. The
more means the more willing they are to fight to the death, and lower means
they will run when things just don't go their way in the slightest. 

I will not post the upkeep and recruitment costs, mainly because they are
highly variable due to ministers, research, etc. 

I shall also post their abilities, given that they are quite useful. I'll 
also post the Grand Campaign characteristics. The ones in the Road to 
Independence evolve, whilst the Grand Campaign stats are rather, well, 
static. They might different from Empire to Empire, so keep that in mind.
This will be split up into four sections depending on what type of unit
they are.


--==Colonial Line Infantry==--

"These muskets-armed troops are use massed volleys to break an enemy, relying
 on discipline to withstand any counter fire.

 "Marching regiments" or "line battlions" make up the majority of units in 
 European-style armies. They are so called because they form the line of 
 battle, not because they always deploys in line. Indeed, over time the 
 capabilities of line infantry should improve as new tactics, drill and
 weaponry are developed.

 These soldiers carry muzzle-loading, smoothbore muskets firing lead balls 
 as wide as a man's thumb. These are inaccurate weapons, effective only over
 200 paces or so and when fired in massed volleys. The ability to fire and
 reload with machine-like regularity with shot and bullet flying and comrades
 falling all around is what wins battles.

 Historically, in many armies colonels receive a fee to raise regiments, which
 remained their personal property and commands. They jealously guarded their
 right to appoint friends, relatives and hangers-on as regimental officers. 
 This contractor system, however, allowed unscrupulous officers to make 
 handsome profits by pocketing the pay of non-existant soldiers. The better
 colonels did take a pride in their regiments, spending their own fortunes
 on good uniforms and weapons. The capabilities of a "standard" line infantry
 unit therefore varied between nations and over time. It wasn't until the 
 1760s that anything approaching uniformity of drill, equipment, and 
 regulations became the norm.

 Line infantry regiments remained unchanged throughout the period, and their
 organisational patterns still forms the basis of modern military units."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 8
Charge Bonus    = 5
Defence         = 13
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland

This unit is trained in a Nation's colonies. 


--==Colonial Militia==--

"These musket-armed troops are recruited to defend their own locality, not 
 carry the war to an enemy's land.

 Militia or provincial troops are commonly held to be inferior to regular
 soldiers and, although they are trained to use the same tactics as marching
 regiments of the line, there is some truth in this assertion. Militia are
 expected to act as reassuring presence, and sometimes as a police force in
 suppressing local disturbances.

 Historically, it was not unusual for militia to be locals recruited as part-
 time soldiers while retaining their day jobs and trades. In Britain, for 
 example, service in the militia was seen as a good idea; you not only looked
 very patriotic for volunteering, but you could not be sent overseas! For 
 ambitious would-be officers, there was a hidden financial benefit for joining
 the militia. A commander who could persuade his men to transfer to the army
 with him would not have to pay the cost of his regular commission."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 20
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 6
Charge Bonus    = 4
Defence         = 11
Morale          = 5

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub

Recruitable only in your nation's colonies

--==Coureurs de Bois==--

"These elite light infantrymen are trained in wilderness warfare and 
 taught to survive in harsh conditions.

 Rangers are used for scouting and raiding missions far beyond the skills
 of ordinary men. The ranks are mostly drawn from frontiersmen already
 hardened to living in the wilderness, as their experience making them ideal
 for further training. The wild nature of their environment is reflected in
 the unconventional tactics they are taught, and they are given some leeway
 where formal army dicipline is concerned.

 Historically, rangers were employed by the British army and were used in the
 hostile environments of North America during the French and Indian War. They
 would carry out long distance winter raids using crude snowshoes to travel.
 The most famous and revered of all rangers were the "Rogers' Rangers", named
 for the commanding officer, Robert Rogers. The traditions of Rogers' Rangers
 are carried on today by the US Army Rangers, although the modern unit owes
 its existence to the Second World War experience to US troops fighting  
 alongside British commandos and a reformed force in the Korean War."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 80
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 8
Charge Bonus    = 4
Defence         = 3
Morale          = 8

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in long grass
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Available only to the French


--==East India Company Infantry==--

"Raised in India, these European mercenaries do not fight "for King and 
 Country" but for the great East India trading companies.

 Company infantry are professional soldiers drawn exclusively from Europeans,
 both officers and other ranks. They are members of private armies for the 
 traders, but one that is available to further national needs when required.
 They fight using European doctrine and equipment as line infatrymen, carrying
 smoothbore, muzzle-loading muskets. These soldiers were also enforcers, tax
 gatherers, and a potent threat against the local princes in India, even away
 from the battlefield. Native regiments under European officers exist too, but
 their reliability is doubtful.

 Historically, the great East India trading companies were often closer to 
 being nations in their own right than business ventures. India was so wealthy
 that the companies needed armies, not just guards, to protect and expand 
 their interests and prestige. The British East India Company (the "John
 Company"), the Dutch "Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie" (VOC) and the French
 "La Compagnie francaise des Indes orientales" all had their own armed forces:
 1 in 5 VOC employees were soldiers!"

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 8
Charge Bonus    = 5
Defence         = 13
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

These troops were recruited in India. 


--==Grenadiers==--

"Grenadiers are large, strong men, armed with muskets and carrying bags of
 bombs to hurl at the enemy's ranks.

 Explosive grenades are one of the oldest types of gunpowder weapon, and 
 one of the most dangerous to use. Grenades are a simple cast iron ball, with
 a fuse sticking out of the top. Fuses are notoriously unreliable, and 
 grenadiers can die as their own bombs explode prematurely. Yet no matter
 how terrifying grenades are for the throwers, they are infinitely worse
 for the targets! Grenadiers see themselves as elite, and occupy the place
 of honour at the right of the line on parade. they have good reason: only
 large, brave men become grenadiers, because it takes a big chap to throw
 one properly. Even their uniform makes them look bigger thanks to the 
 pointed grenadier's cap, a tricorne gets in the way of a good throw.

 Historically, grenadiers regiments and battlions began as ad hoc assault
 forces. All line infantry had grenadier companies, collecting these sub-units
 gave commanders a useful group of heavily armed, aggressive and skilful 
 soldiers. Grenadier companies remained in line infantry regiments after 
 the creation of grenadier regiments, but they abandoned grenades. Instead,
 each grenadier company became a "heavy mob" of the biggest and strongest 
 soldiers in a regiment."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 35
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 10
Charge Bonus    = 7
Defence         = 17
Morale          = 12

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Resistant to morale shocks


--==Hessian Line Infantry==--

"These muskets-armed troops are use massed volleys to break an enemy, relying
 on discipline to withstand any counter fire.

 "Marching regiments" or "line battlions" make up the majority of units in 
 European-style armies. They are so called because they form the line of 
 battle, not because they always deploys in line. Indeed, over time the 
 capabilities of line infantry should improve as new tactics, drill and
 weaponry are developed.

 These soldiers carry muzzle-loading, smoothbore muskets firing lead balls 
 as wide as a man's thumb. These are inaccurate weapons, effective only over
 200 paces or so and when fired in massed volleys. The ability to fire and
 reload with machine-like regularity with shot and bullet flying and comrades
 falling all around is what wins battles.

 Historically, in many armies colonels receive a fee to raise regiments, which
 remained their personal property and commands. They jealously guarded their
 right to appoint friends, relatives and hangers-on as regimental officers. 
 This contractor system, however, allowed unscrupulous officers to make 
 handsome profits by pocketing the pay of non-existant soldiers. The better
 colonels did take a pride in their regiments, spending their own fortunes
 on good uniforms and weapons. The capabilities of a "standard" line infantry
 unit therefore varied between nations and over time. It wasn't until the 
 1760s that anything approaching uniformity of drill, equipment, and 
 regulations became the norm.

 Line infantry regiments remained unchanged throughout the period, and their
 organisational patterns still forms the basis of modern military units."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 6
Charge Bonus    = 4
Defence         = 12
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodland

Found in North America, hired as mercanaries.


--==Jamestown Settlers==--

"The inhibitants of colonial towns must sometimes take up arms to defend
 themselves.

 Self-defence was a part of life in Elizabethian and Jacobean England. A 
 man expected to look after his family and property as the local parish
 constables were not necessarily a reliable police force. In some parishes
 the constables were either old men, or non-existant. Men were also expected
 to join the local fencibles or trained bands, a militia for the defence of
 the kingdom in times of trouble. Skill-at-arms was therefore not unknown
 in the general population, and these skills were taken to the New World by
 the colonists. In times of tension with the native tribes, the fact that
 the colonists could, if needs must, protect themselves, was useful."

Regiment Size   = 60 men
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 20
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 8
Charge Bonus    = 4
Defence         = 7
Morale          = 5

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub

Found in the Road to Independance Campaign


--==John Smith's Band==--

"A group of settlers armed with arquesbuses and commandered by Captain John 
 Smith.

 John Smith is a fearless leader. His no-nonsense approach to colonisation
 has led men, who would otherwise have rested on their laurels, to work hard
 to provide for themselves and their fellow settlers. Armed with arquebuses
 and a desire to colonise the New World, these men will have to fight to make
 a home for themselves in an inhospitable land.

 Historically, John Smith was a bit of a rogue. During the voyage to the New
 World, he incited mutiny and was locked in the brig, pending trial upon
 arrival. The ship's captain - Christopher Newport - intended to have Smith
 executed, but, thanks to the orders issued by the Virginia Company before
 the voyage had even begun, Smith was reprieved. He was named as one of the
 leaders of the early colony, and as such Newport fell compelled to let him
 live."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 15
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 10
Charge Bonus    = 5
Defence         = 6
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Inspires nearby units
 * Good stamina

Found in the Road to Independance Campaign


--==Line Infantry==--

"These muskets-armed troops are use massed volleys to break an enemy, relying
 on discipline to withstand any counter fire.

 "Marching regiments" or "line battlions" make up the majority of units in 
 European-style armies. They are so called because they form the line of 
 battle, not because they always deploys in line. Indeed, over time the 
 capabilities of line infantry should improve as new tactics, drill and
 weaponry are developed.

 These soldiers carry muzzle-loading, smoothbore muskets firing lead balls 
 as wide as a man's thumb. These are inaccurate weapons, effective only over
 200 paces or so and when fired in massed volleys. The ability to fire and
 reload with machine-like regularity with shot and bullet flying and comrades
 falling all around is what wins battles.

 Historically, in many armies colonels receive a fee to raise regiments, which
 remained their personal property and commands. They jealously guarded their
 right to appoint friends, relatives and hangers-on as regimental officers. 
 This contractor system, however, allowed unscrupulous officers to make 
 handsome profits by pocketing the pay of non-existant soldiers. The better
 colonels did take a pride in their regiments, spending their own fortunes
 on good uniforms and weapons. The capabilities of a "standard" line infantry
 unit therefore varied between nations and over time. It wasn't until the 
 1760s that anything approaching uniformity of drill, equipment, and 
 regulations became the norm.

 Line infantry regiments remained unchanged throughout the period, and their
 organisational patterns still forms the basis of modern military units."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 30
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 8
Charge Bonus    = 5
Defence         = 15
Morale          = 10

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to morale shocks

This unit has different stats depending on the type of empire you are playing
as. These stats are from the British version. 


--==Militia Infantry==--

"These musket-armed troops are recruited to defend their own locality, not 
 carry the war to an enemy's land.

 Militia or provincial troops are commonly held to be inferior to regular
 soldiers and, although they are trained to use the same tactics as marching
 regiments of the line, there is some truth in this assertion. Militia are
 expected to act as reassuring presence, and sometimes as a police force in
 suppressing local disturbances.

 Historically, it was not unusual for militia to be locals recruited as part-
 time soldiers while retaining their day jobs and trades. In Britain, for 
 example, service in the militia was seen as a good idea; you not only looked
 very patriotic for volunteering, but you could not be sent overseas! For 
 ambitious would-be officers, there was a hidden financial benefit for joining
 the militia. A commander who could persuade his men to transfer to the army
 with him would not have to pay the cost of his regular commission."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 20
Ammunition      = 5
Melee Attack    = 6
Charge Bonus    = 4
Defence         = 11
Morale          = 5

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub


--==Minutemen==--

"These self-appointed militiamen are expert shots and fight as irregular 
 infantry, often under officers chosen by the men.

 Minute are so called because they pride themselves on being ready to defend
 their homes and families within a minute of being alerted to danger. This
 somewhat optimistic claim should not, however, underestimate their ability
 to inflict damage on enemies with their long-ranged muskets. They are adept
 at using what cover is available, and at sniping from that cover.

 Historically, the minutemen were among the first American forces to engage
 British regular troops during the American War of Independance (1775-1783).
 Their throughly unsporting habit of not standing in line to get shot was much
 despised by their British opponents. Had the Geneva Convention applied at the
 time, the minutemen could have been shot out of hand as "illegal combatants"
 because they certainly did not wear uniforms.

 It can be argued that the success of the minutemen gave rise to the Second
 Amendment of the US Constitution (the right to keep and bear arms) although
 it is often forgotten that the text mentions a "well regulated militia" as  
 "being necessary" which, it could also be argued, might not be quite the same
 as everyone who wants one having a gun. The name "Minutemen" was recently
 revived as the same of a nuclear intercontinential ballistic missile in USAF
 service."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 20
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 8
Charge Bonus    = 5
Defence         = 3
Morale          = 7

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Paths seldom trod

Minutemen are a US only unit


--==Native American Auxiliary==--

"These tribesmen are willing to fight for European gold, and a musket apiece.

 A musket is a status symbol among the tribes, even though it is not as useful
 in a fight as an old-fashioned and reliable bow. It is, however, a mark of
 personal bravery that a warrior has taken on in battle, or been considered 
 worthy enough to have been given one of the precious weapons. These men are 
 the most irregular of forces, unwilling to take formal army discipline, yet
 willing to fight like men possessed when the need arises.

 In the early days of European settlement, the Native American were happy to
 work with the various foreign powers that colonised America, even forming 
 alliances against their neighbours and other Europeans. The tribes soon 
 became involved in trade, fought wars because of the allegiances they forged,
 and were forced into new alliances as old tribal enemies took up with 
 Europeans."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 80
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 15
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 10
Charge Bonus    = 5
Defence         = 3
Morale          = 8

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Can hide in tall grass
 * Can hide in buildings
 * Remains hidden whilst walking
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Recruited in North America.


--==Pikemen==--

"Pikemen carry long spears of a type that would have been familiar to the 
 soldiers of Alexander the Great.

 Despite the fact that firepower is the key to battle, "trailing a pike" into
 battle is more gentlemanly than carrying a gun. Pikemen are shock troops, 
 relying on mass and impact in melee. Pikes are not without their uses, a 
 solid wall of spear points is a formidable barrier to any Cavalry attack. 
 Pikemen still march into battle because not every European nation can 
 afford (or find) enough guns for everyone. Sending men into battle with an
 obsolescent weapon is better than sending them forward with nothing at all.

 By 1700, most European generals realised that the pike and pikemen were 
 hopelessly outdated and outclassed on a modern battlefield. Pikemen had 
 been a vital part of all infantry formations, protecting musketeers from 
 Cavalry and being the "shock" element of melee combat. There was a fatal 
 problem for pikemen: a musket could kill at a distance, and once a decent
 bayonet was developed, pikes really did lose their point!

 Although a brillant general in every (other?) respect, Maurice de Saxe, the
 great Marshal General of France, remained an advocate of the pike even in
 the 1740s. By then, it was obvious that pikes were useless against massed
 musket-armed infantry."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 8
Charge Bonus    = 2
Defence         = 7
Morale          = 8

 * Can hide in woodland


--==Regiments Estrangers==--

"Expatriate infantry are exiles in another nation's service: men with nothing
 left to lose but their lives. 

 Europe is awash with exiles, the dispossessed have that taken up arms thanks
 to war, religious persecution and politics. Some fight to free their 
 homelands and some because home is gone. A few fight for the romance of it 
 all, and for glory and riches. All serve because it is a better choice than
 starving. Whatever their motives, expatriates are a useful source of men. If
 someone can carry a musket, there is a place in the ranks. There is always
 the suspicions that individuals who have turned their coats once may do so
 again, even though this is unfair to many. As a result, it is unusual for
 expatriates to serve under their own officers.

 Despite the fact that many in the ranks are intelligent enough to act as
 skirmishers, expatriate infantry carry smoothbore, muzzle-loading muskets
 and usually fight as line infantry. It is easier to maintain discipline in 
 such units. 

 Historically, expatriate infantry varied in quality. The Irish Catholic "Wild
 Geese" in French service fought well, especially against the English. The
 French Royal "Chasseurs Britaiques" in the British army, did not relish 
 battle and often deserted at the first opportunity."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 20
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 8
Charge Bonus    = 5
Defence         = 13
Morale          = 11

 * Can hide in woodland

These are mainly French units.


--==Sepoys==--

"Recruited by colonial powers, these indigenous Indian infantry are renowned
 for their loyalty and resilience.

 These indigenous troops formed hugely effective regiments when used by the
 European East India companies. They were acclimatised to India with a 
 resilience and endurance that put Europeans to shame. In combat, they 
 typically displayed unwavering bravery and a tenacious determination.

 Often recruited from barren or mountainous regions, these men are tough and
 hard working. Loyal without question, their familiarity with local culture
 allowed Europeans to fight insurgencies and unrest with understanding as well
 as brute force.

 The sepoys of the British East India Company were typical in that they had 
 native and European officers. "Natives" never commanded Company battalions,
 but their opinions were always sought by the better sort of European officer.
 The Ghoorkas were a special case, because Nepal was never colonised, but a 
 treaty was made between the company and the native King."

Regiment Size   = 120
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 25
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 6
Charge Bonus    = 4
Defence         = 10
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

These are recruited in India.

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[A.03] Cavalry Units

--==Colonial Dragoons==--

"Despite appearances, dragoons are not really Cavalry but mounted line 
 infantry, riding into a battle then fighting on foot.

 Horses give mobility, not shock value in combat. Dragoons do not charge
 home, but ride to critical spots on the battlefield where infantry 
 firepower is needed. They carry smoothbore, muzzle-loading muskets with
 shortened barrels (to make reloading easier) originally called "dragons"
 or dragoons; over time, this name transferred to the men.

 Dragoons are also useful for riot control and civil suppression ("dragooning"
 is to bully people into a course of action). Their usefulness as infantry 
 and "cheap" Cavalry means that they can put down all kinds of trouble, as
 cutting down civilians is beneath the dignity of proper Cavalry regiments.

 Historically, dragoons slowly became Cavalry soldiers like any other, and
 stopped fighting as mounted infantry, although many regiments did retain
 the name. The Cavalry had always regarded them as (lower paid) social
 inferiors, and the infantry had resented them as not being proper 
 footsloggers, so the dragoons welcomed their new acceptability."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 10
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 6
Defence         = 5
Morale          = 8

 * Can hide in woodlands
 * Garrison policing bonus
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Recruitable only in your nation's colonies


--==Dragoons==--

"Despite appearances, dragoons are not really Cavalry but mounted line 
 infantry, riding into a battle then fighting on foot.

 Horses give mobility, not shock value in combat. Dragoons do not charge
 home, but ride to critical spots on the battlefield where infantry 
 firepower is needed. They carry smoothbore, muzzle-loading muskets with
 shortened barrels (to make reloading easier) originally called "dragons"
 or dragoons; over time, this name transferred to the men.

 Dragoons are also useful for riot control and civil suppression ("dragooning"
 is to bully people into a course of action). Their usefulness as infantry 
 and "cheap" Cavalry means that they can put down all kinds of trouble, as
 cutting down civilians is beneath the dignity of proper Cavalry regiments.

 Historically, dragoons slowly became Cavalry soldiers like any other, and
 stopped fighting as mounted infantry, although many regiments did retain
 the name. The Cavalry had always regarded them as (lower paid) social
 inferiors, and the infantry had resented them as not being proper 
 footsloggers, so the dragoons welcomed their new acceptability."

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 40
Reloading Skill = 10
Ammunition      = 10
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 6
Defence         = 5
Morale          = 8

 * Can hide in woodlands
 * Garrison policing bonus


--==East India Company Cavalry==--

"Recruited to fight in India, company Cavalry are mercenaries fighting for the
 greatest trading companies. 

 The officers and men in these units are European, not locals, even though 
 these regiments were raised in India. They are supposedly more reliable than
 native levies when defending European interests.

 Company Cavalry are equipped in European rathan than Indian fashion; they
 fight as light, sabre-armed cavalry. Their tasks include acting as scouts,
 screening the main body of an army, and pursuing fleeing enemies - taking a
 sabre to someone already running away is likely to keep him running! It is 
 not their main job to break enemy units or to fight other cavalry."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 12
Charge Bonus    = 8
Defence         = 6
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodlands
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

These troops are recruited in India.


--==East India Company Lancers==--

"These cavalrymen armed with a long spear or lance that makes them 
 particularly deadly when charging.

 The lance is probably the oldest cavalry weapon. It gives the user a 
 chance to put all the momentium of himself and his charging horse into one
 very sharp point that can, in the hands of a skilled man, be driven through
 any man. That is what makes lances so intimidating to face but, if the
 lancer does not kill his target, he is then vulnerable. A long lance is a 
 good deal less use in a melee than a sword, and a lancer is at a  
 disadvantage once the close fighting starts.

 Historically, many nations used lancers, although the European fashion for
 them owes much to the ulhans, cavalry raised for Austrian and Prussian 
 service. The French adopted lancers with some enthusiasm, and Napoleon
 even included Polish lancers in his Imperial Guard. In India, the lance
 had long been used as a weapon, and lancer skills were often improved by 
 "pegging" (picking tent pegs out of the ground with the lance tip) or
 pig-sticking (hunting wild pigs or even wild dogs with the lance). Native
 Indian lancers were rightly feared by European troops."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 10
Charge Bonus    = 19
Defence         = 4
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

These troops were recruited in India. 


--==Gendarmerie==--

"These locally recruited Cavalry are a valuable aid in keeping order.

 These light horsemen are often little more than mounted militia, but with
 a greater social standing. Cavalry always sees themselves as better than
 footsoldiers, but in this case, it may be true. It is, after all, not cheap
 to purchase and maintain a decent horse, and this means that men with 
 financial standing make up the majority of recruits.

 They are, however, not as disciplined as regular Cavalry, simply because
 they do not have the time or available resources to learn the craft of
 war as thoroughly. They are, however, extremely useful in policing the 
 rougher, lower orders and keeping the existing social structure intact.

 Historically, there are many examples of yeomanry or gendarmes turing 
 on their own citizenery with surprising and horrific violence. They were
 widely used against the anti-factory Luddites in northern England and,
 most infamously, were responsible for the Peterloo Massacre in 1819, when
 the Manchester and Salford Yeomanry charged a mostly peaceful, but excited
 crowd, and cut down many unarmed protesters."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 10
Charge Bonus    = 7
Defence         = 5
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodland

This is a predominately French, German unit.


--==General's Bodyguard==--

"These tough warriors and soldiers have only one task: keeping their commander
 alive and well in the swirling chaos of battle. 

 A general can only do his duty properly if these men keep rough and 
 unpleasant fellows from interrupting his calm deliberations about how to kill
 as many of the enemy as possible for as little loss as possible. 

 Only the most loyal and fiercest fighters are assigned to a general's 
 bodyguard. Good manners are a bonus, of course, but a strong sword arm and
 a deadly aim are more useful! Their general is especially of the finest 
 quality, and their pay is often supplemented from the general's own pocket: 
 they have a sound financial interest in keeping him alive, as well as their
 honour in carrying out a duty successfully!"

Regiment Size   = 24
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 15
Charge Bonus    = 12
Defence         = 11
Morale          = 14

 * Can rally routing comrades
 * Inspires nearby units

You need to promote a unit to General for this unit to appear. 


--==Heavy Cavalry==--

"These cavalrymen see themselves as elite. It is their job to smash into enemy
 units and destroy them utterly.

 Heavy cavalry are so called to distinguish them from the light cavalry 
 forces. It was not the job of heavy cavalry to pursue enemies. It is their
 lot to use their speed and weight directly against enemies, battering them
 into breaking by shock of impact. To this end, they are usually armed with
 fearsome heavy swords that are quite capable of skewering a man or carving
 him in two. This role often means that heavy cavalry are held as a reserve
 by a wise general, so that they can be used to batter a hole in a critically
 weakened point of an enemy line.

 Historically, there was debate during the period about the purpose of 
 cavalry forces. Some generals favoured having their men close with the enemy
 and use "cold steel" of its terrifying morale impact. Britain's John 
 Churchill favoured this approach, keeping his men short of ammunition while
 on campaign so that they weren't tempted to use any bullets in battle! The
 other school of thought, naturally enough, favoured using cavalry firepower
 to break enemy formations. Heavy cavalry did, therefore carry carbines and 
 pistols, depending on the army they served in."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 15
Charge Bonus    = 13
Defence         = 10
Morale          = 12


--==Life Guards==--

"The royal guard cavalrymen are all gentlemen, hand picked to protect the
 person of the sovereign.

 Royal guards are elite, but they are also a court regiment where appearance
 is as important as fighting ability. As gentlemen they are hardly expected
 to associate with the common sort of soldier, and this does not make them 
 popular or respected with the rest of the army. They are also often unloved
 by the general populace too, as they are the last line of defence for the
 royal family, and this may mean that they are sometimes required to turn 
 their swords on their countrymen to put down domestic trouble.

 Historically, perhaps the oddest sounding of the various royal guard
 cavalry regiments were the curiously named horse grenadier guards. Common 
 sense would seem to indicate that these men would only ever get to throw 
 their grenades once, before their horses took off at speeds towards all 
 points of the compass! In British service the Household Cavalry regiments
 did not, and do not, have sergeants: they have a rank "corporal of horse".
 The word "sergeant" has the same origins as "servant", and no gentleman, 
 even a private trooper, is ever a servant."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 17
Charge Bonus    = 13
Defence         = 10
Morale          = 16

 * Inspires nearby units


--==Light Dragoon==--

"Light dragoons are mounted skirmishers, riding to a fight then engaging the
 enemy on foot.

 Their horses are for mobility, not for any shock value in battle and are 
 often little better than nags and ponies, rather than decent warhorses. In
 battle, this is unimportant as light dragoons dismount and form a skirmish
 line to harass an enemy and screen the main body of their own army.

 The main weapon carried is a shortened musket, originally termed a "dragon"
 or dragoon (like "rifle", the term came to be applied to the man carrying
 the gun). This is not an accurate weapon, but is no worse than any other
 smoothbore.

 Light dragoons are also useful in suppressing riotous and rebellious 
 civilians. Their horses give them strategic mobility, allowing them to 
 police large areas effectively and come to the aid of the local authorities.

 Historically, dragoons lost their role as mounted infantry over the course
 of the 18th Century, and became another kind of light cavalry, although
 they retained the name. The officers and men welcomed the change to a 
 role that had a higher social status (and usually better pay rates.)"

Regiment Size   = 60
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 10
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 11
Charge Bonus    = 7
Defence         = 6
Morale          = 10

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Garrison policing bonus
 * Good stamina


--==Mounted Tribal Auxiliary==--

"These tribesmen are willing to fight for European gold, and a musket apiece.

 A musket is a status symbol among the tribes, even though it is not as useful
 in a fight as an old-fashioned and reliable bow. It is, however, a mark of
 personal bravery that a warrior has taken on in battle, or been considered 
 worthy enough to have been given one of the precious weapons. These men are 
 the most irregular of forces, unwilling to take formal army discipline, yet
 willing to fight like men possessed when the need arises.

 In the early days of European settlement, the Native American were happy to
 work with the various foreign powers that colonised America, even forming 
 alliances against their neighbours and other Europeans. The tribes soon 
 became involved in trade, fought wars because of the allegiances they forged,
 and were forced into new alliances as old tribal enemies took up with 
 Europeans."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 70
Accuracy        = 35
Reloading Skill = 5
Ammunition      = 15
Melee Attack    = 9
Charge Bonus    = 7
Defence         = 4
Morale          = 8

 * Can skirmish
 * Can hide in woodland
 * Can hide in light scrub
 * Paths seldom trod
 * Good stamina
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Recruited in North America. 


--==Native Indian Cavalry==--

"Sipahis are superb horsemen and their ornate lances are deadly when brought 
 to bear at the charge.

 Though prematurely abandoned by many European armies, the lance remains a
 formidable weapon when used at the charge, concentrating the weight of horse
 and rider into a single needle-sharp point. The lance has retained its 
 popularity in India, a centre of excellence with the weapon.

 The term "sipahi" has its roots in ancient Persian where it means simply
 "army". In common with cavalry formations the world over, sipahis have an
 air of high status and their elaborate arms, mounts and armour underline 
 the fact that they are not mere foot-sluggers. A general who can call on
 their knows that once a battle is joined, the shock of their charge, 
 skilfully applied, can swiftly destroy all but the most resolute and
 dipciplined army."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 10
Charge Bonus    = 18
Defence         = 4
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland
 * Resistant to heat fatigue

Recruited in India. 


--==Regiment of Horse==--

"These cavalry are shock troops, intended to charge into melee and deliver
 terrible blows with thei straight swords.

 To this end, the horses of these regiments are all large beasts, and trained
 to bring out a nasty temperament: it is not just the rider who fights in 
 some cases! They use their weight to push enemies back, while slashing to 
 kill and maim.

 Historically, many regiments of horse were raised under contract by a 
 colonel, and were regarded as his personal property. A colonel could choose
 his own officers by selling commissions or by appointing his friends and
 cronies to the posts. He also had a free hand over drill, uniform, and 
 horses for "his" regiment, at it was not unknown for unscrupulous men 
 to have a few "ghosts" in the regiment so that their pay could be claimed
 from the government and kept by the colonel. Given that the regiment was 
 "his" property. It was also not unknown for a colonel to argue with his
 general if his men were ordered to carry out dangerous, unpleasant, or 
 low status tasks. A colonel had his honour and profits to consider, after 
 all."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 12
Charge Bonus    = 8
Defence         = 6
Morale          = 9

 * Can hide in woodland


--==Yeomanry==--

"These locally recruited Cavalry are a valuable aid in keeping order.

 These light horsemen are often little more than mounted militia, but with
 a greater social standing. Cavalry always sees themselves as better than
 footsoldiers, but in this case, it may be true. It is, after all, not cheap
 to purchase and maintain a decent horse, and this means that men with 
 financial standing make up the majority of recruits.

 They are, however, not as disciplined as regular Cavalry, simply because
 they do not have the time or available resources to learn the craft of
 war as thoroughly. They are, however, extremely useful in policing the 
 rougher, lower orders and keeping the existing social structure intact.

 Historically, there are many examples of yeomanry or gendarmes turing 
 on their own citizenery with surprising and horrific violence. They were
 widely used against the anti-factory Luddites in northern England and,
 most infamously, were responsible for the Peterloo Massacre in 1819, when
 the Manchester and Salford Yeomanry charged a mostly peaceful, but excited
 crowd, and cut down many unarmed protesters."

Regiment Size   = 45
Range           = 0
Accuracy        = 0
Reloading Skill = 0
Ammunition      = 0
Melee Attack    = 10
Charge Bonus    = 7
Defence         = 5
Morale          = 7

 * Can hide in woodland

This is a predominantly British unit.

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[A.04] Artillery Units

--==12-lber Foot Artillery==--

"Foot artillery batteries are the core of an army on campaign: the weapons
 that win battles and batter down walls.

 Despite the name, foot artillery batteries are towed by horses, not men. 
 The artillerymen march alongside their pieces. All guns are smoothbore, and
 rated by the size or weight of the solid projectile that they fire: a 
 12-pounder is so called because it hurls a cannonball weighing 12 pounds
 towards the enemy! It may not do so very accurately, as the casting of 
 barrels and balls means that there is inevitable a gap (windage) between a
 shot and the barrel sides. This means the cannonball rattles down the barrel
 when fired, leading to an inherent accuracy. As technology advances, other
 types of ammunition can be fired.

 Historically, there was limited standardisation between guns, even in the
 same battery. Parts from one gun would not always fit a sister piece. A 
 gunner would know the quirks of his own weapon intimidately. Cunningly, the
 French attempted to develop a system of interchangable components for all 
 their guns and field equipment. Jean Baptiste Vaquette de Gribeauval (1715- 
 1789), the inspector of Artillery, tried but he wasn't entirely successful.
 Even after he had finished there were still more than 20 different types of
 wheel in use!"

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 27
Range           = 400
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 5
Morale          = 4

 * Slow-moving
 * Can hide in woodland


--==12-lber Howitzer Foot Artillery==--

"Howitzers send shells plunging into enemy formations and over defences, 
 making cover irrelevent.

 Howitzers fall somewhere between guns and mortars, the other main artillery
 types. They have a limited mobility, like guns. Like mortars, they do not 
 fire straight at the target, but send shots high into the air to plunge 
 down on a target (and over anything in the way). By angling the barrel and
 changing the propellent charge used, howitzers have an impressive flexibility
 in shell trajectories. Experienced crews can lob explosive shells and 
 incendiary rounds with great accuracy into a "beaten" zone, making life 
 utterly miserable and very short for anyone within it. In close action,
 they can fire canister rounds directly into enemy formations, like giant
 sawn-off shotguns.

 The term foot artillery applies because the gunners walk into battle 
 alongside the draft animals. Like all artillery, the rating of these 
 howitzers refers to the nominal weight of shots fired; loading the heavier
 pieces made for strong gunners!

 Historically, howitzers - like many other artillery pieces - were far
 from standardised weapons in the 18th Century. Shells and spare parts made
 in one foundry did not always fit another foundry's pieces, even if the
 calibre was nominally identical and the two guns were part of the same 
 battery in the field. It took a good deal of effort and argument to get
 foundries to standardise barrels and ancillary equipment, even in a 
 single country."

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 27
Range           = 400
Accuracy        = 50
Reloading Skill = 5
Morale          = 4

 * Slow-moving
 * Can hide in woodland


--==24-lber Foot Artillery==--

"Foot artillery batteries are the core of an army on campaign: the weapons
 that win battles and batter down walls.

 Despite the name, foot artillery batteries are towed by horses, not men. 
 The artillerymen march alongside their pieces. All guns are smoothbore, and
 rated by the size or weight of the solid projectile that they fire: a 
 12-pounder is so called because it hurls a cannonball weighing 12 pounds
 towards the enemy! It may not do so very accurately, as the casting of 
 barrels and balls means that there is inevitable a gap (windage) between a
 shot and the barrel sides. This means the cannonball rattles down the barrel
 when fired, leading to an inherent accuracy. As technology advances, other
 types of ammunition can be fired.

 Historically, there was limited standardisation between guns, even in the
 same battery. Parts from one gun would not always fit a sister piece. A 
 gunner would know the quirks of his own weapon intimidately. Cunningly, the
 French attempted to develop a system of interchangable components for all 
 their guns and field equipment. Jean Baptiste Vaquette de Gribeauval (1715- 
 1789), the inspector of Artillery, tried but he wasn't entirely successful.
 Even after he had finished there were still more than 20 different types of
 wheel in use!"

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 42
Range           = 400
Accuracy        = 55
Reloading Skill = 5
Morale          = 4

 * Slow-moving
 * Can hide in woodland


--==24-lber Howitzer Foot Artillery==--

"Howitzers send shells plunging into enemy formations and over defences, 
 making cover irrelevent.

 Howitzers fall somewhere between guns and mortars, the other main artillery
 types. They have a limited mobility, like guns. Like mortars, they do not 
 fire straight at the target, but send shots high into the air to plunge 
 down on a target (and over anything in the way). By angling the barrel and
 changing the propellent charge used, howitzers have an impressive flexibility
 in shell trajectories. Experienced crews can lob explosive shells and 
 incendiary rounds with great accuracy into a "beaten" zone, making life 
 utterly miserable and very short for anyone within it. In close action,
 they can fire canister rounds directly into enemy formations, like giant
 sawn-off shotguns.

 The term foot artillery applies because the gunners walk into battle 
 alongside the draft animals. Like all artillery, the rating of these 
 howitzers refers to the nominal weight of shots fired; loading the heavier
 pieces made for strong gunners!

 Historically, howitzers - like many other artillery pieces - were far
 from standardised weapons in the 18th Century. Shells and spare parts made
 in one foundry did not always fit another foundry's pieces, even if the
 calibre was nominally identical and the two guns were part of the same 
 battery in the field. It took a good deal of effort and argument to get
 foundries to standardise barrels and ancillary equipment, even in a 
 single country."

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 40
Range           = 400
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 5
Morale          = 4

 * Slow-moving
 * Can hide in woodland


--==3-lber Horse Artillery==--

"Intended to keep up with rapidly-advancing mounted forces, horse aritllery
 batteries have a touch of "cavalry dash" about them.

 Horse artillery units are distinguished from other types of artillery forces
 because everyone rides into battle; drivers ride the horses, while gun crews
 are often given seats on the gun limbers. The cannon assigned to horse
 artillery units usually fire relatively small calibre rounds although, as
 always, the weight of the shot is used to designate different horse artillery
 types. The weight of fire is considered to be less important than the speed
 with which it can be moved to a firing position, deployed, and then removed
 to a new site. This is what gives horse artillery its appeal to generals: 
 the ability to rapidly give fire almost from anywhere on the battlefield.
 Horse artillery can be used as a flexible reserve, or to exploit a weakness
 in an enemy line.

 Historically, in many countries horse artillery developed a cavalry-like
 air of being an elite force. This attitude is entirely understandable. 
 Dragging heavy artillery pieces across country at the gallop is an inherently
 dangerous thing to do, even without people shooting at you!"

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 9
Range           = 400
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 5
Morale          = 4

 * Can hide in woodland


--==4-inch Mortar Battery==--

"A mortar is a large calibre, fixed artillery piece that lobs an explosive
 shell in a high arc at the enemy.

 To the uneducated eye, a mortar looks like a large, stumpy cooking pot, set
 at an angle in a heavy wooden frame. Indeed, the weapon's name may even have
 come from its similarity to the mortars used to grind spices. Mortars use
 indirect fire, firing their shells high into the air to plunge down on 
 enemy positions. This makes them ideal for use in siege warfare.

 Unlike a howitzer, a mortar uses a fixed, and relatively small, charge of
 gunpowder to propel its shell. Range is adjusted by changing the angle of
 fire; accuracy is subject to winds and weather, thanks to the flight path.
 There is also a practical minimum range to mortar fire, no artilleryman is
 going to drop a shell so close that he will be caught in the blast. Their
 size, expressed in terms of the diameter of shell they fire, indicates 
 their destructiveness.

 Mortars have returned to favour with armies since the First World War. 
 Modern designs based on the British Stokes trench mortar, come in many 
 sizes. Most can fire shells with proximity fuses as anti-personnel rounds.
 The larger examples can fire sophisticated "smart" munitions that guide
 themselves onto targets."

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 42
Range           = 750
Accuracy        = 45
Reloading Skill = 5
Morale          = 4

 * Can hide in woodland


--==6-lber Horse Artillery==--

"Intended to keep up with rapidly-advancing mounted forces, horse aritllery
 batteries have a touch of "cavalry dash" about them.

 Horse artillery units are distinguished from other types of artillery forces
 because everyone rides into battle; drivers ride the horses, while gun crews
 are often given seats on the gun limbers. The cannon assigned to horse
 artillery units usually fire relatively small calibre rounds although, as
 always, the weight of the shot is used to designate different horse artillery
 types. The weight of fire is considered to be less important than the speed
 with which it can be moved to a firing position, deployed, and then removed
 to a new site. This is what gives horse artillery its appeal to generals: 
 the ability to rapidly give fire almost from anywhere on the battlefield.
 Horse artillery can be used as a flexible reserve, or to exploit a weakness
 in an enemy line.

 Historically, in many countries horse artillery developed a cavalry-like
 air of being an elite force. This attitude is entirely understandable. 
 Dragging heavy artillery pieces across country at the gallop is an inherently
 dangerous thing to do, even without people shooting at you!"

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 15
Range           = 400
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 5
Morale          = 4

 * Can hide in woodland


--==Demi-Cannons==--

"A demi-cannon is a heavy artillery piece from the previous century, deployed
 in a fixed battlefield position.

 Although obsolete, a demi-cannon is still a dangerous weapon to face as it
 fires a ball with a nominal weight of around 24 pounds. This large calibre
 makes for a large weapon with a massive gun carriage. Once properly emplaced,
 a demi-cannon is hard enough to adjust for aim, let along drag to a new 
 location! Originally, this lack of tactical mobility was not a problem, as 
 the gun was for siege work or for a battlefield where there was little 
 artillery present. It was unlikely to ever suffer any kind of counter-
 battery fire, so didn't need to be moved.

 Artillery was sometimes incredibly dangerous to its users as well as the
 targets: fire was a terrible risk. The artillery baggage train usually held
 an enormous quantity of powder, and any stray spark was liable to cause an
 explosion. Anyone out of place caught near the powder train could expect 
 little mercy: some generals ordered that enemy agents should be burned 
 alive if caught in an arson attempt, and immediate lynching for their own
 errant soldiers wandering too near the artillery train!"

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 38
Range           = 400
Accuracy        = 55
Reloading Skill = 5
Morale          = 4

 * Can hide in woodland


--==Puckle Gun==--

"The Puckle gun is a tripod-mounted repeating heavy musket or small cannon,
 capable of rapid fire.

 It achieves this by using pre-loaded breech chambers that are rotated into
 line with the barrel, fired and then a new chamber is positioned for the
 next shot. All this is achieved mechanically, by the operator revolving a 
 handle at the back of the piece. As long as loaded magazines are available
 for the piece, a puckle gun can be kept in rapid fire action!

 Historically, Jame Puckle's "defence gun" was not a huge success, partly 
 because the engineering of 1718 simply wasn't up to the task of producing
 components with fine tolerances. His gun had promise, though, as it could
 fire shots around three times faster than a well-trained fusilier. One 
 odd feature of the design was the two versions offered to potential 
 customers: a round barrel fired conventional bullets for shooting at 
 Christian (but not Protestant) enemies, while a second barrel was offered
 that fired square bullets (that allegedly did more damage) for use against
 Turks and similar unwelcome infidels. The British Royal Navy never bought
 any, and other users were equally reluctant to part with their money. 
 Puckle's career as a gunsmith ended in failure for him and his investors.

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 3
Range           = 150
Accuracy        = 55
Reloading Skill = 5
Morale          = 4

 * Slow-moving
 * Can hide in woodland


--==Rocket Troop==--

"War rockets are a terrifying device, capable of carrying different kinds 
 of warhead and of causing utter panic in their targets.

 These iron tubes filled with gunpowder propellant are fired in large 
 volleys: the noise alone could somewhat be unnerving. Each rocket is laid
 in an angled launcher, and it is the job of the artilleryman to correctly
 judge the angle of launch and drop the rockets in the middle of the enemy.
 He also needs to take into account wind, as the long tails of the rockets
 can mean they are blown off cause. The least dangerous rockets are tipped
 with a large spear point, but explosive heads are also fitted.

 Historically, it was the Indian war rockets used by Tippu Sultan of
 Mysore that introduced Europeans to the concept. The experience was not a
 pleasant one. The British copied these weapons as the Congreve rocket 
 system, and used them aboard ships as well as on land. A rocket troop was
 present at the final defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815, although 
 accounts of their effectiveness vary. Congreve's system even included
 illumination rounds to light up the battlefield!"

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 6
Range           = 750
Accuracy        = 15
Reloading Skill = 5
Morale          = 4

 * Can hide in woodland


--==Sakers==--

"A saker is an old-fashioned style of light cannon, deployed in a fixed
 position.

 Artillery pieces are expensive to cast, as a result, they tend to be in
 service until captured, destroyed or rusted away. Sakers are a prime 
 example of this, as many of the barrels date back to the 17th Century, even
 if they have been taken from dust-covered warehouses and mounted on 
 refurbished carriages. 

 They are relatively light cannons in terms of the shot fired, which is much
 the same as a six-pounder. Some sakers are even old enough to have been
 intended for stone ammunition, and this is reflected in the fact that the
 windage (or difference between the barrel bore and shot size) is often 
 quite large. This "rattling" of a shot down the barrel when it is fired 
 does not help accuracy.

 Despite the light weight of shot, sakers are anything but lightweight guns.
 Saker gun carriages are large, awkward and tactically immobile. Gunners
 and draft animals can drag them into place before a battle, but there is 
 little chance of moving a gun to be a better firing position once the action
 has commenced.

 Although obsolescent, there were 14 sakers in the "Blenhelm train" of 
 artillery in 1704 available to the Duke of Marlborough - guns were expensive
 and he took what was available."

Regiment Size   = 18
Guns            = 4
Firepower       = 21
Range           = 400
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 5
Morale          = 4

 * Can hide in woodland

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[A.05] Naval Units

--==Admiral's Flagship, 3rd Rate==--

"The third rate is a compromise between firepower and handling. A stable gun
 platform, it also makes a good flagship.

 Overall, the "74" (from the number of guns carried) or "third rate" is a very
 practical vessel. With a crew of around 700 men, it has enough firepower and
 resilience to survive most battles. It can deliver a horrendously effective
 broadside from its 32-pounders (on the lower deck), 18-pounders on the
 upper deck and 9-pounders in the upper works. It also has enough space to
 house an admiral and his busy staff in some comfort, even if the ship's
 officers have to sacrifice their living space.

 Historically, many admirals and commadores chose 74s to be their flag
 vessels. In the 18th Century, "commadore" was not a formalised naval rank, but
 and appointment as a "temporary fleet commander". Appointing a commadore 
 allowed the navy to choose any talented or well-connected captain, no matter
 how junior, for command. Admiral was usually a rank that any captain, no
 matter how useless, could reach if he lived for long enough!"

Regiment Size   = 147
Guns            = 72
Firepower       = 231
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 63
Reloading Skill = 8
Hull Strength   = 24
Speed           = 16
Manoeurability  = Low


--==Admiral's Flagship, 5th Rate==--

"Flagship frigates are single-deck warships, combining good handling,
 firepower and endurance at sea.

 These handy frigates are used for pursuit, convoy protection, commerce
 raiding and reconnaissance work and, when operating as a deteched squadron,
 as a flagship for the admiral in charge. Excellent sailing characteristics,
 especially in inshore waters, make it a useful addition to any blockading
 fleet, and perfect for aggressive admirals. Accommodation for the flag
 officer and his small staff may be a little on the snug side, as these
 are fighting vessels with little spare room for many creature comforts. This
 is a footling inconvenience when considered against the chance to carry 
 the fight to the foe! An admiral's flagship, normally a somewhat staid  
 appointment, is an excellent appointment for men who are hungry for glory - 
 when that flagship is a frigate.

 Historically, the term "fifth rate" is a Royal Navy one, and applies to
 the largest single-deck frigates, mounting some 44 12-pounder guns. However,
 every navy that used European designs found a use for this class of vessel."

Regiment Size   = 130
Guns            = 47
Firepower       = 112
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 63
Reloading Skill = 6
Hull Strength   = 14
Speed           = 18
Manoeurability  = Medium


--==Bomb Ketch==--

"The "bomb" is a floating weapons platform, usually adapted from a small,
 two-masted ketch. The whole ship is considered around a single large-calibre
 mortar.

 Strongly-built bomb ketches must stand the recoil of repeated mortar 
 discharges. Often chains replace the rigging ropes nearest the mortar to
 prevent muzzle blast damage. They are the only naval vessels to carry and
 use explosive shells, making them a hazardous assignment. That fact that 
 the ketch should be at anchor in order to fire accurately also makes them
 easy targets for any return fire.

 Bomb ketches are not good sailing ships. The mortar has to be on the centre
 line, with a clear vertical field of fire. This means that the masts had
 to be aft of their ideal positions, making the ship handling qualities
 rather poor. With these limitations in mind, however, they are a powerful
 addition to any admiral's firepower. The ability to deliver shells by
 indirect fire (lobbing shells into fortifications, for example), is very
 useful.

 Historically, the bomb ketch was a French invention, but other nations 
 perfected the idea. The British mounted the mortar on a rotating platform
 so that it was no longer necessary to move the whole vessel to change aim.
 "The Star-Spangled Banner", the US national anthem, commemorates these 
 ships with the line "the bombs bursting in air.""

Regiment Size   = 42
Guns            = 14
Firepower       = 66
Range           = 750
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 4
Hull Strength   = 7
Speed           = 16
Manoeurability  = Low


--==Brig==--

"A brig is a lightly armed, small, two-masted sailing ship, much prized for
 its exceptional handling and sailing qualities.

 The term "brig" is a contraction of "brigantine" (an earlier sailing ship
 design), although the two types do not have the same rigging. A brigantine
 carries fore-and-aft sails, while a brig is square-rigged: this explains why
 the brig was favoured, for square rigging requires far fewer skilled hands
 to sail the vessel. The term "brig" could also include many rigging sets,
 including the strangely named "hermaphrodite brig", which had a square- 
 rigged forward mast and schooner-riged aft (main) mast.

 All brigs, in the hands of a good captain, are handy little ships, and can
 virtually turn in their own length. This manoeurability partly makes up
 for the light armament, usually no more than a couple of cannon - and those
 no larger than 12-lbers. The development of carronades (short-barreled, 
 short-range, large-bore weapons) added to a brig's firepower.

 Historically, the fledging United States Navy used brigs, especially on the
 Great Lakes. USN brigs also put up a brave account of themselves against
 the Barbary Pirates."

Regiment Size   = 78
Guns            = 25
Firepower       = 76
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 7
Hull Strength   = 7
Speed           = 21
Manoeurability  = High


--==Sixth Rate==--

"A sixth rate is the smallest class of frigate. It is a useful scout for slow
 battle fleets, and usually has excellent handling characteristics.

 The Royal Navy system of rating ships defines a "sixth rate" as a small
 frigate: a single-deck ship, square-rigged, with around 28 nine-pounder 
 guns and a crew of around 200 men. This is the smallest vessel in the 
 system set out by Samuel Pepys (the very same fellow who is now famous for
 his sometimes rude diaries), and the smallest command of post captain. This
 means that sixth rate captains are either old men, passed over for command,
 or young, ambitious officers looking to make their mark. It's also worth
 pointing out that, even with "only" 28 nine-pounder cannons at his command,
 the captain of a sloop has more firepower than many generals alone!

 Historically, the sixth rate's small size made them handy for scouting
 work and perfect where speed and good sailing qualities were required. They
 were a very good counter to privateers in small luggers, brigs and sloops:
 sixth rates can chase them down and have enough guns and men to win the
 subsequent engagement! They were also extremely useful in blockades, as  
 they could sail in shallow waters and keep close watch on enemy ports."

Regiment Size   = 92
Guns            = 32
Firepower       = 78
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 8
Hull Strength   = 14
Speed           = 19
Manoeurability  = Medium


--==Fifth Rate==--

"Frigates are single-deck warships used for a variety of tasks thanks to a 
 combination of good handling, firepower and endurance at sea. 

 "Fifth Rate" is a Royal Navy term for the largest of the single-deck 
 frigates, square-rigged ships that carry some 44 guns, usually no heavier
 than 12-pounders. Originally a French design - but quickly adopted by 
 other European powers - the frigate is used for pursuit, convoy protection,
 commerce raiding and reconnaissance work. The design's excellent sailing
 characteristics and good handling, especially in inshore waters, make it
 a useful addition to any blockading fleet. The frigate's ability to 
 operate far away from a home port also makes it a useful cruiser, carrying
 the fight to the enemy in unexpected waters.

 Frigates can have the advantage over larger, two-deck ships in rough 
 waters. A frigate captain rarely has to worry about his gun deck taking on
 water, and can therefore fight in conditions that leave bigger ships at a
 disadvantage. However, fifth rates are not powerful enough to face
 battleships. They have the speed and handling to stay out of trouble: they
 do not have the strength of construction to survive a pounding! Against
 sloops, brigs and merchantmen, however, they are deadly. This makes them
 excellent postings for officers hungry for prize money and glory.

 Frigate captains made splendid role models for fictional heroes: Thomas,
 Lord Cochrane earned a fortune in prize money, gained the nickname "le 
 loup des mers" (sea-wolf) and was the inspiration for fictional heroes 
 Horatio Hornblower and Jack Aubrey."

Regiment Size   = 130
Guns            = 47
Firepower       = 112
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 8
Hull Strength   = 14
Speed           = 18
Manoeurability  = Medium


--==Fourth Rate Ship of the Line==--

"The fourth rate is the smallest vessel styled a "ship of the line" (of 
 battle), carring as many as 60 guns.

 Ship of the line were the mainstay of fighting fleets: strong and stable
 gun platforms for battering enemy vessels into submission. The designation
 of "fourth rate" for ships of this size was a British Navy one, and covers
 a number of designs, all with very similar handling and combat power. All
 fourth rates are square-rigged, two-deck ships, with up to 60 guns on board
 in a mixture of calibres, usually a mixture of 24-, 18- and 12-pounders,
 with the heavier guns mounted on the lower deck.

 Even though fourth rates are obviously smaller than the third-rate 74s, their
 firepower is much lower than a simple number of guns comparsion would 
 indicate. There is no structural strength or space for coping with the recoil
 of massive guns. As a result, although partially it makes up for this by
 beind a handier sailing vessel, especially in shallow waters.

 Historically, it was obvious by the 1750s that ships of this size were not
 tough enough to stand in the line of battle against larger vessels. Over
 time, various admiralties removed these smaller battle ships from the
 active service, or sent them to minor stations where they were unlikely to
 encounter powerful enemies. Some survived as converted transports."

Regiment Size   = 152
Guns            = 56
Firepower       = 158
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 8
Hull Strength   = 21
Speed           = 16
Manoeurability  = Low


--==Galleon==--

"A galleon is a square rigged warship, capable of long ocean voyages and of
 carrying some cargo. Demi-culverins are the usual armament carried.

 A galleon is a strong, seaworthy vessel, capable of surviving an Atlantic
 crossing in the worst of weathers. This is a tribute to their builder's
 methods and techniques, learned over the decades of making caravels and
 carracks. The line of a galleon show its medieval heritage, as a type
 similar to the earlier ships, but without their high forecastle shape. 
 The galleon retains a high stern castle, but its main fighting power is on
 the gun deck. This charge meant that galleons are not fighting platforms
 for (land) troops, but fight with broadside batteries of demi-culverin
 cannons. In this respect, it is a forerunner to the later square-rigged
 rated ships of the line. The guns and the strength of construction make
 them dangerous targets, as numerous English pirates and privateers 
 discovered to their cost.

 A galleon can also carry a substantial cargo. The Spanish galleon fleets
 carry bullion from the New World, for example, made a tempting target 
 because they were such good cargo vessels. The wealth they imported was
 almost beyond calculation. The gold and silver, however, damaged Spain
 by flooding the country with "cheap" money, and there was no understanding
 of economics to help stop the problem."

Regiment Size   = 176
Guns            = 58
Firepower       = 188
Range           = 50
Accuracy        = 43
Reloading Skill = 5
Hull Strength   = 14
Speed           = 15
Manoeurability  = Low


--==Indiaman (Trade Ship)==--

"The Indiaman is an armed merchant ship, strongly built for the trade routes
 between Europe and the East. It is not a warship but can defend itself in
 need.

 The Indiaman is a three masted, square-rigging sailing ship of some 1000
 tons displacement. Although work for the relatively small crew is hard, there
 are compensations: they can trade goods in their own right, and make 
 excellent profits by doing so.

 Unusually for a merchant ship, an Indiaman carries cargo, passengers, and a
 good number of guns. Intended to sail from Europe to the other side of the
 world and back carrying valuable - sometimes priceless - cargoes, these
 ships have to be able to defend themselves. The passengers can expect some
 creature comforts, being both officers of the owning trade companies and
 assorted "gentlemen" seeking their fortunes in foreign parts.

 Historically, East Indiamen resembled ships of the line, both in their
 general configuration and paintwork. At the Battle of Pula Aura (1804), the
 ambiguous appearance and aggressive handling of a squadron of British 
 Indiamen completely humbugged the French Admiral, Charles-Alexandre Linois.
 He withdraw in the face of "superior" forces. Commodore Nathaniel Dance, 
 of the British Company fleet, received a knighthood and a handsome reward
 for his cunning.

 National navies purchased Indiamen and converted them into troopships and
 warships."

Regiment Size   = 54
Guns            = 12
Firepower       = 36
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 36
Reloading Skill = 4
Hull Strength   = 10
Speed           = 16
Manoeurability  = Low


--==Light Galley==--

"Light galleys have sails and oars, and light cannons mounted on platforms
 above the rower's benches.

 In restricted waters, galleys are useful craft, although in any kind of
 heavy sea they can be dangerous to manage: it would be a brave or foolish
 captain who risked his galley in the North Sea or Atlantic. Although they
 do not carry as many guns as a modern sailing vessel, the ability to move
 independently of the wind is very useful.

 The fighting crew of a galley is a relatively small part of the full crew,
 because the rowers are often convicts or pressed men and aboard only as 
 strong backs, not as stout hearts. Indeed, in some navies the rowers are
 often more of a threatto the crew than the enemy! The number of men 
 carried also limits the strategic range of a galley: they simply cannot
 carry enough food and water to sustain the crew for longer than a few
 days.

 Historically, galleys did good service in sheltered waters like the
 Mediterranean and the Baltic, and the Ottomans, Russians and Swedes
 all used them in anger. They were also favoured by the Barbary Coast
 Pirates, who could be guaranteed a good supply of slave rowers from
 captured European merchantmen."

Regiment Size   = 16
Guns            = 2
Firepower       = 256
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 27
Reloading Skill = 2
Hull Strength   = 0
Speed           = 19
Manoeurability  = High


--==Second Rate Ship of the Line==--

"The second rate is a three-deck "Battle Ship of the Line" carrying up to 98
 cannons, a powerful unit in any fleet.

 This three-deck warship is a compromise design between the firepower of a 
 first-rate ship and the sea-keeping qualities of a third-rate 74. Like many
 compromises, the result was something that pleases few, but the extra
 weight of the broadside does compensate for poor sailing qualities. The
 design does have one unexpected benefit: many captains are often quick to
 identify second rates as much larger ships and, as a result, flee from a 
 "much superior" enemy!

 The lower gun deck houses 32-pounders, and this explains the "tumblehome"
 shape of all ships of the period: the bulge at water level and just above 
 in the hull allowed more room on the lower decks for the recoil of large
 cannons; the lighter guns on the higher decks did not recoil as much.

 Historically, only the British Royal Navy commissioned many ships of this
 rating, other nations simply built first rates instead. This might be due
 to the Royal Navy needing to keep large shipson foreign stations as 
 flagships, an assignment that would have been wasteful and expensive for
 a first rate."

Regiment Size   = 224
Guns            = 84
Firepower       = 166
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 10
Hull Strength   = 24
Speed           = 14
Manoeurability  = Low


--==Sloop==--

"A sloop of war is usually ketch-rigged with two masts. These small vessels 
 handle well in restricted waters.

 The ability to navigate in exceptionally shallow or dangerous waters makes
 sloops very useful in such seas as the reef-strewn waters of the Caribbean.
 They can also operate without the need for extensive onshore naval facilities
 nearby. They are also extremely useful as fleet auxiliaries, carrying out
 communications tasks and vital inshore scouting work, and can hunt down 
 smaller prey such as privateers and small enemy cargo vessels. A sloop-of-war
 (sometimes a corvette in French service) is a different vessel from a 
 civilian, merchant sloop, having a fresh deck, two square-rigging masts, 
 guns, and a larger crew.

 Historically, a post captain would rarely command a ship this small. The 
 commanding officer was the "master and commander" (this is the origin of 
 the modern naval rank of commander), and held the formal rank of lieutenant.
 Captain Cook RN commanded HMS Resolution, a sloop converted from a collier
 (coal ship), on his epic Pacific voyages and was highly satisfied with its
 performance. Sloop captains could be aggressive: before his promotion to post
 captain. Thomas Cochrane commanded the 14-gun HMS Speedy and managed to
 capture "El Gamo", a Spanish xebec of 32 guns with a crew six times larger
 than his own!"

Regiment Size   = 62
Guns            = 18
Firepower       = 84
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 6
Hull Strength   = 6
Speed           = 22
Manoeurability  = High


--==Third Rate Ship of the Line==--

"The third rate is an excellent compromise between firepower and handling
 qualities. A stable gun platform, it has more guns than many whole armies!

 The third rate, or "74" (from the number of guns aboard), is a supremely
 practical weapon of war. With a crew of around 700 men, it is a "wooden
 world" in itself and a statement of national power. A two-deck design, it is
 strong enough to mount very heavy cannons on its lower deck, often 32-
 pounders. With 18-pounders on the upper gun deck and then 9-pounders in the
 upper works, it has a devastating broadside. The design and construction
 means a 74 can withstand horrendous damage in battle.

 Historically, the French invented the concept of the 74-gun ship in the
 mid 18-Century. The design was so good that other navies lost no time in
 copying it or in capturing French ships. French vessels, while well-designed,
 were often made from green timber that "worked" in heavy seas and therefore
 leaked. Dutch examples had a shallower, broader draft to suit their harbours
 and shore waters. The few American 74s were extremely strong and well made.
 British 74s were well constructed too, although there was a regrettably 
 tendancy to save money by recycling timber - complete with timber rot- 
 from older vessels!

 Amazingly, HMS Implacable, the last of the third rates, was scuttled in 1949!
 Built in 1800 by the French, and captured at Trafalgar in 1805, she stayed
 in service until 1842. Eventually, she ended her days as a coal hulk."

Regiment Size   = 196
Guns            = 72
Firepower       = 231
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 60
Reloading Skill = 10
Hull Strength   = 24
Speed           = 16
Manoeurability  = Low


--==Xebec==--

"The xebec is a lateen-rigged ship with exceptional speed, making it popular 
 with North African corsairs hunting wealthy infidel merchants!

 These relatively small vessels have three masts carrying fore-and-aft sails,
 making them handy sailors, even in light winds. The lateen sails also allow
 the ship to sail close-hauled to the wind, making pursuits easier. Even when
 becalmed, some xebecs can still be dangerous enemies to face, as they carry
 oars and can close with an enemy at a time of their own choosing.

 Although not quite as well armed as a European frigate, xebecs carry a 
 formidable arsenal of 12- or 18-pounder guns. This, combined with their 
 excellent sailing characteristics, makes them particularly suitable for
 piracy, and the corsairs - the infamous Barbary Pirates - of the North
 African coast use them. They can also carry a good-sized crew of ruffians!

 Historically, the Barbary Pirates were a severe threat to European traders
 for centuries, partly because of excellent warships like the xebec (the name
 probably comes from an Arabic word "shabbak", meaning a small warship).
 Eventually a few xebec-frigates were used by European Mediterranean naval
 powers, where the basic xebec hull shape was preserved but the distinctive
 lateen walls were replaced by square rigged sails. A few xebecs carried a 
 hybrid rig with both square and lateen sails."

Regiment Size   = 88
Guns            = 24
Firepower       = 147
Range           = 500
Accuracy        = 57
Reloading Skill = 2
Hull Strength   = 14
Speed           = 19
Manoeurability  = High

Used mainly by Pirates and the African Nations

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[A.06] Traits

Traits are little, well, traits that are possessed by your characters. There
are several sets of traits. There are five sets. The one represented by
the black face on the purple backdrop is a passive effect, that is, it will
always be there. The Books will mean it is related to research and the 
Crossed Swords means it is effective only in battle. The Anchor will be part
of Battle traits, except it is for water. The Crossed Tools are industrial 
traits. The Clasped hands are Religious Traits.

Traits are gained in two ways. Most battle traits are gained after a battle,
after a win or loss. The other way is to have them gained over time. Your
ministers, gentlemen, rakes, generals and leader will all gain some traits,
both good and bad, over time. 

Anyway, below, there are the traits. I'll list them into five groups, battle,
research, industry, religious and passive. Note that you have really, no 
control on the passive traits, and sort of an influence on battle, given that
you get the good traits on a win, bad traits on a loss. Battle Traits can, be
lost in a battle if the General loses. 


				Battle Traits

--==Admiral of the Bathtub==--

 * Research points per turn for military technologies : 1


--==Aggressive Attacker==--

 * +2 to Command when attacking on land


--==Aggressive Commander==--

 * +2 to Command when attacking on sea


--==A Good Dutchmen==--

 * -10% upkeep costs for all naval units
 * +2 to Morale in battles
 * +5% movement range for ships on the campaign map


--==Armchair General==--

 * Research points per turn for military technologies : 1


--==Attacking General==--

 * +1 to Command when attacking on land


--==Blockade Runner==--

 * +1 to Command when Commandering Frigates


--==Bloody==--

 * -1 to Morale in all Battles


--==Born Cavalryman==--

 * +2 to Command when leading Cavalry Units


--==Brave Sailor==--

 * +1 to Command in Sea Battles
 * +1 to Morale in battles


--==Brave Soldier==--

 * +2 to Morale in all Battles


--==Common Labourer==--

 * +1 to Command when Beseiging


--==Confident Admiral==--

 * +1 to Command in Sea Battles


--==Confident General==--

 * +1 to Command in Land Battles.


--=="Corporal in Gold Braid"==--

 * +1 to Morale in all Battles


--==Cool Under Fire==--

 * +1 to Morale in all Battles


--==Courageous Leader==--

 * +3 to Morale in all Battles


--==Cruelty Mocked==--

 * -1 to Morale in all Battles


--==Cunning Seamaster==--

 * +2 to Command at Sea when defending


--==Defensive Admiral==--

 * +3 to Command at Sea when Defending


--==Drillmaster==--

 * +2 to Command when leading Infantry Units
 * +5% to infantry unit's campaign movement range


--==Famous Post Captain (in his day)==--

 * +1 to Command when commanding Ships of the Line


--==Fighting Sailor==--

 * +1 to Command at Sea when attacking


--==Frigate Captain==--

 * +1 to Command when commandering Frigates


--==Frontiersman==--

 * +1 to Command when fighting in the Americas


--==Going Native==--

 * +1 to Command when fighting in India


--==Good Defender==--

 * +1 to Command when defending on land


--==Great Admiral==--

 * +3 to Command in Sea Battles


--==Great General==--

 * +3 to Command in Land Battles


--==Hero of the Army==--

 * +4 to Morale in all Battles


--==Lacking Combative Instincts==--

 * -1 to Command at Sea when Attacking


--==Line Expert==--

 * +2 to Command when commanding Ships of the Line


--==Masterful Attacker==--

 * +3 to Command at Sea when attacking


--==Military Writer==--

 * Research points per turn for military technologies: 2


--==Riding Master==--

 * +2 to Command when leading Cavalry Units


--==Rumours of Cowardice==--

 * -1 to Morale in Battles


--==Sailor From Birth==--

 * +1 to Command in Sea Battles


--==Siege Expert==--

 * +1 to Command when beseiging


--==Skilled Siege Commander==--

 * +1 to Command when being Beseiged


--==Slippery Character==--

 * +1 to Command when Commandering Frigates
 * +1 to Morale in Battles


--==Soldier from Birth==--

 * +1 to Command in Land Battles


--==Son of the Sea==--

 * +2 to Command in Sea Battles
 * +5 Movement Range for Ships on the Campaign Map


--==Steadfast==--

 * +1 to Command when commandering Frigates


--==Superior General==--

 * +2 to Command in Land Battles


--==Swashbuckler==--

 * +1 to Command at Sea when Attacking
 * +1 to Morale in Battles


				Industrial Traits

--==Capitalist==--

 * +2 Happiness (Middle Classes)
 * +2 to Manage for Treasury Administration


--==Stallholder==--

 * +1 Happiness (Middle Classes)
 * +1 Management for Treasury Administration



				Passive Traits

--==A Good Listener==--

 * +1 to Subterfuge for Infiltration Missions


--==Agrarian==--

 * +1 to Management
 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * -1 to Management for Treasury Administration


--==A Happy Drinkner==--

 * +1 to Morale in Battles


--==A Holy Light==--

 * +2 to Zeal when seeking converts in India


--==A Little Too Clever==--

 * -2 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +10% to Technology Research Rate
 * +1 Prestige per turn


--==A Nose for Trouble==--

 * +2 to Subterfuge when Counterspying


--==A Test of Endurance==--

 * -1 to Zeal when seeking converts in India


--==Army Enthusiast==--

 * -5% Recruitment Cost to all Land Units


--==Assassin==--

 * +1 to Subterfuge for Assassination Missions


--==Believer in Name Only==--

 * This man understands religion, but does not have a hold over them.


--==Bon Vivant==--

 * +1 to Management
 * +1 Happiness (Lower Classes)


--==Born to Quarterdeck==--

 * +1 to Command in Sea Battles
 * +5% to movement range of ships on the campaign map


--==Camp Follower==--

 * +3 to Management for Army Administration


--==Cautious==--

 * -5% Chance of Assassination


--==Cloak and Dagger==--

 * There is something glamourous and dangerous about the shadow world.


--==Corresponds with the Learned==--

 * +5% to Technology Research Rate
 * +5% to Clamour for Reform


--==Crisis of Faith==--

 * -2 to Zeal when seeking converts in India


--==Dark Charismatic==--

 * +1 to Duelling when duelling with Swords


--==Darling of the Gutter Press==--

 * +2 to Morale in All Battles


--==Devout==--

 * +2 to Zeal
 * -10% to Religious Unrest


--==Divine Right to Rule==--

 * +2 to Management
 * -1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +1 Prestige per Turn


--==Drawing Room Philosopher==--

 * +5% to Clamour for Reform


--==Enlightened Despot==--

 * -5% to the cost of Town Watch


--==Faith Reaffirmed==--

 * +1 to Zeal when seeking converts in India


--==Frugal and Thrifty==--

 * +1 to Management
 * -1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * -2 Management for Treasury Administration


--==Good Aim==--

 * +2 to Duelling when duelling with pistols


--==Good News==--

 * +1 Morale in All Battles


--==Good Swordsman==--

 * +2 to Duelling when duelling with swords


--==Hale and Hearty==--

 * +5 to Campaign Movement Range


--==Harsh Reputation==--

 * +1 to Management
 * -1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +1 to Management for Justice Administration


--==Honest==--

 * +1 to Management


--==Incorruptable==--

 * -1 to Management
 * -2 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +3 to Management for Treasury Administration


--==Industrial Revolutionary==--

 * +1 to Management for Treasury Administration


--==Informers==--

 * +3 to Subterfuge when Counterspying


--==Jug Head==--

 * +1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * -1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * +3% Clamour to Reform


--==Lewd and Loose==--

 * -10 to Diplomatic Relations


--==Likes Uniform==--

 * -10% Recruitment Cost for Naval Units


--==Little Sergeant==--

 * +5% to infantry units' campaign movement range


--==Local Knowledge==--

 * +1 Subterfuge when Counterspying


--==Mentioned in Dispatches==--

 * +1 to Command when leading infantry units
 * +1 to Morale in all Battles


--==Mole==--

 * +2 to Subterfuge


--==Morally Impaired==--

 * -1 to Management


--==Nasty, Brutish, and American==--

 * -2 to Zeal when seeking converts in the Americas


--==No Sense of Shame==--

 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)


--==Obsessive==--

 * -5% to land military technology research rate
 * -10% recruitment cost for all land units
 * -5% recruitment cost for Cavalry


--==Patron==--

 * +1 to Management for Navy Administration


--==Petty Tyrant==--

 * -1 to Morale in Battles
 * +10% to infantry units' campaign movement range


--==Pious==--

 * +1 to Zeal
 * -5% to Religious Unrest


--==Prussian Officer==--

 * +2 to Command when leading infantry units


--==Res Publica==--

 * +1 to Management
 * +5% to Clamour for Reform
 * +1 Prestige per turn


--==Sickly==--

 * -5% to Campaign Movement Range


--==Something of a Banker==--

 * +1 to Management for Treasury Administration


--==Something of a Blade==--

 * +1 to Duelling when Duelling with Swords


--==Status Quo==--

 * -1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * -3% to Clamour for Reform


--==Steady Hand==--

 * +1 to Duelling when Duelling with Pistols


--==Steady Under Fire==--

 * +1 to Morale in Battles


--==Strategist==--

 * +2 to Management for Army Administration


--==Sybarite==--

 * +1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * -1 Happiness (Nobility)


--==Tactician==--

 * +1 to Management for Army Administration


--==The Great Outdoors==--

 * +10% to Campaign Movement Range


--==Three Bottle Man==--

 * This man's wine merchant is comfortably wealthy


--==Touched By His Hand==--

 * +4 to Zeal


--==Trencherman==--

 * -1% to Campaign Movement Range


--==Uncle to his Men==--

 * +1 to Morale in battles


--==Unsavoury Bawd==--

 * -1 Happiness (Lower Classes)


--==Upright==--

 * +1 to Management for Treasury Administration
 * -1 Happiness (Nobility)


--==Woodland Preacher==--

 * +1 to Zeal when seeking converts in the Americas


				Research Traits

--==Academic Fellow==--

 * +4 to Research


--==A Man of Business==--

 * Research points per turn for industrial technologies : 3


--==Banking Genius==--

 * Research points per turn for enlightenment technologies : 3


--==Compleat Banker==--

 * Research points per turn for enlightenment technologies : 1


--==Doctorate==--

 * +1 to Research


--==Emeritus Professorship==--

 * +3 to Research


--==Factory Master==--

 * Research points per turn for industrial technologies : 1


--==Gentleman Farmer==--

 * Research points per turn for industrial technologies : 2


--==Gentleman Scientist==--

 * Research points per turn for industrial technologies : 1


--==Learned Member==--

 * +1 to Research
 * Research points per turn for industrial technologies : 1


--==Manufactory Owner==--

 * Research points per turn for industrial technologies : 2


--==Moral Thinker==--

 * Research points per turn for enlightenment technologies : 2


--==Rustic Gentlemen==--

 * Research points per turn for industrial technologies : 1


--==Respected Philosopher==--

 * Research points per turn for enlightenment technologies : 3


--==Scholar==--

 * Research points per turn for enlightenment technologies : 1


--==Tenured Professorship==--

 * +2 to Research



				Religious Traits

--==Gone Native==--

 * -1 to Zeal when seeking converts in the Americas

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[A.07] Followers

Followers are sort of like traits, think of them as SUPER TRAITS. These are
basically always positive, which is a good thing, unlike traits. These are
more or less people who follow you main unit, and they can go and attach
themselves to anyone who can have a trait, and that means it will be able to
attach itself to Generals, Admirals, Gentlemen, Rakes, Ministers and Leaders.
Followers such as Ancileries are listed here as well. 

--==Aide de Camp==--

 * +1 to Command in Land Battles


--==Amusing Cad==--

 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)
 * -1 Happiness (Lower Classes)


--==Barber==--

 * -1 to Morale in Battles
 * -5% chance to death at the end of the turn


--==Capering Loon==--

 * Research points per turn for enlightenment technologies: 1
 * Research points per turn for military technologies: -1


--==Choirmaster==--

 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)


--==Comptroller==--

 * -4% bonus to global tax income
 * +2 to Management for Treasury Administration


--==Confidential Secretary==--

 * +2 to Management for Treasury Administration
 * -1 to Management for Justice Administration


--==Controller of Works==--

 * -5% to Cost of constructing cultural buildings
 * -5% to Cost of constructing metalworking buildings


--==Crimper==--

 * -5% Recruitment cost for Infantry


--==Cunning Monkey==--

 * +1 to Subterfuge for sabotage missions
 * +1 to Subterfuge for infiltration missions
 * +1 to Subterfuge for assassination missiles


--==Drillmaster==--

 * +10% to infantry units' campaign movement range
 * -1 to morale in battles


--==Dusty Librarian==--

 * +2 to Research


--==Exploring Officer==--

 * +5% to Campaign Movement Range


--==Expert Purser==--

 * -4% Upkeep Costs for all Naval Units
 * -1 to Morale in Battles


--==Flag Lieutenant==--

 * +1 to Command at sea when Attacking


--==Foul-Mouthed Parrot==--

 * +1 to Command at Sea when attacking


--==Hagiographer==--

 * -2 to Morale in Battles


--==Industrial Genius==--

 * Research points per turn for industrial technologies : 2


--==Landscape Gardener==--

 * +2 Happiness (Nobility)
 * -1 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +10% to cost of constructing farm buildings


--==Loyal Sowar==--

 * +2 to Command when fighting in India


--==Lunatick==--

 * +10% to Chance of Assassination
 * Research Points per turn for enlightenment technologies: 2


--==Mercenary French Gunner==--

 * +2 to Command when Leading Artillery Units
 * +5 to Artillery Unit's Campaign movement range


--==Military Artist==--

 * +5% to Army Campaign Movement Range


--==Military Padre==--

 * +2 to morale in battles


--==Military Surveyor==--

 * +5% to Army Campaign Movement Range


--==Mistress==--

 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)


--=="Mistress"==--

 * -2 Happiness (Middle Class)
 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)


--==Naval Surgeon==--

 * -10% to recovery change of battle casualties


--==Naval Surveyor==--

 * +2 Management to Navy Administration


--==Patriotic Sword==--

 * +1 to Duelling when duelling with Swords
 * +2 to Morale in Battles


--==Pet Hermit=--

 * +5% to cost of constructing industrial buildings
 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)


--==Polymath of the Spheres==--

 * Research points per turn for industrial technologies: -2
 * Research points per turn for enlightenment technologies: 2


--==Presentation Sword==--

 * +1 to Duelling when duelling with Swords
 * +1 to Command at Sea when attacking
 * +1 to Morale in Battles


--==Radical Pamphleteer==--

 * +1 to Subterfuge for Sabotage Missions
 * +1 to Subterfuge for Infiltration Missions


--==Secret Policeman==--

 * +5% chance to Spawning Rakes
 * -5% Chance of Assassination


--==Sommelier==--

 * +1 Happiness (Nobility)


--==Stupid Nephew==--

 * +2 to Morale in Battles


--==Surgeon==--

 * +10% to recovery chance of battle casualties


--==Tax Farmer==--

 * -2 Happiness (Lower Classes)
 * +4% Bonus to Global Tax Revenue


--==Thieftaker==--

 * +2 to repression across the theatre
 * -1 Happiness (Nobility)


--==Wagonmaster==--

 * +5% to army campaign movement range


--==Well-Connected Mistress==--

 * +1 to Management for Justice Administration
 * +1 to Management for Treasury Administration

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[A.08] Technology

The technology tree is the same for everyone, and is basically the way you
improve your units and empire. You might face the enemy with the exact same
army as you, technology will provide the edge that you need to win. There
are many techs in the game, and given that I have absolutely no clue about
national units, I just list the ranking of units you can recruit. 

There are three branches of research, Military, Industry and Philosophy, and
they all have sub-groups. For the Military, you have the Military, Ordnance
and Naval. Industry will have Agriculture, Textile and Metal. These will
be listed, as well as prerequistites and what they will lead to and do. 

All technology will also require a certain building to be built somewhere in
your empire. Without this building, you cannot build any new technology. 
Again, this is all in alphabetical order.


--==Abolition of Slavery==--

"The abolition of slavery removes the right of one man to own another, and
 outlaws any trade in human beings as property.

 The slave trade is highly profitable for those who engage in it, whether
 through trade such as that from Africa to the New World, or conquests such
 as the depredations of European shipping by the Barbary Pirates of North
 Africa. The morality and necessity of slave owner, however, are disputed. 
 Abolition of the trade has its roots in religious feelings, and in radical
 Enlightenment thought, but its effects are clear: a cessation of slave 
 taking, transportation, and exploitation.

 Historically, abolition was far from universally popular. William Wilderforce
 (1759-1833), the MP for Kingston-upon-Hull in Yorkshire, campaigned for many
 years in the face of bitter opposition from mercantile interests. His 
 eventual success only outlawed slavery in British possessions and British
 involvement in any foreign trade. The Royal Navy acted as a "world policeman",
 attempting to stop the African trade at source. Oddly, English judges had 
 already decided that slaves could become free by stepping onto British soil
 in 1772. Wilberforce's work was the start of a process that continues even
 today with attempts to stop "people trafficking."

Requires        = Citizenship
Building Needed = Modern University
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Philosophy


--==Advanced Irrigation==--

"The techniques and tools of managing water flow on farmland, to improve the
 soil and crop yields.

 Advanced irrigation is the application of scientific ingenuity and mechanical
 principles to the use and distribution of water. Marshy landscapes are
 drained and tamed to make productive and profitable farmland, rivers can be
 dammed and diverted, ponds and the landscape itself reworked to the benefit
 of its owners. These advances are leading to the cultivation of land that
 would previously considered unsuitable for agriculture, providing more food
 for a growing population.

 In Europe, the Dutch were the masters of irrigation and water management - 
 hardly surprising given the low-lying nature of much of the Netherlands! In
 Asia and India, rice farmers had long practical experience with paddy fields.
 Crop irrigation is an ancient skill, dating back to the down of agriculture:
 the Egyptions used the yearly flooding of the Nile as the basis of their
 entire civilisation, a dead world that scholars and antiquaries in the late
 18th Century were beginning to explore."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Clearances
Leads To        = Steam-Pumped Land Drainage
Stream          = Agriculture, Industry

 * +0.4% to the population growth impact of farms
 * Reduces the chances of food shortages
 * +10% Coin Wealth generated by farms
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Leads to Wine Estates


--==Basic Steam Pump==--

"This is steam-powered mechanical contrivance allows the easy drainage of 
 mines, among other tasks.

 Practical "steam engines" that can do useful work offer many advantages over
 other sources of power such as animals and waterwheels. A beam engine that
 harnesses the pressure of steam to work a mechanical pump can be used to pump
 water out of mine workings either more effectively or from greater depths. In
 both cases, the profits of the mine are greatly increased.

 Historically, there were several almost-abortive attempts to create a "steam
 pump", with most of the early efforts carried out by engineers in Cornwall,
 England. This county was rich in many mineral ores, and landowners were 
 prepared to pay handsomely for profitable innovations. Captain Thomas Savery
 (1650-1715) developed a "fire engine" that worked, after a fashion and as 
 well as it could, given the time's engineering limitations. It was, however,
 the beam "atmospheric engine" of Thomas Newcomen (1664-1729) that harnessed 
 steam power and made miner's lives safer."

Requires        = Nothing
Building Needed = Iron Workshops
Leads To        = Coke Blast Furnice
Stream          = Metal Industry, Industry

 * -10% to cost of constructing metalworking buildings
 * -10% to cost of constructing mines
 * Leads to Steam-Pumped Gold, Iron and Silver Mines


--==Cadenced Marching==--

"Marching to a beat unifies the movement of soldiers, and makes it possible 
 to more accurately measure pace.

 Originally drums were not carried onto the battlefield to provide musical
 accompaniment to the business of killing. They were there as a "repeater" 
 system for the shouted orders, as it was obvious that a single voice would be
 lost in the murderous hubbub of battle. However, it was soon realised that a
 regular beat was useful in teaching men how to load, present and fire their
 muskets. From that idea it is a short step to making sure that soldiers are 
 trained to do everything in a regular beat, including marching. Drummers,
 originally intended only to beat a coded tattoo for particular orders, can 
 also keep time for a whole regiment. With cadenced marching, a unit no longer
 ambles to its destination, it steps out with determination! A cunning colonel
 can even up the pace and have his men cover more ground by having the 
 drummers beat a little faster!

 Historically, many colonels of infantry regiments did pay for bands out of
 their own pockets, knowing that music could lift the spirits of "the lads"
 as surely as a bottle of gin."

Requires        = Square Formation
Building Needed = Drill School
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Improves campaign map movement speed
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Canister Shot==--

"This ammunition for cannons is a cylinder stuffed with musket bullets that 
 bursts as soon as it leaves the gun barrel.

 Any cannon can be turned into a giant shotgun using the appropriate size of
 round. Normal cannon balls are terrible enough when they hit, but they will
 usually only kill or injure a few men. Canister is a short-range weapon, and
 used as a last-ditch defence against a massed attack. The slaughter inflicted
 on nearby enemies can be fearsome indeed. Usually, canister shots are made 
 of tin, which serves to keep everything together while it is rammed down
 the barrel, but it is no impediment to bursting effect. It is not uncommon 
 for artillery crews to load a canister shot on top of a normal cannon ball,
 if they have time, to maximise killing the power. 

 Canister is still used by armies todays, and has been refined over the years:
 beehive rounds used flechettes (small darts) rather than round shot, but the
 principle is the same. The 120mm main gun on the modern US M1 Abrams tank is
 capable of firing canister ammunition, making it a 60-tonne armoured 
 shotgun."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Cannon Foundry
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Ordnance, Military

 * Enables Canister Shot
 * Recruits: Basic Artillery
 * Leads to Ordnance Factory


--==Carbines==--

"A carbine is a smoothbore musket, lighter than a standard infantry weapon,
 for use by Cavalrymen.

 An infantry musket fires a ball about the width of a man's thumb: a pound
 of lead is melted down to make about 10 or 12 rounds. A carbine fires a 
 smaller ball: some 15-17 rounds from the same amount of lead. This smaller
 bullet does slightly reduce its killing potential, but the reduction in
 recoil when fired from horseback is welcome. A carbine is, however, just as 
 long as a regular infantry musket, something that makes it awkward to reload
 while mounted. A carbine is often fitted with a sling-and-swivel to attach
 it to a Cavalryman's shoulder belt, so that it cannot be lost while riding
 at speed.

 Historically, there was some debate over whether or not regiments of horse
 should be equipped with firearms at all. John Churchill, the Duke of  
 Marlborough, favoured Cavalry using cold steel against the enemy. He felt
 that the morale impact of a Cavalry charge was more important than any
 marginal increase in firepower. As a result, his Cavalrymen received a tiny
 allocation of three rounds apiece - for the whole of a campaign season, not
 each battle!"

Requires        = Nothing
Building Needed = Army Encampment
Leads To        = Wedge Formation
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enables Carbines. This allows the recruitment of carbine-wielding Cavalry
   units
 * Enables Firearm Cavalry


--==Carcass Shot==--

"This ammunition is a hellish incendiary, contrived from combustible 
 substances wrapped in canvas, strengthened and supported by iron hoops.

 The shells are made by pouring an unpleasant cocktail or turpentine, tallow,
 resin, saltpetre, sulphur and antimony compounds into a canvas sack, which
 is supported by iron interlocking hoops. This mixture hardens, and the 
 shot can then be fired from mortars and howitzers. A weapon with a low
 muzzle velocity is required, otherwise the canvas rips apart and the crew
 are showered with the burning contents of the canvas. The hoops hopefully
 prevent the shot from bursting as it leaves the barrel, setting the users 
 on fire rather than the target.

 In theory, the mixture should burn for a few minutes when the shot bursts
 on impact, and be incredibly difficult to extinguish. Certainly dousing the
 flames with water will have little effect. This makes carcass shot 
 particularly useful against defensive positions, and an extremely unpleasant
 weapon when used against troops in the open."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Ordnance Factory
Lead To         = Quicklime Shells, Explosive Rockets
Stream          = Ordnance, Military


--==Carronades==--

"This weapon is a short-barrelled, muzzle-loading cannon that can be mounted 
 on the upper decks of a warship.

 Carronade differ from the normal warship "long guns" by having a shorterned
 barrel, relatively to the weight of shot. Short barrels require reduced
 gunpowder charges; large charges would be wasted because they would not have
 time to burn properly. This gives a reduced muzzle velocity, less recoil, 
 and a lighter weapon. As a further benefit, carronades require fewer gunners
 to fire them. There is, however, a tactical price to pay: carronades are
 short-range weapons. In close, but only in close, they can do fearful
 slaughter.

 Historically, the carronade was developed by the Carron Company of Fife,
 Scotland. It was a huge success initially, as the weight of shot more than
 made up for its short range, 68-pounder carronades were quite easily carried
 aboard even small ships. HMS Victory carried 68-pounder carronadesas part of
 her armament: one raking round shot and a load of 500 musket balls did 
 terrible slaughter on the gun deck of the Bucentaure at the Battle of 
 Trifalgar in 1805."

Requires        = Improved Grape Shot
Building Needed = Naval Board
Leads To        = Rifled Cannons
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Able to Recruit Carronade Vessels


--==Citizenship==--

"The idea of belonging to a society and adhering to its rules in order to reap
 the benefits of being a citizen.

 A man must be accountable for his own actions, for if he is not, is he a man
 at all? When actions are considered in the context of others, men begin along
 the path of citizenship. With the status of citizen there are 
 responsibilities that are inherent in this position. In order to gain the
 advantages and privileges of being a citizen, a man must adhere to the rules
 laid out by those that have made him this.

 The idea of citizenship hails from Classical antiquity, and in particular the
 study of Roman authors and their views upon Roman Republic politics. Certain
 members of society were given "citizenship", in effect creating a ruling
 class with greater political and social rights than their fellow nationals.
 Slaves and foreigners were not to be given political rights, and any social
 rights they had were limited at best. This "Roman" idea of citizenship 
 did not imply any move to democracy of any kind, but it did imply a 
 commonality of interests among the citizenry."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Modern University
Leads To        = Abolition of Slavery
Stream          = Philosophy

 * -1 Happiness (Middle Classes). Clamour for reform
 * -10% recruitment cost for infantry
 * +6 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enhances National Prestige


--==Classical Economics==--

"An attempt to understand, explore, and explain economic growth and 
 development.

 Classical economics seeks to change the way a nation's wealth is considered.
 No longer is the amount of money in a king's treasury the sole measurement
 of national wealth. The earnings of the populace are now taken into account.
 With this step forward people leave feudal society and stop forward as 
 individuals seeking their own gains for their own benefit.

 Classical economics was eventually superceded. Its influence does still
 linger however, especially within the modern school of thought known as 
 "new classical economics."

 Historically, the school of classical economics was originally created by
 Scottish philosopher Adam Smith, but David Ricardo is leading the school
 forward in its belief and methods. His debates on such topics as the Corn
 Laws with Thomas Malthus are giving theorists much to consider. One of 
 the key questions the theory seeks to answer is: how can a society be 
 built upon a system where man seeks to further only his own interests?"

Requires        = Free Trade Doctrine
Building Needed = Modern University
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Philosophy

 * -1 Happiness. Clamour for reform
 * +14 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * +15% Coin Wealth generated by all buildings
 * Enhances National Prestige


--==Coke Blast Furnace==--

"A furnice used to smelt ore efficiently and cheaply, allowing the creation of
 iron on a large scale.

 Iron smelting is traditionally done on a small scale, using charcoal as a 
 fuel for the furnace. Demand for iron is now such that the charcoal burning
 industry can no longer keep up, simply because there aren't enough trees to
 be chopped down for fuel! Instead, new methods using coal and, in particular,
 coke, can produce more iron of better quality.

 Coke is coal that has been heated in a confined space so that its volatile
 components are driven off, producing a carbonized residue. This burns in the
 same steady fashion as charcoal, and is an ideal fuel for blast furnaces. In
 these air is forced through as quickly as possible, quickly raising 
 temperature and melting the ore.

 Historically, it was English ironmaster Abraham Darby (1678-1717) who 
 discovered coke could be used in blast furnaces, and to better effect than
 charcoal. His iron was not of good quality but could be produced cheaply. 
 He founded a dynasty of ironmasters who are directly responsible for the new
 "cast iron age" of the early Industrial Revolution."

Requires        = Basic Steam Pump
Building Needed = Iron Workshops
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Metal Industry, Industry

 * +10% Coin Wealth generated by metalworking buildings
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Leads to Ironmaster's Works


--==Common Land Enclosures==--

"The appropriation of community land is an efficient way for the landed 
 classes to increase their wealth.

 Enclosure laws removes the rights of the lower social classes to graze their
 animals on common land, because it is now legally somone's private property,
 and fenced in as such. Farming does become more efficient as a result 
 because subsistance farming is replaced by cash crops, and there is more
 food grown. This is of little consequence to the common people who have
 been dispossessed of their ancient rights. They cannot feed themselves 
 anymore from their own smallholdings and herds which grazed on the commons,
 and must take the wages offered by the new landlords.

 In England, the landowners sitting in Parliament were not backwards in 
 passing many "Inclosure" Acts for their own benefit in the 18th Century.
 Enormous parcels of land were, effectively, stolen from the common working
 people and incorporated into private estates. The effect was to empty the
 landscape of unwanted labourers, who were forced into the new mill towns
 and rapdily industrialising cities, swapping rural poverty for urban squalor.
 Poor laws did little to alleviate poverty, other than making sure that the
 poor moved on to starve somewhere else."

Requires        = Nothing
Building Needed = Peasant Farm
Leads To        = Nothing
Stream          = Agriculture, Industry

 * +0.2% to the population growth impact to farms
 * Reduces the chance of food shortages
 * Leads to Rice Farms, Wineries, Tenanted Farms


--==Copper Bottoms==--

"Ships can be protected from fouling and the ravages of worms by covering them
 with copper sheeting below the waterline.

 Wooden ships are a rich feast for many marine animals, and a home for all 
 manner of weeds and barnicles. Over time, any hull becomes fouled when weeds
 and encrustations to the point that the ship's speed is compromised. Worse
 still, given time, worms will eat the planks of the ship to the point where
 its bottom literally falls out! Other than scraping a beached hull clean,
 there is no cure, worm eaten timbers have to be chopped out and replaced.

 Coppering involves nailing or bolting thin sheets of metal over the whole
 of a ship's underside. The copper is toxic to worms and weeds, and greatly
 extends the working life of a ship, and improves its sea keeping qualities.

 Historically, coppering was only a partial solution to the problem of 
 fouling. It worked well in keeping the hull clean but, thanks to an 
 electrolytic reaction with iron bolts used to hold the ship together, the
 bolts rotted away! The iron, copper, and seawater had created a battery, 
 and the (unintentional) iron cathodes were damaged by the reaction."

Requires        = Seasoning 
Building Needed = Naval Board
Leads To        = Improved Coppering
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * +5% Recruitment cost for all naval units
 * +10% topspeed of ships in battle
 * +5% movement range for ships on the campaign map


--==Diamond Formation==--

"An improved method for positioning and manoeuvring a cavalry unit, so that
 it may change direction with expedition.

 A diamond formation, as the name suggests, is a way of employing all the 
 men of a cavalry unit to best effect. Rather than being arranged as a simple
 wedge, the point towards the enemy, the unit tapers off from its broadest 
 point. Even though the riders may be knee-to-knee to maximise the shock of
 impact should a charge connect with a target, a diamond-formed unit can
 change direction quickly. This is not true with the earlier cavalry wedge,
 the members of which find any kind of wheeling turn difficult to execute.

 Historically, the Swedes were among the leaders in European cavalry tactics
 at the start of the 18th Century; King Charles XII was all in favour of
 closely packed, large cavalry formations that he believed that those would
 break the enemy by fear alone. There was debate among military men in 
 other nations too: in Britain the Duck of Marlborough favoured his cavalry
 charging home with cold steel, rather than relying on fear or bullets to
 do their terrible work"

Requires        = Wedge Formation
Building Needed = Military Academy
Leads To        = Shortened Carbines
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enables cavalry diamond formation. This replaces the wedge formation


--==Division of Labour==--

"The idea that the specialisations of roles within an industry creates a more
 skilled and organised workforce.

 As society expands its capabilities and needs grows within it. By dividing
 labour amongst workers a manufactory power can develop a more skilled and
 effective work force, in turn leading to a quicker production time and larger
 profits. Allocating workers to specific tasks create a more skilled and 
 knowledgeable work force, capable of passing their knowledge on to others.

 Scottish philosopher Adam Smith (1723-1790) was a firm proponent of the 
 division of labour. He argued that the rate of production would be 
 dramatically increased within industry if work was divided effectively. In
 "The Wealth of Nations", he called for a public education system to be put
 in place to teach workers the finer points of their craft. Economist William
 Petty took a different view point: he argued that the main purpose of the
 division of labour was creating a more skilled work force, rather than  
 speeding up production times."

Requires        = Physiocracy
Building Needed = College
Leads To        = Joint Stock Companies
Stream          = Philosophy

 * +4 Coin per turn to town wealth in the region
 * +10% Coin Wealth generated by industrial buildings
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Leads to Plantation Warehouses


--==Empiricism==--

"The belief that all human knowledge is gained through experience and those 
 aspects of life that cannot be directly experienced must not exist. 

 As men seek to explain the world around them, and their place within it, 
 new theories are formulated almost weekly and such theory is empiricism. 
 Empericists believe that the human mind is a tabula rasa (white paper), and
 our experiences as we grow and learn make a mark on this paper. It is though
 these marks that we identify with things and understand them.

 The work of philosopher John Locke (1632-1704) was the driving force behind
 the inception of empiricism. He redefined the tabula rasa argument, first 
 worked on by Ibn Tufail in the 12th century. His key works explored the
 human mind and often clashed with other theorists of his time. The 
 rationalists, for example, held the human mind to be capable of comprehending
 some things without the need of the senses, through faith. Locke, on the 
 other hand, believed the mind was only capable of comprehending things 
 through experience."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = School
Leads To        = Nothing
Stream          = Philosophy

 * +5% to technology research rate
 * +2 Coin per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Leads to College


--==Explosive Shells==--

"Hollow projectiles, filled with gunpowder, which, by use of a timed fuse, 
 explode near enemies.

 Cannonballs are usually exactly that: solid lumps of iron (or stone, for
 some early weapons) that do damage on impact. They must hit the target to 
 have an effect. Explosive shells, however, are cunningly contrived to  
 explode after a set time, causing damage and injury to everything within the
 blast. A cast iron sphere contains gunpowder, a lit fuse burns down a set
 rate until the blasting charge is reached. The skill of the gunner is in
 judging the trajectory of the shot and the length of fuse required to
 explode the shell over or amongst the enemy.

 Historically, the weapons used for shells were most often short-barrelled
 mortars or howitzers. Apart from anything else, the gunner had to reach 
 down the barrel to ignite the shell fuse, and then get out of the way before
 the piece fired or the shell exploded. It was not unknown for gunners to be
 killed by premature shell bursts, either in the barrel or shortly after
 firing! The explosive shell lives on today in the form of cartoon bombs with
 the word "BOMB" on the side in large, unfriendly letters."

Requires        = Improved Grenades
Building Needed = Ordnance Factory
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Ordnance, Military

 * Enables explosive shells for howitzers and mortars
 * Leads to recruitment of artillery units
 * Leads to Great Arsenal


--==Fire and Advance==--

"A tactic which allows a unit to move forward in sections, while enjoying
 the benefits of covering fire from its own men.

 When using this evolution, infantry units do not advance as a solid mass, but
 divide into smaller groups, each of which then advances a short distance in
 turn. While a group is stationary, it loads and then discharges the muskets
 at the enemy, harassing them and covering the advance of their moving 
 fellows. Overall, a unit advances more slowly because of the repeated stops
 made by its companies to fire, but the constant, though limited, fire 
 maintained against the enemy is compensation enough.

 This manoeuvre it demands a great deal of comradely loyalty from both 
 officers and men, as each manoeuvring group relies on the fire of the
 other to keep the enemy at bay while it advances. Good discipline and
 weapons drill are also required, so that the stationary companies will always
 be ready to give fire when needed. Properly executed, it can be a devastating
 and effective way of closing with the enemy.

 The tactic has remained in use to the present day as a method of advance 
 called "bounding overwatch", a particularly useful technique for armoured
 units where tanks give each other covering fire."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Military Academy
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enables line infantry fire and advance drill


--==Fire by Rank==--

"This firing pattern for infantry units prouces a barrage of musketry by 
 having each rank, or line of men, fire in turn.

 By careful timing, it is possible for a constant fire to be maintained for,
 as soon as one rank has fired, it begins reloading. By the time other ranks
 in the unit have fired on their turn, all men should have reloaded and ready
 to give fire once more. This requires a good level of discipline and 
 obedience, as each rank must listen only to orders from the relevent officers
 and sergeants. The drill involved in loading a smoothbore musket must also
 be mastered by every man in the unit. Carried out correctly, the result is
 a series of volleys that give enemies no respite from a hail of musket 
 balls!

 Historically, it was usual for units to draw up formations three ranks deep,
 this being considered the "best" compromise between weight of fire and ease
 of control. Deeper formations were tried, but there was always a risk to men
 in the forward ranks from careless shots from the rearmost ranks - men were
 shot in the back by inexperienced comrades. Of course, this firing pattern 
 also meant that only one man in three was ever loaded and ready to fire at  
 any given time!"

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Drill School
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enables line infantry fire by rank firing drill


--==Flintlock Cannons==--

"The simplist ideas are often the most effective. Fitting a flintlock to a 
 cannon reduces misfires and speeds firing.

 Traditionally, cannons are fired by applying a slow-burning match to the 
 touch hole in the breach. The primer catches, flashes into the main barrel,
 and the resulting explosion fires the projectile. The gun captain needs to
 be careful, stay out of the line of the recoil, and keep his linstock away
 from any gunpowder. However, a burning match is not foolproof, and the 
 method can produce misfires and, more dangerously, "hangfires" where the
 priming powder is burning, but has not - yet - set off the main charge.

 By taking the flintlock from a standard musket and attaching it to a cannon
 breach, a reliable spark can be created, making firing a cannon a much more
 reliable process. Any risk of the slow match being extinguished, or causing
 an accidential explosion, is gone. The gun captain has only to cock the 
 flintlock, stand well back, and then pull the lanyard to fire his gun. This
 certainty of fire is much valued aboard warships.

 Historically, only the British Royal Navy and the US Continential Navy 
 adopted the flintlock for use on cannons."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Admiralty
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * -5% Reduction to Navan Cannons' Reloading Time
 * Enhances National Prestige


--==Flying Shuttle==--

"A flying shuttle means the width of a loom can be increased beyond the span 
 of a weaver's arms.

 Manually powered looms can only make pieces of cloth that are no wider than
 the easy reach of the weaver, simply because he has to throw the shuttle 
 carrying the woof across the warp threads on the loom. A flying loom uses a
 clever arrangement of lines and pulleys to launch the "flying" shuttle with a
 tug on a cord, catch it at the other side of the loom, and return it with
 another tug of the cord. The width of the loom, and so the width of the  
 cloth, can be increased as a result, and the quality of the cloth also 
 improves, as the weaver is now free to use one hand to comb and compact the
 woven material.

 The device was invented by Englishman John Kay (1704-80), and it brought him
 little but unhappiness. Weavers saw it as a threat to their livelihoods, and
 other inventors stole the idea and never paid him a penny for his work. The
 unfortunate man died penniless, having failed to sell his idea to the French,
 (Good Lord, the French!) after his ill luck in Britain."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Weaver's Cottage
Leads To        = Punch-Card Loom
Stream          = Textile Industry, Industry

 * +15% Wealth Bonus to Town Wealth from textile industry buildings
 * Enhances National Prestige


--==Four Field Crop Rotation==--

"By planting four different crops in succession the quality of soil in a field
 can be markedly improved.

 Simply: better soil means better harvests, and by grouping fields into fours,
 the crops are grown every year, just in different places. Farmers have long
 practiced crop rotation, leaving fields to lie fallow one year in every four
 to recover their fertility. This system works, but it means that a quarter 
 of farmland is doing nothing every year. This reduces profits and food 
 supply. Four-fields rotation adds an extra, useful crop to the series that
 actually improves the soil, clover or turnips are typical plantings.

 Viscount Charles "Turnip" Townshend (1674-1738) brought this Dutch invention
 to England, earning his nickname for his devotion to the crop and his 
 exceedingly predictable dinner conservations on the subject. Despite the
 boredom of his dinner guests, his improvements worked, and were part of a
 larger agricultural change that further enriched the landed classes. In
 England, with the Enclosure Acts that effectively stole the common grazing
 lands of the rural community, crop rotation made the wealthy even wealthier."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Tenanted Farms
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Agriculture, Industry

 * +0.3% to Population Growth impact on farms
 * Reduces the Chance of Food Shortages
 * Leads to Clearances, Rice Farming Estates


--==Free Trade Doctrine==--

"The concept that trade should be unimpeded by taxes, tariffs or any other
 restriction enacted by authority.

 Free trade is an intensely pleasing prospect for traders. The basic principle
 is that the less those in power involve themselves in matters of trade the 
 more it will be able to flourish and grow, thus creating wealth. Taxes, 
 tariffs or other restrictions that can be laid upon trade will only prove
 counterproductive. This runs entirely counter to the medieval idea of 
 guilds, that sought to limit trade and production of goods to those who had
 spent years learning their craft.

 Historically, David Ricardo (1772-1823) was one of the leading minds in the
 advancement of the free trade doctrine. He sought to prove it could be 
 beneficial not only to be economically strong, by also to be economically
 weak. He developed this theory and it became known as the theory of 
 "Comparative Advantage." The key point of the theory was the idea that a 
 region or country should specialise in goods that are easily and economically
 made within their borders. By doing this, a sizeable yet easy profit would
 result and grow from trade with others."

Requires        = Wealth of Nations
Building Needed = Modern University
Leads To        = Classical Economics
Stream          = Philosophy

 * -1 Happiness. Clamour for reform
 * +25% Coin Bonus to the growth in trade route income
 * +10 Coin per turn to town wealth in the region
 * +25% Coin Wealth generated by ports
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Leads to Global Trading Company


--==Government by Consent==--

"The concept that no man can be ruled without his prior consent.

 Society is built on a series of laws and understandings; no man can be 
 governed unless he deems those in power worthy of his respect, or capable of
 upholding his interests. This, in essence, is government by consent. 
 Followers of this theory think rulers should never have the right to 
 force any beliefs on those they rule. If the rulers don't have the consent
 of the masses they can be overthrown and replaced by others chosen by the
 masses.

 Historically, philosopher John Locke spent many years musing about 
 government, and the correct way to govern a society in order to preserve the
 rights of the individual. His thoughts culminated in his work "The two 
 treaties of government." Each of these outlined his thoughts on traditional
 forms of government, and his suggestions on how things could be improved."

Requires        = Social Contract
Building Needed = College
Leads To        = Seperation of Powers
Stream          = Philosophy

 * -1 Happiness. Clamour for reform
 * +5% to technology research rate
 * +3 Coin per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Improved Animal Husbandry==--

"The application of rational, scientific principles to the care and breeding
 of farm livestock.

 Animal husbandry is, of course, a practical skill of every farmer, cowhand,
 shepard, pigboy and egg collector on just about every farm in the world. It
 is, however, a matter of hard-won individual experience and folklore rather
 than rational, organised study. When gentlemen scholars apply their 
 "scientific methods" of study to animals close to home, an improvement in
 animal care, health and breeding quality can result, leading in turn to
 greater yields for the farmers.

 Historically, Thomas Coke, 1st Earl of Leicester (1754-1842) was a leading
 light in this field in Europe. He reorganised his land and home at the
 family seat, Holkam Hall. His "Holkam Sheerings" were gathering of 
 agriculturalists and gentlemen farmers, who came to admire his flocks and
 herds - and see new ways of turning a profit. Many now see these as the
 forerunners of the traditional county and agrilcultural shows that take place
 to this day."

Requires        = Nothing
Building Needed = Peasant Farm
Leads To        = Selective Breeding
Stream          = Agriculture, Industry

 * Reduces the chance of food shortages
 * +5% Coin Wealth generated by farms


--==Improved Coppering==--

"Coppering a ship prevents weeds fouling it, and this improved method prevents
 the ship's structural bolts from mysteriously rotting away.

 Copper sheets fitted to a wooden ship keeps weeds and worms at bay, making 
 the ship faster in the water and longer lasting in service. However, until
 the advent of a new alloy for making bolts to hold ship's timbers in place,
 coppering caused the iron bolts to be eaten away. Although nobody understands
 why the iron bolts fail, experiments have revealed that an allow of copper 
 and zinc can make bolts of sufficient strength that are immune to the
 mysterious problem.

 Copper sheathing for a ship is not a trival expense, being about six times 
 more expensive than replacing damaged timbers. For those navies who do it,
 however, the improved performance from not having weed-fouled hulls s well
 worth the expense. Fancy metalurgy is a small additional price to pay.

 Historically, the alloy bolts made coppering a success, so much so that 
 "copper bottomed" bacame a mark of approval: something so (financially)
 sound it could not possible fail. The method remained in use until the
 development of anti-fouling paints; even iron hulls get fouled by weeds."

Requires        = Copper Bottoms
Building Needed = Naval College
Leads To        = Top Gallants
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * -5% upkeep costs for all naval units
 * +10% topspeed to ships in battle
 * +5% movement range for ships on the campaign map


--==Improved Grape Shot==--

"Grape shot turns a naval cannon into a giant blunderbass, delivering a 
 devastating blast of man-killing shot into a target.

 Grape shot is usually a canvas bag that contains a large number of small 
 cannon balls. These are usually larger than the musket balls used in 
 canister shot for land-based artillery, as they are expected to blast 
 through wooden ships. Indeed, a part of their terrible killing effect comes
 from the fact that they not only spread out from the gun barrel when fired,
 but also shatter the target into equally deadly splinters. "Splinter" in this
 case can mean a lethally pointed piece of wood as long as a man's shorts!

 Improved grape shot puts the killing balls into a cylindrical container with
 wooden base or "sabot" (shoe), that acts as a poison when the cannon fires.
 Improved grapeshot can therefore can do even more damage to the crew of a 
 target.

 Historically, a broadside of grapeshot from HMS Swallow killed the infamous
 pirate Batholomew "Black Bart" Roberts in 1722. However, grapeshot was
 normally used to "rake" enemy ships by firing into the bow or stern. With
 no transverse bulkheads to absorb any damage, few would survive such an
 attack."

Requires        = Canister Shot
Building Needed = Naval Board
Leads To        = Carronades
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * Improves the effectiveness of grape shot


--==Improved Grenades==--

"Advances in ironworks and in the development of more reliable fuses can be
 applied to that most dangerous of hand-held weapons, the grenade.

 Grenades are dangerous weapons to their users as well as enemies. Premature
 detonation is always a risk, one that will probably kill and certainly maim
 the grenadier and anyone else nearby. There is also a need for a grenadier
 to throw the grenade further than its explosive killing radius! By making the
 hollow case thinner and being careful with the powder composition in fuses, 
 it is possible to make grenades slightly safer for the user.

 Historically, grenades were for the strongest and largest soldiers. It was
 rightly assured that a big chap could throw a cricket ball (baseball) sized
 grenade at a distant enemy. The weight of a dozen grenades in a pack was
 not a trivial load. Flintlock grenade throwers were developed: these had very
 short, wide barrels and used gunpowder to launch the grenade - a man-portable
 mini-mortar! The need to load a musket, light a fuse and fire at an enemy 
 promptly before the grenade exploded made them tricky (and nerve-wracking)
 to use."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Cannon Foundry
Leads To        = Explosive Shells
Stream          = Ordnance, Military

 * Improves the effectiveness of grenades


--==Interchangable Parts==--

"Uniformity in the parts of any machine or device means that it can be 
 assembled easily or broken items can be replaced quickly.

 Many device are hand-built by craftsmen to extremely high standards, but 
 this brings its own problems. If a designed component doesn't fit into a
 machine, it can be carefully worked until it does; in itself, this is no bad
 thing, but the altered piece may not now fit into an appropriately 
 identical mechanism.

 By making identical parts within a fine tolerance, identical machines can 
 be built from any mixture of those parts. Work can be developed amongst
 craftsmen, and broken parts can be replaced easily, even by a user! This is
 particularly useful for the military, as muskets and other equipment can be
 quickly repaired in the field rather than being thrown away or expensively
 rebuilt.

 This advance became widely known about thanks to American inventor Eli 
 Whitney (1765-1825). He built ten muskets in front of a US Congressional
 committee, took them to pieces, mixed up the parts, and rebuilt the muskets.
 The act was impressive, but he had cheated by having all his demonstrations
 pieces carefully handcrafted to extremely exacting standards. He was 
 largely copying the idea of Frenchmen Honore Blane."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Steam Engine Factory
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Metal Industry, Industry

 * -5% upkeep costs for all army units
 * -10% upkeep costs for all naval units
 * +5% Coin Bonus to town wealth from all buildings
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Joint Stock Companies==--

"A company owned by a group of individuals known as shareholders who can
 sell their stake in the company for profit.

 Joint stock companies are developed by financiers who, as part of their
 ownership, become shareholders. They are then given stocks that they can sell
 at any time, perferably for a profit. Coffee houses are popular haunts for
 men looking to trade in stocks. Many coffee house owners even keep a record
 of the prices of stocks and commodities, encouraging these new financiers
 to conduct their affairs within the establishment - all the while indulging
 in expensive and fashionable coffee drinking! 

 Historically, the South Sea Company was one of the more notorious joint stock
 companies. Robert Harley, the British Treasurer, set it up but, although the
 company appeared to be interested in trade, its chief purpose was to fund
 government debt incurred during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-
 1714). Rampant speculation pushed share prices to insane levels and, in the
 inevitable crash, many lost their entire fortunes."

Requires        = Division of Labour
Building Needed = Classical University
Lead To         = Wealth of Nations
Stream          = Philosophy

 * -1 Happiness. Clamour for Reform
 * +5 Coin per turn to town wealth in the region
 * +10% Coin Wealth generated by all buildings
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Leads to Commercial Basin, Fur Exchange


--==Light Infantry Doctrine==--

""Being, in the main, a newly improved method of deployment for the correct 
 use of light troops upon the field of battle..."

 Skirmishers deploy as a screen ahead of the main battle line, usually as 
 a widely spaced line of men. It is their job to harass the enemy line by
 peppering them with a few musket balls and scout for weaknesses. Most
 importantly, they must prevent the enemy from doing the same thing. They
 will not stop a serious enemy attack only delay it.

 Advanced skirmishing requires a degree of intelligence from those in the
 ranks. They form small groups, spotting important targets in the enemy ranks
 and deliberately shooting them. For preference, enemy officers and sergeants
 are the main victims, as their loss causes confusion and doubt in the rank- 
 and-file. Light infantry officers direct their men, rather than rigidly 
 control them , leaving the brightest and best in the army to make their
 own kills.

 Historically, light troops were hunters, poachers and the like, or the 
 complete light companies from existing regiements gathered into a new unit.
 A few nations, such as Great Britain, chose to arm their elite skirmishers
 with rifles rather than smoothbore muskets."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Army Board
Leads To        = Platoon Firing
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enables advanced light infantry drill
 * Allows recruitment of light infantry


--==Lime Juice and Sauerkraut==--

"A man is what he eats and, if he eats properly, he will keep at bay some of
 those pitiable afflictions that weaken and destroy him.

 Scurvy is a terrible, disabling and ultimately fatal risk to all seafarers
 and many others. Most ship's companies can expect to lose some of their
 number to its ravages. It begins mildly enough, with bad breath, bleeding
 gums, spots, and lays its victims low. Scurvy, however, is entirely  
 avoidable if fresh fruit and vegetables are eaten. Failing that, the juice
 of limes can be stored aboard ships without losing its health-giving 
 potency and sauerkraut (despite being pickled) can be a substitute for
 fresh cabbage.

 In the 18th Century no one had the faintest idea that vitamin deficiency 
 was the cause of scurvy, but a few clear thinkers recognised that something
 was mission from sailors' food. Scottishnaval physican James Lind (1716-1794)
 proved by systematic experimentation that fresh fruit was a cure for scurvy,
 possible the first clinical trial ever conducted. He also advocated keeping
 ships clean and fumigated, and should be seen for all these as a hero of 
 naval medicine for the improvement he made to the sailor's lot."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Naval Board
Leads To        = Preserved Foods
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * -5% Upkeep costs for all naval units
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Leads to Naval Hospital


--==Longitude Watch==--

"This watch keeps excellent time, enabling sailors to use it to calculate 
 their longitude with some certainty.

 While latitude is relatively easy to calculate for mariners, it is far 
 harder to estimate longitude. Deak reckoning can put a ship many leagues
 out of position, making it incredibly risky to approach a possibly reef-
 strewn coast. Having a reliable "home" time, it is possible to compare
 local readings, and so calculate longitude.

 In the 18th Century, poor navigation was a dangerous issue. Admiral Sir
 Cloudesley Shovell (1650-1707) and 1400 others in his Royal Navy squadron 
 died when a fleet went a aground off the Scillies. Dead reckoning 
 misplaced the fleet in a position of safety and, to add to the navigators'
 problems, no one could place the Scilly Islands on a map with any degree
 of accuracy either. Clearly, improvements were needed in navigational tools
 and the British Longitude Act of 1714 offered the immense fortune of £10,000
 to anyone who could devise a method for successfully calculating that element
 of a position. English clockmaker John Harrison (1693-1776) did eventually
 produce a chronometer that kept very accurate time, but spent more effort 
 in trying to get the money out of a recalcitrant government committee!"

Requires        = Sextant
Building Needed = Naval Board
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * +10% movement range for ships on the campaign map
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Machined Rifling==--

"Thanks to precision machinery, barrels can now have very accurate grooves for
 rifling, without troubling a master gunsmith to do the work.

 Rifling in a barrel imparts a spin to a projectile, making it fly with
 greater accuracy once it leaves the barrel. Grooves are cut in a spiral
 helix pattern on the inner surface of the barrel, and this twist is what 
 makes the bullet spin as it is fired. A lead bullet is actually distorted
 by the gunpowder explosion, and forced into the grooves.

 Making such a barrel was a task for a highly skilled gunsmith, meaning
 that rifling was reserved for hunting rifles for the extremely wealthy and
 the nobility. A machine tool that can do the job means that rifled barrels
 can be turned out in some quantity, and that they will be the same time
 after time. This machine cuts one groove at a time, meaning that at least 
 six or seven passes are required to properly rifle a barrel.

 Historically, only the British fields a large force of riflemen, armed with
 Ezekiel Baker's outstanding weapon."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Army Staff College
Leads To        = Screw Breach
Stream          = Military, Military


--==Machine Tools==--

"Precision, machine tools make components reliably and accurately, replacing
 the skilled eye and hand of a craftsman.

 It is possible for a skilled man to make parts for any device that are all 
 the same size and quality, but is was not easy for him to do this day in,
 day out. By using a series of machines that are set to carry an individual 
 task each, it is possible to replace the skills of the craftsman with 
 unskilled labour. A man only needs to know how to place a work item in a 
 machine and pull a lever. The machine itself will always drill the proper
 hole, cut a shape or turn an item. The main restriction on the number of
 any device made disappears, as skilled labour is only needed to set up
 the machines. As a secondary benefit it is also possible to standardise
 even the most basic of items, such as nuts and bolts.

 John Wilkinson (1728-1808), for example, created a new method of making
 cannons by casting them as a solid "lump" and then accurately boring out
 the barrel with a machine. His technique could also be applied to steam
 engine cylinders."

Requires        = Measuring Tools, Wealth of Nations
Building Needed = Ironmaster's Works
Leads To        = Steam Engine
Stream          = Metal Industry, Industry

 * -15% Recruitment cost for all land units
 * +5% Coin bonus to town wealth from all buildings
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Leads to Ceramic Factory, Lumber Mill


--==Mass Production==--

"A system for making items in huge quantities, where manufacturing is no 
 longer dependant upon the skills of individual craftsmen.

 Craft-based manufacturing of any kind has a ceiling on the number of goods 
 that it can produce. The goods themselves may be beautifully made, but the
 number of expert workers is the limitation: people can only make so many
 things if they are doing everything for themselves.

 Mass Production mechanises the basic and repetitive tasks of production, 
 and divides work into simple, repetitive and repeatable tasks. No longer does
 a master craftsman labuor to make one item from start to finish. Instead, 
 work is broken down into simple tasks and each given to a worker with the
 item passing to the next person for the next task. Each job is simple, so
 mechanical aids and tools can be used in place of expertise.

 Marc Brunel (1769-1849) was a French engineer who fetched up in England after
 the French Revolution. His block-making machines are a typical example of
 mass production in the period. They let unskilled labour make the blocks
 and pulleys needed in the thousands by the Royal Navy - blocks were a vital
 part of ship's rigging."

Requires        = Classical Economics
Building Needed = Steam-Powered Cloth Mill
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Textile Industry, Industry

 * -10% recruitment cost for all land units
 * -10% recruitment cost fof all naval units
 * +10% Coin bonus to town wealth from all buildings
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Measuring Tools==--

"Accurate measuring tools make possible the measurement of everything, 
 allowing scientific and technical work to proceed apace.

 Until there are reliable instruments, standard units of measurement can only
 exist within a single workshop or scientist's laboratory. How can a scientist
 describe the distances or sizes of his experiments and be sure that anyone
 else is working to the same dimensions? Craftsmen must make everything, from
 a clock cogwheel to a musket mainspring to a spinning machine, by trial and
 error, relying on modifying spaces until they fit well enough to work, but 
 not necessarily accurately. An accurate measurement method, which is used in
 different locations, means that consistency and repeatability can triumph!

 Historically, Jesse Ramsden's dividing engine and screw cutting lathe allowed
 the repeatable creation of graduations on measuring tools. Ramsden's early
 work in Britainhad been on the thorny problem on longitude, and a reward of
 £300 (a small fortune at the time) enabled him to expand his business and
 create the tools that lead to accurate sextants. By 1785 his expertise was
 being used to make a theodolite for the Royal Engineers' Ordnance Society,
 allowing the eventual mapping of the whole of the United Kingdom."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Iron Workshops
Leads To        = Machine Tools
Stream          = Metal Industry, Industry

 * +5% Wealth Bonus to town wealth from all buildings
 * +5% Wealth Bonus generated by industrial buildings
 * Leads to Metalled Roads


--==Military Syllabus==--

"This is a formal system of studies for all young gentlemen seeking a career 
 and success as senior military officers.

 While gifted amateurism and the minor gentry's natural leadership and 
 impressive shouting can do wonders at regimental level, for higher level
 commands a military education is necessary. There are matters of co-operation
 between the different arms of infantry, cavalry and artillery; there are  
 considerations of supply, intelligence, military engineering, politics and
 grand strategy. They are not trivial subjects, and require some study if they
 are to be useful to a general officer. A military syllabus approaches these
 matters in an organised way, and sets out a programme of study for a 
 gentlemen to undertake. At the very least, the reading list will keep the
 less cerebral officers from attaining high rank!

 The development of a system of military education aided the creation of a 
 centralised army staff, as it produced the professional officers needed to
 carry out the necessary duties. In many countries, professionalism was often
 viewed with deep suspicion, because it challenged the idea of nobility and
 propertied classes having an automatic right to command. Talent and proper
 training could trump the settled and natural order of things!"

Requires        = Ring Bayonets
Building Needed = Barracks
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Military

 * -5% Upkeep Costs for all army units
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Leads to Drill School


--==National Debt==--

"The idea that a state can, like an individual, borrow money against future
 (tax) income.

 Kings have always run up debts, borrowing money (sometimes at sword's point)
 from subjects and great banking houses. The debt, however, was the personal
 responsibility of the king. Eventually, his credit would run out. The  
 concept of national debt allows a nation to borrow to finance expansion and
 conquest. Wars can be financed by issuing bills and bonds, and to be repaid -
 probably - from taxation.

 Scottish economist, gamabler and rake John Law (1671-1729) made several
 advances in his field, his most notable being the introduction of the French
 national bank. He also proposed state control over national finances and
 trade. As a result, the state used all national profits to pay off national
 debt. Eventually, his schemes collapsed but in the process he gave the 
 Western world bank notes and the word "millionaire".

 National debt could also be a dangerous thing, for government officals. When 
 the share trading of the "South Sea Bubble" spectacularly failed in 1720,
 government creditors were out of pocket because they had been paid off 
 in shares. The Chancellor of the Exchequer, John Aislabie, was imprisoned
 in the Tower of London for his incompetence."

Requires        = Seperation of Powers
Building Needed = Classical University
Lead To         = None
Stream          = Philosophy

 * -5% Upkeep costs for all army units
 * -5% Upkeep costs for all naval units
 * +8 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Naval Architecture Advances==--

"This is a new approach to the business of designing, building, arming and 
 commissioning warships for the navy.

 The struggle to find a perfect design for a ship of the line occupies many
 minds in many admiralties around the world. Ideally, the perfect design for
 each type of vessel will be a standard, repeatable plan that any compotent
 shipwright can execute. There must be compromise between the various elements
 of the ship: armament and its type, speed, sail area, strength of hull, 
 endurance (in terms of supplies carried) and so forth. If any of these 
 are unbalanced, then the ship will sail or fight poorly, and the fleet be
 weakened as a result. 

 Historically, distinct "classes" of warships built to standardised designs
 emerged by a process of experimentation. Shipwrights were expected to use 
 naval architects rather than build ships by rule of thumb, the way things had
 always been done. Navies encouraged the practice because a certain pleasing
 neatness resulted if ships were built to recognise standards. In Britain, for
 example, the work of Sir Thomas Slade (1704-71) was exceptional: he produced
 a standard plan for the third rate 74, and over 40 ships were built to his
 design."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Naval Board
Leads To        = Reformed Naval Administration
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * -5% recruitment cost for all naval units
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Leads to Drydock


--==Naval Shore Facilities==--

"A fleet is more than just a collection of ships. It requires an organisation
 and support ashore to keep it afloat and battle worthy.

 Ships at sea requires regular repairs, even if they are not fighting, as wind
 and wave will take a toll of even the strongest vessel. Even ships that are
 not active require some maintenance support, as barnicles and weeds must be
 removed if sailing performance is not to be compromised. A warship requires
 a prodigious quantity of stores, food, water, and ammunitions too: all of 
 these must be collected, properly preserved and then loaded quickly and
 efficiently. 

 All of these tasks mean that navies must have their own shipyards, repair 
 shops and warehouses available at all times. It is not enough to rely on
 civilian capacity. 

 Historically, the Royal Navy was the largest single industrial "business" 
 in the 18th Century world. A huge fleet demanded shore facilities such as 
 dockyards on an equally vast scale, and in every part of the world. Just
 suppling the fleet with food, drink, and spare parts required tremendous 
 purchasing organisation, but the Navy was also capable of building and 
 repairing vessels. Even British foreign policy in places like the Baltic 
 was dominated by the need to keep the navy supplied (with mast timers and
 tar, in the case of the Baltic.)"

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Admiralty
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * Enables Building of Dockyard, Naval Board


--==New Model Bayonet Drill==--

"A drill which has been refined to formalise the lasest fashions in 
 bayonet usage, making for a more effective melee attack.

 The first bayonets did a fine job of providing mustketeers with the
 equivalent of a short pike to use in an emergency. Because they were
 pike replacements, the drills used were largely based on the well-known
 and understood pike drills. Now, however, bayonets are seen as something
 more than substitute pikes, something that pragmatic soldiers discovered
 for themselves. New books are emerging, advocating a new fashion of bayonet
 drill: holding the bayonet-carrying musket at waist height, rather than
 advancing with it levelled at shoulder height. There is also an emphasis
 on the offensive use of the bayonet, carrying the fight to the enemy,
 rather than using it defensively to keep attackers at bay. In the thick
 of hand-to-hand fighting, however, many soldiers use their muskets as clubs,
 as the need to live takes precedence over formal training!

 Historically, this development is the birth of the "spirit of the bayonet"
 and the belief in the efficacy of "cold steel" which was to last for the 
 next two centuries in some armies."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Military Academy
Leads To        = Reorganised Procurement
Stream          = Military, Military

 * +3 to charge bonus for bayonet-equipped units
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Percussion Cap==--

"This small copper container holds a chemical mixture that reacts explosively
 when hit; the flash is used to ignore a main gunpowder charge.

 A percussion piece has less to go wrong than a flintlock during firing: there
 is no flint to become loose; no need to charge the pan with loose powder 
 and less to get wet in bad weather. Instead a small cap is fitted over the
 end of a small tube at the breech end of the barrel. The cap is filled with
 fulminate of mercury, a most volatile substance. When it is struck by the
 hammer it explodes, but in a small way. The flash travels down the tube
 and ignites the main charge of gunpowder, and the musket fires.

 Historically, the percussion cap was the invention of a Scottish clergyman,
 Alexander John Forsyth (1769-1843), who was looking for a solution to a 
 hunting problem. The flintlock's flash in the pan before the main charge
 fired alerted birds that they were about to be shot, causing them to fly
 away in a deucedly unsporting fashion. The newly discovered and very
 unstable fulminate of mercury gave him an invisible spark that didn't 
 warn his feathered victims!"

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Army Staff College
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enhances national prestige
 * Reduces the impact of rain on misfires
 * -5% misfire chance for all gunpowder weapons


--==Percussion Shells==--

"This is a cannon shell which explodes on impact, rather than as the result
 of a burning fuse igniting the bursting charge.

 Explosive shells usually rely on the gunner lighting a seperate fuse on the
 shell itself prior to the gun being fired. The fuse burns at a set rate,
 and explodes after a selected time regardless of whether or not a target
 has been hit or the enemy is nearby. Incorrectly set fuses can kill
 friends or gunners, or not explode at all. Explosive shells are also 
 limited to mortars and howitzers which lob their projectiles in a high arc.

 The percussion shell, however, is cunningly fashioned to take advantage 
 of the explosive properties of fulminating compounds. These chemicals burst
 into flame when struck, and this can be used to ignite larger charges of
 gunpowder. The shock of an impact on a target is transferred to the
 fulminate, which then ignites the shell's bursting charge. Such shells 
 can be fired from ordinary cannons, directly at an enemy.

 Historically, the work of Henri-Joesph Paixhans (1783-1854), who combined
 the flat-firing cannons and a reliable percussion shell, lead directly to
 the obsolescence of the wooden warship and the rise of the ironclad."

Requires        = Carcass Shot
Building Needed = Engineer School
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Ordnance, Military

 * Enables precussive shells. These replace explosive shells for howitzers
   and mortars.


--==Physiocracy==--

"Physiocrats believe the only real source of wealth is land and therefore
 only agriculture is worthy of investment.

 Physiocracy means "ruled by nature" and this perfectly sums up the attitude
 of the theory's adherents. They believe that land is the only profitable
 commodity man can own, and should be the sole concentation of those  
 attempting to make a successful living. 

 The idea is also based on the assumption that humans are instinctively 
 selfish and as such will always act to the benefit of themselves before
 others. Physiocrats believe that this human characteristic is vital to a 
 thriving economy. If a rule hampers the move forwards by levying taxes,
 imposing regulations and generally attempting to control the flow of trade
 he will prevent the creation of wealth and stunt wealth generation.

 As leaders in the development of physiocracy, the French created the theory
 of "laissez-faire". This helped to explain their views on the amount of 
 input a ruler should have on trade, and became an influential idea still 
 used to promote economic liberalism today."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = School
Leads To        = Division of Labour
Stream          = Philosophy

 * +3 Coin per turn to Town Wealth in the Region
 * +15% Coin Wealth Generated by Farms
 * Leads to Large Plantations


--==Platoon Firing==--

"This firing plan for musketry ensures an infantry unit keeps up a 
 continual barrage of shots against an enemy.

 Nearly all line infantry carry smoothbore, muzzle-loading muskets. These
 take considerable time to reload after firing: anything up to a minute 
 for poorly trained or nervous troops. During that time, the enemy can 
 close or return fire unmolested. In the time it takes to reload, a unit
 can be cut down, its half-loaded weapons useless in the face of an 
 aggressive foe. It is sensible to make sure that not everyone in an 
 infantry unit is reloading at the same moment, this, in turn, means that
 not everyone should be firing at the same time.

 Platoon fire is a way of dividing a unit into smaller groups that each
 fire, reload and fire again in turn. The result is a "rippling fire" down
 a line formation and, as the last platoon fires its muskets, the first is
 ready to fire again. A unit can always give some fire to the enemy at all
 times, even if this is less than a complete volley. When more than one 
 unit is involved all the troops in every first platoon fire, followed by
 all the second platoons, and so on, creating several rippling barrages
 down the battle line.

 The word "platoon" in this context does not have the modern meaning of 
 being a sub-unit of a military company. Platoon assignment to what was a
 "fire group" was made on an ad hoc or informal basis, and could mean a 
 whole regiment being assigned to a "platoon"."

Requires        = Light Infatry Doctrine
Building Needed = Army Board
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enables platoon firing drill
 * Leads to Army Staff College


--==Plug Bayonet==--

"A plug bayonet turns a musket into a crude spear or half-pike by plugging
 the muzzle with a blade handle, like a cork into a bottle. 

 At one time "marching regiments" were composed of musketeers and pikemen. 
 The pikes provided protection for the musketeers while they slowly reloaded
 and in the event of a Cavalry attack. In a melee the musketeers reversed
 their guns and used them as clubs, or dropped them and drew swords. Neither
 solution was ideal, and equipping half a unit with pikes also halved its 
 potential firepower. As muskets became lighter and no longer needed a 
 firing rest, it became practical to attack a blade to the muzzle, giving
 the user a better-than-makeshift weapon in melee. 

 Ramming a blade, hilt first, into the muzzle became a practical solution.
 The soldier then has a short pike to fend of Cavalry, and use in hand-to-hand
 combat. The drawbacks are that it is often difficult to remove the plug 
 bayonet once used in anger and resume firing, the user cannot reload - and
 only a fool fires a gun when the barrel is blocked!

 Historically, muskets with plug bayonets were the equivalent of short likes,
 and old-fashioned pike drill applied; men advanced with their muskets held
 shoulder high, and levelled at the enemy."

Requires        = Nothing
Building Needed = Army Encampment
Leads To        = Ring Bayonet
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enables infantry to fix bayonets in battle


--==Power Loom==--

"A powered, mechanical loom that can be operated by shifts of unskilled 
 workers.

 Manual weaving is a skilled craft, one that requires long years to master
 and, as always, this limits the output of a craft-based industry. The 
 power loom automates many of the movements needed to weave cloth. A cunning
 series of levers, cams, gears and springs make the individual elements of
 the loom move in precise time. The operator monitors the work, and makes 
 sure that the machine is supplied with yard. This unskilled labour requires
 nimble fingers, but not the master craftsmanship of old.

 During the 18th Century powered looms were seen as a threat to many 
 livelihoods, provoking riots and unrest when they were installed in mills.
 Edmund Cartwright (1743-1823) was not the first to turn his mind to
 mechanical weaving, but he was the first to understand the economics of  
 the problem: that a power loom had to make more than a manual weaver, or
 that one operator had to be able to work several looms at the same time. 
 His machine was not perfect, but it showed promise and the way ahead."

Requires        = Punch Card Loom
Building Needed = Water-Powered Cloth Mill
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Textile Industry, Industry

 * +5% Coin Wealth generated by textile workshops and factories
 * +20% Coin Bonus to town wealth from textile industry buildings
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Leads to Steam-Powered Cloth Mill


--==Preserved Foods==--

"Keeping food fresh at sea requires that it is preserved in some way; at the
 very least, this makes it taste fairly horrible.

 A variety of preserving methods are used to aid the storage life of food. 
 Meat and, to a lesser extent, cheese can be salted and stored for years, but
 the inevitable saltiness makes it a poor substitute for fresh food. Ship's
 biscuits and flour for bread can be stored in barrels for long periods, but
 are notoriously prey to weevils. Beer likewise can be store for a while 
 thanks to the preservative effect of hops. Other foods are harder to keep
 fresh, and the solutions were put into port regularly, carry animals for
 slaughter, or go without. It is, however, now possible to preserve food
 in jars or metal canisters: they are cooked in the container and then quickly
 sealed to keep out the air.

 Historically, the process was pioneered by French confectioner Nicolas Appert
 (1749-1841). He spotted that food boiled in seal containers only spoiled
 once the air was admitted, and earn himself a substantial prize once he went
 into production: a labourious business as each tin had to be hand made."

Requires        = Lime Juice and Sauerkraut
Building Needed = Naval College
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * Enhances national prestige
 * +2 to morale in battles


--==Puddling Furnace==--

"This furnace keeps the pig iron and fuel seperated, preventing impurities
 from reaching the pool of molten metal.

 As a result, the puddling furnace makes a very good quality end product. 
 It does not, however, turn raw ore into refined metal: it needs refined
 iron of reasonable quality to produce the best results. The metal is placed
 in the heart of the furnace along with oxidizing agents and melted by 
 blowing flames from the fire onto it: the puddle formed in the open hearth
 is manually stirred by the operators - a risky job for anyone! The iron
 produced can be worked further into wrought iron, a strong, malleable, 
 material with many uses.

 Historically, English ironmaster Henry Cort (1740-1800) developed the 
 process, partly in response to the poor quality of iron he dealt with
 in his job working for the Royal Naval Dockyards. Unfortunately, he was
 not much of a businessman and he did not gain great wealth from his 
 work: he died a ruined man."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Ironmaster's Work
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Metal Industry, Industry

 * -15% Recruitment cost for artillery
 * +20% Coin Wealth generated by metalworking buildings
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Punch Card Loom==--

"A loom that makes patterned materials thanks to a mechanism which follows
 instructions coded into a set of holed cards.

 Patterns are created in woven cloth by lifting different warp threads as  
 the shuttle passes through the loom. Even on a manual loom intricate designs
 can be created by lifting threads in the right order, but this relies on
 the skill of the weaver. The punch-card loom mechanizes the lifting of warp
 threads. A series of punch cards is drawn through the machine as the cloth
 is woven; each card has an intricate pattern of holes that allow levers to 
 drop through as the card is "read." The lever trips a mechanism that raises
 the corresponding warp thread at the right time to create a pattern. 
 Providing the cards are in the correct order and the holes are properly
 punched, the machine can dependably and repeatably produce any desired 
 design with no need for a master weaver.

 Joseph Marie Jacquard (1752-1834) is credited as the father of the punched
 card loom, although his work draws on machines that used a paper roll for
 the instructions. The loom cards are direct ancestors of the computer punched
 card, once the bane of every computer department!"

Requires        = Flying Shuttle
Building Needed = Water-Powered Cloth Mill
Leads To        = Power Loom
Stream          = Textile Industry, Industry

 * +15% Coin Bonus to town wealth from textile industry buildings
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Quicklime Shells==--

"This unpleasant and ungentlemenly artillery projectile showers the target 
 with quicklime, a compound that causes burns and blindness.

 Quicklime is a dangerous, caustic product that gets very, very hot when it
 is slaked with water. It does have entirely innocent uses: plaster, mortar
 and whitewash for buildings, and in glass making; but as a weapon it is 
 frightening indeed. The smallest amount will cause painful, even fatal,
 burns on exposed flesh. The eyes are especially vulnerable because they are
 moist with tears. Quicklime shells carry an explosive charge so as to burst
 above enemy lines, but they are still dangerous to the gunners using them.

 Historically, quicklime had a long history of use in warfare, daring back
 to Classical antiquity. This did not make it an acceptable weapon in the
 eyes of many military gentlemen who, quite rightly, realised that what
 could be used against the enemy could also be used against them. Further,
 liuke all chemical weapons, it was entirely dependent on the wind to send 
 the caustic agent in the right direction once released. It was true that,
 short of running away, there was no practical defence against perfidous
 and odious chemical weapons."

Requires        = Carcass Shot
Building Needed = Ordnance Board
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Ordnance, Military

 * Enables quicklime shells. This replaces carcass shot for howitzers and
   mortars


--==Reformed Naval Administration==--

"The desire to keep a well-supplied, healthy and effective fleet at sea
 requires a tremendous amount of administration and paperwork, paperwork,
 paperwork!

 Traditionally, many naval nations have relied on treating a navy as one more
 part of the royal household, or a series of temporary arrangements that draw
 on the merchant fleets in times of war. A reformation of the navy's shore
 administration replaces the ad hoc arrangements of previous centuries with
 a properly trained and salaried secretariat, men who understood the worlds
 of business, account books and legal matters better than they know the sea.
 It is they who organise and run the naval service not, as was once the case,
 admirals and officers too old or crippled to walk the quarterdeck. The 
 change, while bemoaned by sea officers, is undoubtedly necessary to ensure
 that a fleet can remain at sea, with crews, food and equipment as required,
 and shore facilities for repair when they are needed, wherever they are
 needed.

 Historically, maintaining maritine power at sea was not an option for any
 nation that engaged in overseas trade. The only guarantee that sea lnads 
 would be open for merchant vessels was the guns of a powerful navy. A nation
 without warships was, sooner or later, a nation without its own trading
 fleet."

Requires        = Improved Naval Architecture
Building Needed = Naval Board
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * Enhances national prestige
 * Leads to Naval College


--==Reorganised Procurement==--

"As armies grow in size and complexity, foraging and looting rarely support
 military operations for long periods. Supply must be put on a formal 
 lodging.

 Traditionally, the colonel of each regiment was responsible for making sure
 that his men are adequately clothed and shod, and carry weapons and  
 ammunition to see them through a campaign. However, as armies increase in
 size military officers actually began to compete with each other for
 scarce resources, and this only serves to drive up prices - and the profits
 of the unscrupulous and unpatriotic. It also turns the centralised 
 co-ordination of, and sharing of, campaign supplies into an administrative
 triangle. It is true that it does not matter if an army has many types of
 shoes, as long as everyone has a pair. But something as seemingly simple as
 a common size of cannon ball can become problematic if every colonel of
 every regiment is allowed to organise and order his own weapons.

 In addition to laying down standards for drill and military evolutions, 
 during the 18th Century the army staffs of various nations (such as they
 were) also began to sort out the tangle of supply. The whole business was,
 in many nations, riddled with corruption and preferential treatment for
 friends, with bribes and kickbacks as well. While a certain amount of 
 patting money into friends' pockets was considered acceptable, there were
 limits."

Requires        = New Model Bayonet Drill
Building Needed = Military Academy
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Military

 * -5% recruitment cost for all land units
 * Leads to Army Board, Gunnery School


--==Rifled Cannon==--

"Rifling a barrel increases the accuracy of a weapon, and this principle can
 be applied to large cannons as well as small arms.

 Ordinary naval cannons are smoothbore weapons, meaning that the barrel is a
 simple tube to contain the explosion. The limitations of casting mean that
 cannons are quite crude and windage, the gap between the barrel and shot,
 is always a problem. A shot often "rattles" down the barrel when fired, 
 making it inherently inaccurate. The loss of accuracy with a smoothbore 
 makes its maximum range of academic interest only, simply because it becomes
 a matter of luck rather than judgement to hit anything far away!

 A rifled cannon solves these problems. By using machines to bore out the
 barrel from a blank casting, one inaccuracy is removed. Another machine cuts
 a helical pattern of grooves into the barrel wall. This imparts a spin to
 any shot as it travels down the barrel, and a spinning projectile flies true.
 This makes the effective range of a rifled cannon shot much greater than one
 from a smoothbore, although the maximum range for both is similar.

 Historically, rifled cannons used manufacturing techniques developed for
 making accurate steam pistons and cylinders."

Requires        = Carronades, Machined Rifling
Building Needed = Naval College
Leads To        = Sheet Lead Cartridges
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * Enables rifled naval cannons
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Rights of Man==--

"A theory promoting the rights of the individual, and introducing the view
 that "Men are born free and remain free and equal in rights.

 Every man deserve rights, regardless of his nationality, class and any other
 categorization placed upon him by his fellow man. These rights should extend
 to anything that does no injury to others. Any law imposed should only have
 the power to prevent things, and nothing else. These are the new ideas 
 implicit in the Rights of Man. Theorists believe law is an expression of the
 general will and as such should not be controlled by a single individual.

 Historically, Thomas Paine (1737-1809), an English revolutionary who was
 involved in both the American and French Revolutions, wrote the "Rights of 
 Man". His work supported and advanced the ideals behind both revolutions: he
 had a strong belief in the need for freedom of speech. He stated that a man
 should never be punished for his views and should be free to voice them to
 the masses. In a time when some of his fellows were prosecuted for publishing
 radical theories this was a dangerous view point indeed. Paine is still
 regarded as a hero to this day."

Requires        = Seperation of Powers
Building Needed = Classical University
Lead To         = None
Stream          = Philosophy

 * +10% to technology research rate
 * +5 Coin per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Leads to Modern University


--==Ring Bayonet==--

"This long blade has a ring which fits around the outside of a musket barrel,
 allowing the weapon to be fired while it is attached.

 The ring bayonet serves to turn a musket into a short, and rather heavy, 
 pike. This is considerably more threatening to enemies using the weapon as
 a clumsy club in a hand-to-hand fight. The bayonet is a push fit, and it is 
 the tightness on the ring around the bayonet that keeps it in place, most of
 the time. Ring bayonets can be pulled off in the heat of combat by becoming
 wedged in enemy flesh, and they can be pushed back along the barrel. They
 are, however, a considerable advance over the plug bayonet.

 There is some dispute over the origin of the ring bayonet, and it may be the
 case that several military men in different countries developed it at almost
 the same time. Its advantage over the plug bayonet - the user could still
 give fire - made sure that it was popular. A ring bayonet would not offset
 from the barrel, making it awkward to reload a musket with one fitted."

Requires        = Plug Bayonet
Building Needed = Barracks
Leads To        = Military Syllabus
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enables ring bayonets. This replaces plug bayonets


--==Screw Breech==--

"This cunning mechanism does away with the need to load a wepaon by ramming
 charge and shot down the muzzle, making the whole business quicker.

 Instead, a handle underneath the rear of the barrel causes the screw section
 of the breech to drop away, allowing the user to put a ball and a charge 
 into the barrel. The handle is then turned back; the breech closes and seals
 the firing chamber. The gun then fires like any other flintlock. Better yet,
 the screw breech doesn't require the user to stand in order to be able to
 use a ramrod to proper effect.

 Historically, Major Patrick Ferguson (1744-1780) was the first to produce
 a practical military weapon with a screw breech. The mechanism was expensive
 to manufacture, so using it on a rifle was a sensible idea. In expert hands,
 Ferguson's rifle was a superb weapon with a high rate of fire, but is was
 delicate compared to a flintlock. Ferguson's tactics of skirmishing and
 sniping at the enemy didn't fit the prevailing mind set of the British Army
 of the time. After Ferguson was wounded and no longer an advocate for his
 rifle or tactics, his unit was disbanded with unseemly haste."

Requires        = Machined Rifling
Building Needed = Army Staff College
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Recruits the best infantry units


--==Seasoning==--

"The practice of setting green timber aside after it is felled to dry 
 naturally, so that it can be then used in shipbuilding.

 Seasoning takes time, as wood will dry out at its own pace once the 
 tree has been felled and brought to a lumber yard. Large sheds are required,
 where the timber can be left in dry conditions for a year or more until it
 is ready for use. Some, as it dries, will warp and prove unsuitable for
 further work. In the case of oak, the wood actually gains strength over 
 time as it dries out and settles into its final form.

 Historically, ships and warships in particular, needed an enormous amount 
 of lumber, of many different kinds. It could take a century for a tree to
 grow large enough for use, so shipwrights needed to use their materials
 carefully. In an attempt to save money and timber, the British Royal Navy
 had a policy of recycling parts from old ships (which sounds commendably
 "green" nowadays) but this had the effect of transferring old rot to new
 builds. The French perferred to build ships out of unseasoned wood,
 maintaining that ships that had flexibility to "work" sailed better."

Requires        = Nothing
Building Needed = Admiralty
Leads To        = Cooper Bottoms
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * -10% Upkeep Costs for all naval units
 * +5% Recruitment Costs for all naval units
 * Enhances National Prestige


--==Secular Humanism==--

"Secular Humanism is the attempt to create a functioning society that  
 excludes religious beliefs as a governing principle.

 Secular humanists hold that things should not be taken on blind faith, and
 religion should be taken into consideration only for each individual and
 not society as a whole. Although humanists seek to remove religion from its
 deeply ingrained position in society, they do treat it with the same careful
 deliberation they apply to all their investigations. Everything is looked at
 in a critical, careful, and most importantly, "scientific" way.

 The doctrine of secular humanism also seeks to improve society through
 reason, an open exchange of ideas and tolerance. If a society is built up 
 of individuals who feel fulfilled it will function better on the whole 
 than one which concentrates on the greater good.

 Historically, the term "secularism" was invented by George Holyoake (1817-
 1906) in an attempt to explain as inoffensively as possible this concept 
 about religion and its place in society. Before that, it was termed
 "Owenite" after Robert Owen (1771-1858) and his trenchant opposition to
 organised religion. Holyoake had spent six months imprisoned for blasphemy,
 after expelling the concept in a public lecture."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Modern University
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Philosophy

 * -50% to religious unrest
 * -1 Happiness. Clamour for reform
 * +6 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Enables building of Royal Academy


--==Seed Planting Drill==--

"A horse-drawn machine that plants seeds in regimented lines, and then covers
 them with earth. 

 The seed drill replaces the old method of a farm hand simply walking the 
 fields and scattering seed by hand. Instead of wasting seed or allowing them
 to be eaten by birds and scavengers, the drill plants them in a controlled
 manner. Seeds are poured into a hopper, and then a cunningly mechanical
 contrivance assures that each is properly buried at the right depth. Wastage
 is reduced, the plants have the correct amount of room, and crop yields
 are increased.

 The inventor, Jethro Tull (1674-1741), was a practical man and a believer 
 in empirical studies to determine the truth. He was of the opinion that 
 plants gained much of their nutrition from the soil, and that it made sense
 to both improve it and remove weeds with an eye to increasing harvests. His
 seed drill was the only one of his inventions that aided the Agricultural
 Revolution in Britain. This (forcibly) freed workers from the rural economy
 and drove them to seek work in the new mills of the Industrial Revolution."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Clearances
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Agriculture, Industry

 * -15% to cost of constructing farm buildings
 * -15% to cost of constructing plantations
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Selective Breeding==-

"Crossbreeding animals to produce hybrids by applying the scientific method
 increases their desirable and profitable characteristics.

 The simple ideas are often the most effective: by seperating a farm's 
 herds by sex, animals cannot breed as nature intended and the inclination
 takes thems. The farmer can select the male animal used to impregnate his 
 flock or herd, and choose the good characteristics he wants the next
 generation to inherit! By repeatedly selecting the "father of the flock"
 for his good and profitable qualities, the worth of the whole flock 
 increases over each generation.

 Robert Bakebell (1725-1795) was the first to try this simple scheme at his
 farm in Leicestershire, England. His new breed Dishley Longhorn cattle
 and English Leicester sheep were only popular during his lifetime, but the
 pattern had been set. New crossbreeds replaced them, and the size and 
 yields of farm animals increased dramatically. Perhaps a touch ironically,
 the modern trend is to preserve ancient farming bloodstock types, in the
 hope that they may have benefits for today's farmers."

Requires        = Improved Animal Husbandry
Building Needed = Clearances
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Agriculture, Industry

 * +15% Coin Wealth generated by farms
 * Leads to Clearances


--==Seperation of Powers==--

"A theory proposing that, in order to have a fair and just society, all powers
 of rulership must never be in the hands of just one person or group.

 "Unlimited power is apt to corrupt the minds of those who possess it..." 
 Kings have long had the freedom to do as they will, often resulting in 
 injustice, cruelty and tyranny. This is the very reason for the development
 of a theory that proposes splitting power between different and possibly
 competing departments of government.

 Historically, the French political commentator Charles de Secondat (1689-
 1755) began France's move away from the "States general" (the division of
 the French people into the three estates of clergy, the artistocracy and
 everyone else) under the absolute authority of the King, towards a  
 seperation of powers. He was also responsible for the divison of government
 into legislative, executive and judicial parts. One branch makes law, the
 second enforces them, and the third oversees the process of justice."

Requires        = Government by Consent
Building Needed = Classical University
Lead To         = National Debt, Rights of Man
Stream          = Philosophy

 * -1 Happiness. Clamour for reform
 * +1 Happiness (Middle Classes)
 * +4 Coin per turn to town wealth in the region
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Sextant==--

"This precision navigation tool allows a skilled user to calculate his
 latitude.

 The basic purpose is to measure the height of a star or other heavenly
 object above the horizon. If a measurement of the sun's height at noon is
 taken, then the measured angle relates directly to the latitude of the
 observer using the sextant. Skilled navigators can also use the moon or 
 any star listed in a naval almanac for the same purpose. If a navigator
 uses his sextant horizontally, he can measure the angle between and two
 prominent landmarks and so, by triangulation, accurately fix his own
 position on a chart. This is a huge advance on any method of dead reckoning,
 even if it does not help in establishing longitude.

 A sextant is a delicate thing, and requires skilled repairs if damaged.

 Historically, the sextant was a development of earlier devices like the
 backstaff and the astrolabe. The sextant is so called because the measuring
 arc is exactly one-sixth of a circle. Earlier attempts at similar 
 instruments were the octant (one-eighth) and the quadrant (one-quarter); both
 used the same basic sighting method, but the arc was either too small to be
 practical or made the device unwieldly."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Admiralty
Leads To        = Longitude Watch
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * Enhances National Prestige
 * +5% Movement range for ships on the campaign map


--==Sheet Lead Cartridges==--

"These lead containers hold standard gunpowder charges for cannons, keeping
 them dry in the often wet conditions aboard ship.

 Powder is traditionally kept in the magazine deep in the bowels of the ship,
 carefully isolated from any stray sparks or naked flames. Traditionally, 
 when going into action, the master gunner had his crew prepare small bags,
 each containing the right amount of powder for a given weight of cannon. 
 The bags were then distributed to the gun captains, making loading a 
 quicker and safer process.

 However, cloth bags will still get wet in the normal course of events 
 aboard ship, or sparks falling on them can cause explosions. This has
 brought about the development of other containers for gunpowder charges.
 The most successful in the experiments are cylinder-shaped cartridges
 made of soft sheet lead, which can be filled with powderand then
 carefully bent closed by hand. These can be prepared before battle, and
 are largely immune to both sparks and damp. The whole lead cylinder is
 rammed into the barrel, followed by a shot. A sharp spike rammed into 
 the touchhole pierces the cartridge, allowing the primer to fire the main
 shot. The result is a reliable and safe loading procedure."

Requires        = Rifled Cannons
Building Needed = Naval College
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * -5% reduction to navan cannons' reloading time
 * -5% reduction to misfires for naval cannons
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Shortened Carbine==--

"Shortened carbines are smoothbore muzzle-loading flintlocks, issued to
 cavalry units instead of ordinary muskets.

 The carbine fires a lighter ball than an infantry musket: a pound of lead
 can make 15-17 pounds. Being handmade, these balls often have bubbles and
 other flaws in them, and can burst apart after hitting flesh, making far
 larger wounds than their apparent size would indicate.

 Originally, a carbine had the same length barrel as an infantry musket.
 This made reloading while mounted rather difficult, and it was realised
 that cutting down the barrel would make a handier weapon with only a 
 small decrease in accuracy and killing power.

 The term carbine is still in use: at the time of writing, the M4 carbine
 carried by modern US soldiers is a development of the M16, itself a 
 shortened form of the AR-15 rifle designed in the late 1950s. The number
 of spherical bullets made from a pound of lead is also used today as a 
 way of indicating the bore of shotguns: a 12-bore would fire a solid 
 lead ball weighing around 1/12 of a pound."

Requires        = Diamond Formation
Building Needed = Army Board
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Military

 * -5% to carbine reloading time


--==Shrapnel Shot==--

"This explosive projectile inflicts casualties by liberally peppering 
 enemies with shot and iron splinters as it bursts above them.

 Canister shells are intended to turn cannons into enormous shotguns or
 blunderbusses, treating men as so many targets to be shredded with musket
 balls. They have a limited range and utility.

 The shrapnel explosive round, however, is a long range weapon, and has
 much in common with a mortal shell or hand grenade. Once loaded and the
 fuse lit, it is fired at the enemy with the intention of bursting like a
 mortar shell. Unlike a mortar, it does not rely solely on explosive 
 power: there is the added refinement that the shell casing is designed
 to splinter into killing fragments and there are musket balls within. If
 a shrapnel shell bursts above an enemy unit, the casualties can be  
 terrible indeed.

 This deadly weapon was developed by the eponymous Henry Shrapnel (1761-
 1842), an officer in the British Royal Artillery. His "spherical case"
 shell was such an obvious advance in artillery killing power that he
 was rapidly promoted, given a generous state pension and immortalised
 by having his name become a new word for any kind of fragment deliberately
 built into a bomb or shell."

Requires        = Carcass Shot
Building Needed = Engineer School
Leads To        = Percussion Shells
Stream          = Ordnance, Military

 * Enables shrapnel shot for cannons


--==Social Contract==--

"The concept of a moral, and sometimes political, agreement that is made 
 when a person becomes a member of society.

 Theorists hold that humans reside in the "state of nature." In this state,
 men are free to do as they wish, without the constraints of the "greater 
 good." However, some will seek to improve themselves, by working the land
 to create property. To protect this property man must leave the state of 
 nature and seek society and the laws it provides. This is when a social
 contract is required, to describe what is expected of a member of society.

 The social contract put forth by French Enlightenment think Rousseau (1712-
 78) sought to dispel the disorder that comes from man's rise from the
 state natural. It also addressed the key problem presented to man in a
 community, how can we live together and still keep our individual freedom?
 Rousseau suggested that in order for individuals to live in harmony they
 must give their will to the "general will." By laying aside ego men can
 begin to live as a community."

Requires        = Nothing
Building Needed = School
Leads To        = Government by Consent
Stream          = Philosophy

 * +10% to Technology research rate
 * +2 Coin per turn to Town Wealth in the region
 * Enhances National Prestige


--==Socket Bayonet==--

"A blade fitted with a collar that attaches to a musket barrel and then locks
 in place, turning the weapon into a useful short pike.

 The socket bayonet is a development of earlier bayonets, and corrects their
 defective methods of attaching the blade to the musket. Previous designs
 simply jammed the bayonet into the barrel or relied on a tight fit around 
 the barrel. The socket bayonet has a collar with an L-shaped slot that fits 
 over a lug on barrel, and then turns to lock it in place. The blade is also
 offset from the barrel centreline, so that a soldier can still fire and
 then reload his piece without cutting off his own fingers!

 Historically, this improvement has stood the test of time. Socket bayonets
 are still issued for modern rifles and carbines, and still used in combat. 
 The "twist and lock" mechanism is still used for civilian purposes and 
 diverse light bulbs and vacuum cleaner tubes. There is, however, no really
 satisfactory explaination as to why the French military decided to offset
 the bayonet above the barrel, right into the sight line of the user!"

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Drill School
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enables Socket Bayonets. These replace ring bayonets
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Leads to Military Academy


--==Spinning Jenny==--

"This device is, at heart, a powered spinning wheel that allows the bulk 
 creation of thread for weaving.

 Manual spinning is a slow, tedious business, and one that cannot be speeded
 up, only given to more hands to do. The spinning jenny mechanises the 
 process, by turning the spindle on its side and having it roll to and fro
 as the thread is spun. A single worker can, using the jenny, produce eight
 threads at a time, rather than just one. Quality may suffer, but this is 
 a secondary consideration, as is the well-being of the workers. They are 
 often children, who have hands small enough to reach into the machinery
 while it is running and would otherwise be idle and undoubtedly given to
 all manner of mischief.

 The device is usually credited to James Hargreaves (1720-1778), a weaver
 and carpenter from Lancashire in England. While his invention was clever,
 he was not a businessman or lawyer, and he suffered much lost income as a 
 result of not using patent law properly."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Weaver's Cottage
Leads To        = Spinning Mule
Stream          = Textile Industry, Industry

 * +10% Wealth Bonus to Town Wealth from textile industry buildings
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Spinning Mule==--

"This machine produces very high quality yarns efficiently, cheaply and in
 the quantities required for mechanical weaving.

 A clever contraption, the spinning mule is a hybrid of two other textile
 machines, the spinning jenny and the water frame, hence the term "mule". It
 is a machine that produces thin, strong yard at high speed, that can be 
 used for both wrap and woof on a loom. It is the answer to every mill owner's
 prayers, giving both the quality and quantity needed to keep up with the
 demand for thread from powered looms.

 The spinning mule was the invention of Samuel Crompton (1753-1827), an 
 inventor from Lancashire in northern England, who was so hard up that he
 was forced to sell the rights for his invention before he patented it. This
 did not make him a rich man. Initially used for cotton, the mule was 
 eventually adapted for other yarns such as wool. Crompton did eventually
 receive a grant from the British Parliament for his work to aid the textile
 industry: his attempts to run his own business were always less than
 sparkling."

Requires        = Spinning Jenny, Division of Labour
Building Needed = weaver's Cottage
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Textile Industry, Industry

 * +5% Wealth generated by textile workshops and factories
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Leads to Water-Powered Cloth Mill


--==Square Formation==--

"A defensive posture for musket-armed infantry units, creating an impassible
 wall of steel to fend off cavalry attacks.

 As the name suggests, this is four two- or three rank lines of infantry 
 arranged as a hollow square, with everyone facing outwards. It is a version
 of the obsolete pike "hedgehog", making any cavalry charge a suicidal 
 advance. Bayonets are fixed to muskets when appropriate and possible.

 Forming a square requires good order in the ranks. The outer companies of
 an infantry unit in line have to "fold back" to form the sides and back of
 the square, without losing cohesion in the process. The unit colours take
 up station in the centre, a final rallying point should the square be broken.
 It is also possible to form larger squares with more than one unit.

 The square is, of course, a tempting target for enemy artillery. Whether it 
 is better to form square in the face of cavalry and risk an artillery 
 barrage, or stay in line to mitigate artillery fire and risk a cavalry 
 charge can be a tactical conundrum!

 Theoreticians argued infantry could defeat a cavalry charge by firepower
 along. Brigadier General Richard Kane (later Military Governor of Gibraltar)
 remarked, "If a body of Foot have by Resolution and keep their Order, there
 is no Body of Horse dare venture within their Fire..." but for him that fire
 was to be delivered from a square, not a line. He was arguing for discipline
 as the key to success."

Requires        = Nothing
Building Needed = Barracks
Leads To        = Cadenced Marching
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enables infantry square formation
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Steam Engine==--

"This mechanical engine harnesses pressurised steam to provide motive power
 for all manner of machinery.

 The power comes from letting steam into a cylinder beneath a piston, and
 then cooling it rapidly. The partial vacuum created sucks the piston down
 the cylinder; more steam then enters and is cooled, creating a backwards-and-
 forwards stroke that can be converted by cams into rotary motion. The engine
 itself remains stationary, but its power can be transferred by axles, gears
 and belts to other machines. Some steam engines are simply harnessed to pumps
 and the reciprocating motion of the piston is used to lift water out of 
 mines.

 A steam engine requires water and fuel, but it can be installed anywhere. As
 long as a fire burns and the boiler has water, it will provide profitable 
 power for a mill or mine.

 The practical steam engine was the brainchild of Scotsman James Watt (1736-
 1819), who improved the earlier machines of Thomas Newcomen and others. It
 was Watt who first used the term "horsepower" as a measure of an engine's
 output - something that still brings joy to all modern petrolheads! He was
 also honoured by giving his name to the SI unit of derived power, the watt."

Requires        = Machine Tools
Building Needed = Ironmaster's Work
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Metal Industry, Industry

 * +15% Coin Wealth generated by industrial buildings
 * Enhances national prestige
 * Leads to Industrial Iron, Silver Mining Complex, Steam-Powered Cloth Mill,
   Steam-Powered Sugar Mill, Steam Drydock, Steam Engine Factory


--==Steam-Pumped Land Drainage==--

"The use of steam pumps to drain marshy and low-lying land for agriculture.

 There is always a growing demand for food and a finite amount of land 
 where it can be grown. With new steam-powered pumping machines and cunningly
 laid out ditches, it becomes possible to drain land previously considered
 impossible to use. Water runs downhill, but where there is no "downhill", it
 must be lifted and carried away by man's artifice. A steam pump can raise 
 water at a rate no normal - or man-powered contraption can possible match.

 In Europe, the Dutch were (naturally enough, given their geography) the
 experts on drainage, the windmills to move water into higher channels
 were it could flow away. Those, however, relied entirely on the wind. This
 steam-powered beam engine, used to drain mine workings, had no such 
 weaknesses, and continued to pump as long as it had water and fuel. In
 Britain, the beam engine not only allowed the drainage of land, but also 
 eased the problems of canal construction and routing."

Requires        = Advanced Irrigation, Basic Steam Pump
Building Needed = Clearances
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Agriculture, Industry

 * +0.5% to the population growth impact of farms
 * Reduces the chance of food shortages
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Threshing Machine==--

"A machine used to "seperate the wheat from the chaff" in a very literal
 fashion.

 The harvesting of any cereal crop is only one part of the work. Threshing
 is the backbreaking process of seperating the grain from the stalks: work
 that takes as long as the gathering-in of the crop itself. The horse- 
 driven machine takes the grain, seperates it from husk and stalk, and 
 then collects it. The work of many men is done in seemingly no time at all,
 and with less wastage.

 Historically, Scottish inventor Andrew Meikle's (1719-1811) threshing
 machine was not an immediate success, but the design soon improved. Its
 inner workings can be deduced from its other name of "thrashing machine!"

 It was not popular among the rural working classes, as many lost their jobs.
 The 1830 Swing Riots included machine breaking by the dispirited and
 desperate rural poor, mirroring the urban Luddite riots that targeted mills.
 "Captain Swing", the mysterious leader and figurehead of the rioters, 
 probably never existed as a single individual, making "him" impossible to
 trace and catch!"

Requires        = None
Building Needed = Great Estates
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Agriculture, Industry

 * Reduces the chance of food shortages
 * +25% Coin Wealth generated by farms
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Top Gallants==--

"Top gallants are extra sails at the top of the mast, giving the ship more
 sail area and therefore a higher speed.

 All sailing ships rely on the wind for motive power. The only practical  
 way to make a better speed through the water at a particular wind velocity
 is to put on more sail. Each mast is designed to take a main sail and a 
 topsail, but it is possible with top gallants to add an extra sail above
 the topsail. Naturally, this requires more yards, ropes and skilled sailors
 to set the sails. Adding a top gallant is also something of a strain on the
 fabric of the ship: the extra strain on a mast can, in high winds, rip it
 right out of a hull. This catastrophic damage to the whole ship can also
 cause casualties among the crew.

 The speed and handling of a ship can also be improved by careening the hull:
 a process that takes days. This, however, is not something that will 
 instantly give more speed, unlike setting the top gallents."

Requires        = Improved Coppering
Building Needed = Naval College
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Naval, Military

 * Enhances national prestige
 * +10% increase of speed in battle for ships with top gallants
 * +10% increase to movement range on campaign map for ships with top gallants


--==Utilitarianism==--

"The theory that an action and its worth should be judgedon utility and its
 benefit to others.

 The many building blocks of society fit together in complex patterns. 
 Understanding this puzzle makes a man wise indeed. Theorists are now using
 utilitarianism, in an attempt to understand these complexities. This school
 of thought holds that human will, by its very nature, seeks to serve its 
 own interests. Utilitarianism proposes that in order for a society to 
 function successfully people must begin to consider the utility of their 
 actions and how they affect society as a whole.

 Historically, utilitarianism concentrated on the needs of the many 
 outweighing the needs of the few. The leading mind in this field was Jeremy
 Bentham (1748-1832), who maintained that nature had placed mankind under the
 governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. He believed that 
 these two factors made mankind infinitely governable, as long as leaders
 exploited these weaknesses without exploiting those they govern."

Requires        = None
Building Needed = College
Leads To        = None
Stream          = Philosophy

 * -1 Happiness. Clamour for reform
 * +3 Coins per turn to town wealth in the region
 * -20% to cost of constructing cultural buildings
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * Leads to Classical University


--==Wealth of Nation==--

"The Wealth of Nations stresses the importance of the division of labour, 
 pursuit of self interest and freedom of trade.

 This is a set of theories aimed at advancing political economy and promoting
 the pursuit of self-interest. The concept encourages people to consider 
 the importance of the division of labour (so that productivity can be 
 maximised) and the freedom of trade. Theorists state that all goods should
 be fairly priced and selling levels agreed mutually between buyers and 
 sellers, with little outside influence from government or any other party.

 Historically "The Wealth of Nations" was a new and innovative piece of work
 written by Adam Smith, aimed at increasing the average reader's understanding
 of economies. As one of the greatest minds of his time, Smith, along with a
 number of other great men created "Scottish Enlightenment". Their influence
 was far reaching in the work of their contempories. Smith is widely held to
 be the father of modern economics."

Requires        = Joint Stock Companies
Building Needed = Classical University
Lead To         = Free Trade Doctrine
Stream          = Philosophy

 * -1 Happiness. Clamour for reform
 * +25% Coin Bonus to the growth in trade route income
 * +8 Coin per turn to town wealth in the region
 * +5% Coin Wealth generated by all building
 * Enhances national prestige


--==Wedge Formation==--

"A cavalry formation used to break through an enemy line by shock and impact.

 There are many conflicting schools of thought with regard to the proper use
 of cavalry, not least on the matter of how to attack the enemy. There are 
 those officers who hold that fire is the proper weapon for a cavalry soldier:
 that the carbine and pistol are the correct weapons of a horseman. There are
 those who maintain that the proper role of cavalry is to close the enemy and
 attack them with cold steel: the sabre, sword and lance.

 The wedge formation is the product of the second group of theorists. By
 forming units into a narrow wedge, a charge can bring the maximum weight of
 effort against the smallest possible section of an enemy line. In theory,
 the attack should be able to force its way into and then through the target,
 breaking it in the process and spreading chaos in the enemy ranks.

 Historically, this tactic was not without its appeal to educated officers,
 who studied the military history of the Romans and Greeks. Alexander the
 Great had used such a tactic, and if it was good enough for him..."

Requires        = Carbines
Building Needed = Drill School
Leads To        = Diamond Formation
Stream          = Military, Military

 * Enables cavalry wedge formation

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[A.09] Infrastructure

Infrastructure is just an optional upgrade that you can purchase for each
specific region, and the purchase of Infrastructure will only effect the
region in which it was built in. There is only a single set of infrastructure
in the game, and that is roads. Roads are needed to move your armies across
the province faster as well as provide more funds for the state, seeing that
the faster goods are delivered, the more money you can make. 

--==Basic Roads==--

"These are roads where a considerable effort has been made to improve the
 surface, and provide proper drainage for water.

 Constructing roads allow local goods to reach nearby markets, and gives some
 useful work to paupers and work-shy individuals who would otherwise be moved
 on or require expensive charity. At the very least, the larger rocks have
 been moved out of the road, pounded into pieces and the resulting rubble
 used as a roadbed. Drainage dishes means that the road ceases to be a
 convenient gutter for rainwater, and a muddy hell for anyone trying to use 
 it.

 Historically, there was often a military imperative for building roads. 
 Troops and artillery require good roads for strategic deployments and rapid
 reaction. In Scotland, General Wade completed a network of roads to "Roman"
 standards during the 1720s so that armies could quickly move into the
 rebellious Highlands - the Jacobite supporters of the ousted Stuart
 dynasty were a constant threat. His achievement was celebrated in a (now
 defunct) verse of the then-new British anthem.

 Lord, grant that Marshal Wade
 May, by thy mighty aid,
 Victory bring,
 May he sedition hush,
 And, like a torrent, rush
 Rebellious Scots to Crush,
 God save the King"

 * +3 per Turn to Town Wealth in the region
 * Improves campaign map movement speed


--==Cobbled Roads==--

"These are hardwearing roads paved with small stones, able to take much heavy
 traffic.

 Building a cobbled road is an incredibly labourous business. Each small 
 paving stone must be shaped, placed, and mortared into position. If done
 properly, the road also requires foundations, a careful camber to carry rain
 water, and extensive drainage on either side. The end result is a fine road
 that is extremely durable, but not entirely comfortable for carts, carriages
 or foot traffic: cobbles can be hellishly bumpy!

 Historically, the expense of cobbles, and the fine-looking result of cobbling
 a street, meant that there were only used in or near towns for high status 
 routes where the great and the good could not be expected to wallow in mud
 like poor people. Cobbles, however, did serve the poor in another way, they
 were the perfect size for rioters! Levered out of place, they were the ideal
 thrown weapon (along with the half-house brick or "brickbat") for a bit of
 informal demonstrating with any nearby unwelcome representatives of law and
 order."

 * Requires Basic Roads
 * +4 per Turn to Town Wealth in the region
 * Improves campaign map movement speed


--==Metalled Roads==--

"A metalled road is surfaced with small broken stones, providing a good, 
 strong and long-lasting route for military and civilian traffic.

 The road is actually constructed in layers of increasing large stones (going
 down through a cross section), with each layer being compressed by rolling.
 The end result is a solid path that can drain cleanly. This method is often 
 used for key strategic and commercial routes between cities and defence
 points. Tolls are often charged to private users of such excellent roads
 and turnpikes.

 Historically, "metalled roads" were only covered in "tarmac" in 1820, when
 the idea of using tar to stabilise the top layer was tried by John Loudon
 McAdam (1756-1836), although "tarmac" itself was not called that until 1901!

 Road building produced some other interesting characters, such as Blind Jack
 of Knaresborough, Yorkshire. Although completely sightless thanks of 
 childhood smallpox, John "Jack" Metcalf (1717-1810) was, at various times, a
 fiddle player, and army recruiter, and a haulier. When a turnpike was built
 near his birthplace he used his local experience to create a masterpiece of 
 a road, including a section on a raft of logs across a bog. His blindness 
 was no handicap in bringing road projects in on time and to cost, although
 he is always at a loss to explain to others how he managed his finances so
 well."

 * Requires Cobbled Roads
 * Enhances National Prestige
 * +5 per Turn to Town Wealth in the region
 * Improves campaign map movement speed

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[A.10] Provinces
*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[A] Contact Information

APPEARS IN g,a,m,e,f,a,q,s.c,o,m always. Remove the commas. Never on that
c,h,e,a,t,c,c.c,o,m. Remove the commas.

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!Before you Email me, read everything in this Contact Information section and!
!check the guide. If the information is already listed, your email will be   !
!promptly deleted. 							     !
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

E-Mail Me, and for the love of all that isn't sacred, make sure that the title
of the game is smacked into place. IF THERE IS NO TITLE ON THE MESSAGE, IT 
WILL NOT BE READ, AND PROMPTLY DELETED. Also, email with courtesy. If you just
hurl abuse, I will promptly hurl more abuse back, and save it so the entire
world can abuse you and see your stupidity. 

When you write the Email, you have to do so in English, and English only. No
foreign languages allowed, Chinese, French, Spanish, Antarctic Penguin and so
forth, mainly because I won't be able to understand it. 

There will be absolutely NO INTERNET SPEAK IN ANY EMAILS. Seriously, I will
not read emails full of lols, rofls or the like. No lazy English either. I 
won't read crap like "Hw Tis in Gme" because it is lazy and inconsiderate. But
that doesn't mean you send me a business letter detailing what information you
want to know either. 

Finally, if you see that there is something wrong in this FAQ, or something 
that you think should be included in it, please send it in, the worse you can
do is to have it rejected, but if I think it is a good addition, I'll add it
with the next update as well as give you credit for the addition. Corrections
are always welcome.

I will also NOT RESPOND to the following:

 * Phishing Sites
 * Attempted Scams
 * Mass Spamming
 * Forward Messages
 * Advertising
 * Technical Issues
 * Illegal Activities
 * Unrelated Emails to the Game
 * Emails about Another Game

All problems with technical issues to do with the gameplay such as bugs and
glitches should be sent to the developer or publisher, or look for fixes or
ways to avoid it. All technical issues with hardware should be sent to the 
manufacturer of the piece of hardware in question. 

The secret email address is:

hillsdragon13 [at] [ho.tm.ail] [dot] [co.m]

Now, the legend:

[at]        = @
[ho.tm.ail] = Remove the .'s
[dot]       = .
[co.m]      = Remove the .'s

If you feel generous, you can send money via Paypal to that address. It is
completely optional, but I'm curious to see how much I can milk, I mean make
out of this. All donations are appreciated, seeing I have to pay for the 
game this guide is for, and that does cost money, more since I'm faced with
the outrageous prices found in Australia. 

It may be a pain in the ass, but most smart people could figure out the real
email address. The problem is that people would normally Ctrl+F to find the
email address without reading the relevant guidelines, as well spamming sites
which always find their way to my inbox. 

Also, do not add me to your MSN, Yahoo or any other instant messaging system
because you will be blocked and deleted permanently. Also, I will not accept
invites to be your Facebook friend, or join any other social networking site
because all invites will be rejected. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[B] Credits

The credits section is where all the credits for the guides go. Anyone or
anything that remotely helped out with this guide goes here, and that goes
for all those people out there who have interesting information to send in.
You know, your name could be on this list as well. 

CJayC, The Creator of GameFAQs, thanks for all the memories
SBAllen for administrating GameFAQs, keep up the good work
Bailiff05 for a strategy for playing as Great Britain
You, no point of writing if no one is reading
Creative Assembly for developing the game
ASCII Generators for the ASCII Art
Me for making it, yes, I'm that arrogant =)

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[C] Webmaster Information

This is where all the sites that this guide can appear on are listed. If the
site name is not on this list, that means that either they are accepted by
me but not listed, due to logistical reasons (this is the same copyright 
section as all the other guides, and no point listing a Civ 4 site on a Sims
game), or they are not allowed outright. 

Anyway, POINT OUT ALL SITES NOT LISTED HERE. It will be up to me what site is
allowed or disallowed.

www.GameFAQs.com  
www.NeoSeeker.com 
www.SuperCheats.com 

NeoSeeker and SuperCheats will have the guides a full day after it appears on
GameFAQs. This is because those two sites grab any new update from me from
GameFAQs itself, so if you are itching for the newest version, please check
www.GameFAQs.com first.

It will NEVER BE ALLOWED TO APPEAR ON

www.cheatcc.com

Why, because they stole some of my works before, and I will not forget that.
No amount of goodwill will be able to repair what you have done. 

*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~*
[D] Copyright Notice

This game is Copyright 2009 Creative Assembly. All Copyrights are held by 
their rightful owners as well as any Trademarks used. 

This document is protected by copyright laws in many countries, so please 
don't steal. This FAQ can be used for personal use, which means you can store
a copy on your home PC, your IPod, USB Drive, etc. You cannot use this FAQ to
sell for your own financial gain. Doing so is fraud, and I will promptly have
all the money gained wired for directly to me. 

If you do sell it, and you are caught, I will launch court proceedings if 
necessary. If a website steals this, I will have your site shut down, either
through talking to your server, Internet Service Provider, and if you are a 
big site, through your advertisers. It might start with a small email of 
request, but I can snowball it. In fact, I will. 

You also cannot claim this guide as your own. You are not allowed to use this
guide and submit this to another website, claiming it as your own work. I will
google search random phrases from my own FAQ just to ensure that it hasn't 
been stolen or hijacked by other people.

I am also not affiliated with any corporation, and I was not paid by any
developer, publisher or distributor for the production of this guide. This was
done solely out of my own free time and will, a dedication to the gaming 
industry in general. 

This document is copyright 2009. All Rights did not engage in a Total War.

This FAQ uses the V2.0 Template. 

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END OF FILE              Watch In Awe, Aeria Gloris                END OF FILE