Four Federation ships are destroyed at the battle at the Binary Stars. They are the U.S.S Shenzhou, the U.S.S. Europa, the U.S.S Clark, and the U.S.S Yeager. The first is Burnham’s vessel, the second Admiral Anderson’s, the third is an unknown-class starship, but the fourth name has a couple of echoes in Trek lore. In Deep Space 9 (set, remember, over a hundred years later) a U.S.S Yeager, registration number NCC-65674, serves in the Dominion War.
Curiously, in the same time period an entirely different, much-smaller Saber-class U.S.S Yeager (NCC-61947) fought the Borg in the Next Generation film First Contact. I’d like to think that both these ships are named in honour of the starship that was destroyed in Discovery’s fateful battle.
Several other starships were also referenced. From the top:
The U.S.S Clarke: Not strictly canon, but Diane Duane’s original series novel, The Wounded Sky, features a U.S.S Clarke - a modified Oberth-class starship.
U.S.S Shran: This is a new one, but is almost certainly named in honour of Andorian Ambassador Thy’lek Shran, from Enterprise. He was a bit of a git, but also key in building bridges between Earth and his people.
U.S.S T’Plana-Hath: The T’Plana-Hath was the name of the Vulcan starship in First Contact that led humanity to their first known encounter with an alien race. This is not that ship (there are no Vulcan vessels involved in the battle), but is clearly named in its honour. The name originally comes from T’Plana-Hath, the matron of Vulcan philosophy.
U.S.S Earhart: Again, not official, but John Vornholt’s Dominion War-set Next Generation novel Tunnel Through the Stars features a U.S.S Earhart, commanded by a Captain Dalivar.
U.S.S Edison: There’s a Nebula-class Edison in the game Star Trek: Armada 2.
There are also shout outs to the U.S.S Kerala, U.S.S Sioux, U.S.S Ride and U.S.S Dana, though as far as we can tell these are new ships.
Watch in the original Klingon
If the first two episodes didn’t contain quite enough Klingonese for you, here’s a fun little detail. If you bring up the Netflix taskbar you can set up Klingon subtitles for each episode, as well as English, French, Polish and so on. DaH chay' DaSovrup veqlarghlI' detail? (Now how’s that for attention to detail?)