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			TEAM FORTRESS 2
		(hereafter referred to as TF2)




		Screw ASCII art.





		CLASS, WEAPONS AND EQUIPMENT GUIDE
		**Now with Unlockable Weapon Info**


		Version 2.5
	
		Feb. 5, 2009
			
		by Lappy
		
		e-mail 


########################################################################


		VERSION CHANGELOG THAT MOST PEOPLE SKIP

		BUT EXISTS FOR THE SAKE OF POSTERITY	

version 2.5 (02/05/09)

	Revamped "Critical Hits and You"
	article, adjusted Soldier and Spy
	class guides, and "Intel on the
	Intelligence" article.

version 2.42 (01/16/09)

	Corrected Engineer metal costs.

version 2.41 (12/24/08)

	Added in some extra stuff to the 
	Demoman section, revised the
	"How to Kill a ..." article

version 2.4 (12/20/08)

	Added information to the Engineer &
	Spy sections, along with other edits
	to go with the latest TF2 patch.

version 2.3 (08/26/08)

	Edited Weapon Upgrades section,
	added Heavy Weapon Upgrades.

version 2.2 (07/30/08)

	Edited Weapon Upgrades section,
	to be current with latest patch.

version 2.1 (07/25/08)

	Several minor edits.  Fixed goof-up
	between "Weapon Upgrades" and
	"Everything That Wouldn't Fit Above"
	sections.  More info on Sentry Guns
	added to Engineer section.

version 2.0 (07/15/08)
	
	Guide updated, author comes to senses.
	Pyro article edited, Weapon Upgrades
	section added, with Pyro and Medic 
	weapons.

	Many thanks to MetalGearManiac for his
	inspiration and generosity.

fake "Final" Version (06/15)

	Manly tears shed as I ponder leaving
	the guide to rot.  Fortunately, cooler
	heads prevailed. :)


version 1.4 (05/07/08)

	Articles regarding the unlockable weapons.
	"Teleporter Etiquette: A Guide" was
	also edited due to a new TF2 patch.

version 1.34 (04/14/08)
	
	Minor edits; clarified rocket jump
	procedure in Soldier section.

version 1.33 (03/01/08)

	Revised "Critical Hits and You" article;
 	corrected ammo counts for Demoman.
	
version 1.32 (02/29/08)

	Updated Soldier and Demoman ammunition 
	reserve count; edited Flamethrower section.

version 1.31: (11/12/07)
	
	Added the Detonator to Engineer equipment.

version 1.3: (10/29/07)
	
	Edited the entire body of the guide, again.  
	I'm never satisfied.  Also added the article
	"Teleporter Etiquette: A Guide."

version 1.2: (10/25/07)
	
	The article "Ammunition: Smoke 'Em if you Got
	'Em" is added, which I had meant to include
	from the start yet somehow forgotten to write.

version 1.1: (10/24/07)

	The guide is edited again, and articles 
	"Intel on the Intelligence" and "Critical Hits
	and You" are added.

version 1.01: (10/23/07)

	The guide is edited, and submitted to good ol' 
	GameFAQs.

version 1.0: (09/29/07)

	The guide is born, the product of a series of
	sleepless, frag-filled nights.  TF2 is still
	in Beta, and the guide is unreleased.


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		TABLE O' CONTENTS

 Introduction
 How This Guide Works
      The Nine Classes 
	 Foreword 
      (The Weapons and Equipment Guide)
	 The Scout
	 The Soldier
	 The Pyro
	 The Demoman
	 The Heavy
	 The Engineer
	 The Medic
	 The Sniper 
         The Spy
      The Weapon Upgrades 
 Everything That Wouldn't Fit Above
     About This Section
 Ammunition: Smoke 'Em if you Got 'Em
 Intel on the Intelligence
 How To Kill A ..
	 ..Scout
	 ..Soldier
	 ..Pyro
	 ..Demoman
	 ..Heavy
	 ..Engineer
	 ..Medic
	 ..Sniper
	 ..Spy
 Master of Disguises: A Spy's Repertoire
 Teleporter Etiquette: A Guide
 Critical Hits and You
 Outroduction
 	Dedication, Thanks, Contact Information
 	Credits
	Attention Thieves/Copyright Information


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		INTRODUCTION

Hi there, welcome to Lappy's often imitated, never equalled
TF2 guide.  

Let me start things off by saying "Holy Crap" what a game.
I'm not the only one who's been playing this thing since Beta 
went live  and I've continued to be impressed by the
depth of the game, especially its emphasis on team-oriented play
as the only effective way to victory. 

As impressed as I was, I had a lot of questions about the
game as I played it.  Shooters are my favorite type of game to play,
and whenever you get into a new game that noone has ever played
before, there is this wonderful period of learning where nobody really
knows the ins and outs of the maps, the strengths of each weapon, or
the full potential of each class.  

I love this period of discovery in new games, and with TF2 
my experience was no different.  Being confined to bedrest due to
an upcoming surgery, I've played the hell out of this great game;
and while I'm by no means an expert, I have played hard trying to
see how each class works so that I could share my experience with
others who, like me, may be wondering about just what each class
can do with the tools that they have.

So, welcome aboard.  I hope my guide helps you, in whatever way it
can.  This is my third FAQ at GameFAQs, and looking at my previous two
it's clear I'm a junkie when it comes to writing about fun online 
shooters.  

Now, Onward!


########################################################################
	

		HOW THIS GUIDE WORKS

Read it with your eyes.

Seriously, I think you'll get the most out of this guide if you 
understand what I'm trying to accomplish with it.  

Soon, I'll be describing each of the nine classes in TF2, in the same
order as they appear on the class select screen.  Every
time I describe a class I'll approach it in the same way.

First I'll give you a statistical overview of the class' max health 
total, the weapons and equipment they use, and how much ammunition is 
given to them.  If I don't list an ammunition amount, that means the 
weapon can be used continuously without needing to reload.

I'll then go in-depth about what makes the class unique, and what sets
it apart from the game's other classes, and then discuss each individual
weapon or piece of equipment, its operation, and any other tidbits that
I find helpful. I'm not perfect, nor do I pretend to be, so I am always
open to suggestions and feedback, as long as it is constructive.

At the end of the meaty part of the guide, I'll finish up with some 
details on upgradable/alternative weapons, class weaknesses,
and other supplemental info.  My information about the Unlockable
Weapons is after my main discussion of the nine classes, as an
understanding of the starting weapons is kinda important when 
considering the newer weapons.

A note: Some of my class descriptions are longer than others.  Do not
interpret this as me devoting more space to classes that I think 
are superior to the others.  Classes like the Spy and Engineer have
more equipment than a Scout or Sniper, and take me more time to
talk about.  All classes are equally viable, and equally useful
to their team.

I will NEVER EVER tell you what class to play, or that any class
is better than the next.  The classes are what you make of them, and
I will always be of the opinion that the best class is the class that
is the most fun for you.  

I can't stand FAQs that say stuff like:
"X class/weapon sux LAWL use Y class/weapon cuz tats wut I use!!!one!1"  

Use what makes you happy, and helps you help your team. Hokay? :)  


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	       	     T H E  N I N E  C L A S S E S
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		FOREWORD	

A final word before I begin with the classes.  If you're new to this 
game (and since I'm writing this two weeks after the Beta was released,
I'm guessing you are) you'll notice that there is an Achievement you
can unlock called 'Head of the Class', which is awarded to players who
play a full map round with each class at least once. 

I recommend that every player try to get this Achievement first.  No
guide can substitute for in-game playtime, and by forcing yourself to
stay with each class for a full map round, you'll get a good idea of
not only how that class plays, but how other classes respond to it.

The more familiar you are with a class, the better suited you 
are to combat enemy classes of that type, and the better you'll
understand and adjust to the limits of the classes your teammates are 
playing as. 

No class in this game can win the game by himself.  This is *Team*
Fortress 2.  My guide will not help you find a class that will enable
solo victory, but will attempt to show you what makes each class
the best for certain situations.  Combining the best aspects of
each class as a team is what enables victory.  Don't forget that.
Now, on with the FAQ!  


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		THE SCOUT


Health: 125, 185 with Medigun buff

Weapons:	
	
	Scattergun
	Ammunition: 6 Shells
	Reserve Ammo: 32 Shells

	Pistol 
	Magazine Capacity: 12 rounds
	Reserve Ammo: 36 rounds

Melee Weapon:

	Baseball Bat

WHY THE SCOUT IS THE BEST CLASS TO PLAY:
Think of the way you play other shooters.  Do you like to hurl yourself
at objectives with little regard to yourself?  Are you the sort of 
player that enjoys strafing and leaping to throw off enemy aim?  The 
Scout is the best class for this style of play, hands down. 

The thing to keep in mind when playing the Scout class is that your 
greatest weapon isn't a gun, it's your speed.  Scouts are CRAZY
fast.  They fly across maps, and the best Scouts never run in a straight
line; they zigzag across maps so that the Heavies, Demoman grenades and
Soldier rockets never hit them.  What more, a Scout is the only 
class that can do a double-jump ala Mario; and just like
Nintendo's plucky plumber, the Scout can change direction in mid-air. 

Use this to your advantage as a Scout.  Spin around your enemies, speed
into capture zones (Scouts even capture control points twice as fast
as other classes) and most importantly: Never. Stop. Moving.    
A Scout doesn't have the health bar or the raw weapon power to outlast 
opponents, but he doesn't need them, because of his ridiculous speed.

Scouts are the ideal flag-runners (although in TF2 we steal
Intelligence briefcases, and not flags.) He's the running back to 
his team's offensive line.  Sure, you may not get a touchdown 
right away, but no class is better at swooshing past enemy 
defenses, nicking the dropped Intelligence, and hopping away before 
anyone can react.  If they shoot you again, so what?  You can run
faster than they can relocate their defense, and you've already
reset the Intelligence timer.  The points are practically already
on the board. 

Scouts are the perfect decoys, keeping defenses busy while your
offense pushes in.  Besides being natural Intelligence runners 
and always appreciated in a cap zone, Scouts can quickly (see the 
emphasis here?) move between offensive and defensive fronts to
help where he can.  Every team should have one.

WEAPONS

SCATTERGUN:
Most Scouts fall into one of two archetypes, those who prefer the 
Scattergun, and those who prefer their Baseball Bat.  Really, each 
playstyle is valid, and boils down to a matter of preference. When you
try out the class, give each a go and see what works best for you.

The Scattergun is an ideal weapon for the Scout.  Similar in output to
the standard Shotgun many classes carry as a secondary weapon, the 
Scattergun packs a bit more oomph and a bit wider of a spread.  This is 
really the best sort of primary weapon a jumpy, speedy class like the 
Scout could ask for, as the spread nature of the weapon means the 
Scout doesn't have to slow down and aim in order to take a chunk of 
health out of his opponent.  That said, the more comfortable you get
aiming with the Scattergun, you'll find that it can be very, very 
powerful, capable of one-shotting weaker enemies like Engineers, Medics
and rival Scouts if you're close enough - and with the speed of the 
Scout getting close shouldn't be a problem. 

The Scattergun isn't as useful as the other classes' Shotgun at
longer ranges... as useful as a Shotgun can be at range, anyway.  The
Scattergun is amply suited to destroying enemy Dispensers and 
Teleporters, but even a Scout isn't fast enough to outrun a Sentry 
Gun; leave those for the Demomen, Soldiers and Spies.

And remember, as the Scout loads new shells into his empty Scattergun
(shells which I suspect are filled with nails, as the TFC Scout 
carried a Nailgun) you can interrupt the reload to fire off whatever
shells you have currently loaded.  So if you're reloading and 
backpedaling and a Demoman launches a few grenades your way, by all
means double-jump away and fire whatever you've got to scare him 
off.

PISTOL:
The Pistol that Scouts carry shoots straight, reloads quickly and fires 
as fast as you can click the mouse.  It is a reliable secondary weapon
for finishing off a fleeing opponent when your Scattergun is empty, 
although many Scouts, due to their speed, prefer their Baseball Bat
in a similar situation.

The Pistol is also useful at longer ranges, where the Scattergun 
becomes less effective.  Don't expect to outdo your team Sniper, but if
you need to finish off a fleeing, burning opponent without putting
yourself in harm's way, the Pistol will be a surer bet than your
Scattergun.  

BASEBALL BAT:
The Scout's small Baseball Bat is his melee weapon of choice and primary
weapon of choice for many career Scouts.  The Bat isn't any stronger
or weaker than the other melee weapons in the game; like them all, it
will deal a small chunk of damage in front of an opponent, and more if 
you are behind them.

What makes the Bat so deadly is its pairing with the Scout's unrivaled
speed.  See a Heavy wailing away across a bridge?  Zig-zag across,
double-jump over his head, and with a few BONKS! the Heavy won't be a 
problem anymore.  

While the Engineer perhaps gets the most use out of his melee weapon, 
I'd say the Scout comes close, for some.  Sure, it's dangerous
to take a bat to a gunfight, but it can be fun as hell too.  It's 
at least worth trying out, to see if it works for you.


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		THE SOLDIER


Health: 200 | 300 with Medigun buff
		

Weapons:	
	
	Rocket Launcher
	Ammunition: 4 Rockets
	Reserve Ammo: 20 Rockets

	Shotgun
	Ammunition: 6 shells
	Reserve Ammo: 32 shells

Melee Weapon:

	Shovel

WHY THE SOLDIER IS THE BEST CLASS TO PLAY:
Soldiers are hostile, versatile, integral classes to the success of any
offensive push.  Demomen may have more explosive power, Heavys more 
raw firepower, and Scouts more maneuverability, but a good Soldier can
still do it all, right when his team needs him. 

At 200 Health (300 buffed by a Medic), a Soldier is one of the most 
resilient classes in the game, second only to the Heavy.  Demomen 
may be able to bounce grenades around and lob Sticky Bombs, but there 
is no substitute for the all-range, all-purpose devastation that the 
Soldier's Rocket Launcher brings to a fight.

Good Soldiers frustrate their enemies constantly by outlasting them
with their combination of high health and offensive power.
Pyros and Scouts who rush up close either catch a rocket to the face
or several rockets exploding on the ground and walls around them.  The
Pyros and Scouts are in pieces; the Soldier is at half health and
reloading; ready to send a barrage of rockets across the map to a
Sniper nest, or pop around a corner, firing with precision at Sentry
Guns. 

Though the Soldier runs slower than some, he is still faster than 
the Heavy, and in a crude way shares the Scout's airborne mobility:
Firing a rocket at the ground and jumping at the same time propels 
the Soldier high into the air and forward... and over walls, over 
defenses, and into capture areas.  With practice, a Soldier can get 
almost anywhere he needs to be, when he needs to be there.  
Every team should have one.

WEAPONS

ROCKET LAUNCHER:
As a Soldier, you're going to be shooting this a lot, so lets get the
details straight up front: The Rocket Launcher can shoot 4 rockets at a
time, and shoot them fairly quickly.  This may startle those of you 
out there who are used to traditional Rocket Launchers in shooters that 
are single-shot and take a while to reload (DoD:S, I'm looking at you.)

The next happy surprise is the speed with which the Soldier reloads his
rockets.  If, for example, the first four rockets don't get the job 
done, a fifth can be fired pretty quickly. Remember, you can interrupt 
the reload process to fire... you don't have to wait for the Soldier to 
load four more rockets.

You'll be called to a variety of tasks by your team as a Soldier, all 
of which your Rocket Launcher should be able to handle.  Soldiers are
excellent at removing Sentry Guns in the absence of a Demoman or a Spy,
esepcially at longer ranges.  When you fire at stationary targets like
those built by Engineers, be sure to take time to line up your shot - 
the goal is to demolish the Sentry quickly so your team can advance. 
Don't worry, the Soldier's ample health will keep him alive long enough
to line up a proper shot.

Against moving targets, you'll find that the slow propulsion of the 
rockets makes things trickier.  One of the best tips is straight from
Valve (the people you bought the game from.)  Aim at the ground.  
Enemies, especially those rascally Scouts, can easily sidestep rockets
fired from afar - but when you aim for their feet, or a nearby wall, 
the splash damage of the explosion will either kill them, or at least
wear them down for a friendly Heavy or Pyro to finish.  

As a Soldier, you aren't a Heavy, but you're the next best meatshield
there is.  Follow your Medics (actually, have them follow you :p), and
when you hear "UberCharge is up! Go buddy Go!" charge forward and 
blow up that enemy base.

SHOTGUN:
You'll get more use out of this baby than you might think when you 
start out as a Soldier.  Rockets are powerful, but when they miss and
the Pyro is charging you, or the Demoman hailing you with grenades, 
the Shotgun will get you out of a jam if you don't trust your up-close 
Rocket aim.

Of course, the Shotgun is also a natural clean-up weapon for targets 
of your own who are wounded from the explosions, or passing
enemies who've been lit on fire and aren't really worth the rocket.
My advice: get some experience playing the class, and decide for 
yourself when the Shotgun best helps you.

SHOVEL:
I like the collapsible Shovel that the Soldier carries, but maybe that's
just my DoD:S experience talking.  As a Soldier I find I will more 
often than not finish off an opponent with my Shotgun, but if you can
get behind an enemy and resist the urge to blow them up, by all means
thwack them with this. 


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		THE PYRO


Health: 175 | 260 with Medigun buff

Weapons:
	
	Flamethrower
	Can be fired for 200 seconds, fully loaded.

	Shotgun
	Ammunition: 6 shells
	Reserve Ammo: 32 shells

Melee Weapon:

	Fire Axe

WHY THE PYRO IS THE BEST CLASS TO PLAY AS:
Who doesn't like running around setting things on fire?  The Pyro is
a class unlike any other, and is easily the most deadly close-range
attacker in the game.

As a Pyro, your goal is simple: set as many people and objects on fire
as you possibly can.  People on fire who are foolish enough to stay in
your jet of flame will die at a quicker rate than those smart enough to
run away - who will still die, either from burning alive while running
around (which is hilarious to watch) or being shot while burning alive, 
many times by the Pyro's trusty Shotgun.

But the fire does more than quickly eat away at enemy health bars: it 
disorients them, and confuses attacks.  A Pyro crouched around a corner,
or underneath a ramp, or just inside a door is ideal; When the
incoming attackers or defenders are suddenly ablaze, their coordination 
breaks down, their vision is blurred by flames on-screen, and their 
ranks break in search of a Medic, medkit or pool of water to stop 
the burning.

When the enemy defense is occupied with a frontal assault, a backdoor
attack from a Pyro and an UberCharged Medic can create unrivaled 
chaos.  Heavys, Soldiers and Demomen love the "I'll set em 
up, you knock 'em down" nature of the Pyro. Defensively, Pyros melt
fragile cloaked Spies, Scouts, Medics and Engineers with ease,
keeping the capture point or Intel safe from attack. Every team 
should have one.

WEAPONS

FLAMETHROWER:
The Flamethrower is instantly fun, very lethal, and can also be a bit
frusterating if you don't understand the mechanics of it.  With 
practice, however (and a handy FAQ to read :p), you'll become more and 
more comfortable with it.

With the Flamethrower, the closer an enemy is to the Pyro's jet of 
flame, the quicker his health will decrease.  The best thing to do then
is trap your opponent in a corner or narrow hallway, where you will
have an easier time keeping your flame centered on your hapless 
opponent.  Obviously, people don't like being lit on fire, and they 
will do everything they can to escape your deadly flame, from running,
jumping, and of course, shooting at you.  

The best idea here is to strafe around your opponent in such a way that 
forces them towards a wall, while keeping you safe from counter-fire.
True, even if that Soldier or Demoman hits you with an explosive in the
face, you'll probably melt him to death anyway (Opponents will stay on
fire and lose health unless they find a Medic, medkit, pool of water
or Dispenser), but its better to live to burn again.

The biggest hurdle new Pyros tend to encounter when playing is the 
range of the weapon.  It is easy to light someone ablaze, see that the
enemy is on fire, and chase them with your trusty Flamethrower spewing, 
thinking that, since the enemy is still on fire, he is still
within your Flamethrower range.  One way to know for sure if you're 
searing your opponent is to listen for a "sizzling" sound (think 
bacon frying in a pan) which you will hear when your Flamethrower is 
still on target. 

Also, the length of the Flamethrower flame is longer when the Pyro
is standing still, and shorter when he is moving.  Often, if chasing
an opponent refuses to ignite them, stopping for a second (extending 
the length of the flame) will work! Bottom line, if you aren't sure,
I'd switch to your Shotgun.

Finally, due to the close-range nature of the weapon (and class), you
should understand that a Pyro does not belong in open areas or at the
end of long corridors alone.  Your Flamethrower can't help you there.
That said, the Pyro does have a nifty tool he can use to help him
at long ranges against rocket-firing Soldiers and grenade-launching
Demomen: a blast of air!

By hitting alternate fire, the Pyro shoots a non-lethal blast of
compressed air from his Flamethrower, which can be used for all 
sorts of things - sending rockets back into the face of the Soldier 
who fired them, clearing away Sticky Bomb traps, even separating
Medics from their Medigun targets!  

In fact, a Pyro is the only class that can dissolve an UberCharge by 
physically separating a Medic from his partner, making the air
blast definitely something worth perfecting, and making the 
Flamethrower a very formidable, reliable weapon.


SHOTGUN:
Pyros are tied with the Engineer in my book as the class most reliant
on his Shotgun, although both rely on the weapon for different reasons.  

When I started playing the Pyro class, I didn't really use the Shotgun.
Why? I thought.  I have a Flamethrower... I'm a Pyro, I light people 
on fire.  What I didn't realize is how quickly a Shotgun can finish off
a burning opponent.  

The Flamethrower burns people pretty quickly, as you'll see the first 
few times *you* get lit on fire.  The tendency for most new Pyros is 
to chase people down with their Flamethrower, and opponents will take
advantage of this and just run away, creating a distance disadvantage 
for the Pyro.

If you fall into this category, listen to me: pull out your Shotgun
early in the fight, and unload it.  You will be pleasantly surprised
at how quickly the Shotgun will either put them down, or accellerate
your enemy's death-by-burning.  And don't be afraid to hold your ground
as a Pyro.  You may not have the health of a Soldier or Heavy, but 
175 health in a fire-proof suit is nothing to sneeze at, especially 
with a Medic around. (Fun Fact: Pyros take damage from Flamethrowers, 
but do not burn over time.) 

The Pyro Shotgun, like all of the Shotguns, reloads quickly, has decent
stopping power, and surprising range.  Use it.

FIRE AXE:
The Fire Axe is a fitting weapon for the Pyro, although many Pyros are
so comfortable at close range with their Flamethrower, they forget to
use it. 

I like to take out the Axe against opponents like Heavys and even
Soldiers, who have tons of health (particularly with Medics.)  Heavys 
burn for a long, long time, whereas a Minigun can shred a Pyro in
seconds.  If you can get close enough to a Heavy, I think it better to 
stow the Flamethrower and Axe him in the back.  See what works for you.


########################################################################


		THE DEMOMAN


Health: 175 | 260 with Medigun buff

Weapons:
	
	Grenade Launcher
	Ammunition: 4 grenades 
	Reserve Ammo: 16 grendades
	
	Sticky Bomb Launcher w/ Detonator
	Ammunition: 8 bombs
	Reserve Ammo: 24 bombs

Melee Weapon:

	Bottle

WHY THE DEMOMAN IS THE BEST CLASS TO PLAY:
Hands down the most explosive class in TF2, the Demoman can frustrate
enemy attacks better than any other class, shelling them from afar with
his Grenade Launcher, booby trapping routes and defensive areas with
Sticky Bombs - and never putting himself in the line of fire.

Nothing disrupts enemy advances, and encourages retreat like a steady
hail of grenades, tumbling over cover, around corners, into buildings
and control points; but it's not just infantry that Demomen can assault.  

Engineers learn to loathe a good Demoman, as grenades and Sticky Bombs
are the best (and only) way to indirectly destroy otherwise well 
protected Sentries and sheltered Dispensers.  Spies can Sap them, 
but they put themselves in harm's way to do so.  A Demoman need never 
even see the Sentry, he just waits for the successful explosion.

Sticky bombs do more than defend control points, they allow the Demoman
to create choke points. Seemingly safe waypoints are transformed into
an explosive death trap, forcing the enemy to either retreat or push on
through the ensuing detonation - and into whatever trap the Demoman 
sets up next.  Every team should have one.

WeAPONS

GRENADE LAUNCHER:
The Demoman is a unique class to play, as all of his weaponry is 
indirect.  He doesn't have anything that shoots bullets or shells - 
which changes the way you have to approach certain combat situations. 

The best thing to do is play to the Grenade Launcher's strengths.  The
best part about playing a Demoman is that you don't
have to put yourself in the line of fire to rack up kills.  Grenades 
work best when bounced off walls, around corners, down hallways, into 
rooms an enemy is defending, pretty much anywhere you would expect 
the other team to be.

Unless your grenades hit your opponent directly (and if so, watch as 
he goes BOOM) they will take a few seconds to explode, at which point
your opponent will usually retreat.  Don't think of this as a 
failed attack - keep the pressure up!  Even if you aren't blowing up 
your opponents, you'll be forcing them back and back, allowing your 
team to advance.  Remember, although you'll fire off 4 grenades pretty 
fast, the Demoman can interrupt his reload to fire off an emergency 
grenade or two if need be.

The more practice you can get using the Grenade Launcher to ricochet 
grenades into enemy bases the better.  As I said above, there's really
noone better suited to dispatching enemy Sentries and Dispensers safely
than a Demoman; as you become more practiced in placing your grenades
where they need to be, you'll find few problems you can't solve with
an explosion or two.  

STICKY BOMB LAUNCHER:
Sticky Bombs are wonderful or terrible, depending on whether they're 
friendly or not.  These small, round spikey doodads can make capture 
points impossible to take, and choke points impossible to pass, if 
a wary Demoman is present.

Sticky Bombs are always the color of the team of the Demoman who shot 
them.  So if you're RED, don't run over blue bombs, and if you're BLU,
don't run over red bombs.  By holding down the fire button, the 
Demoman can "charge" his shot, propelling each Sticky Bomb as far as he
needs to... into Sniper nests, at out-of-range Sentries, etc.  And
when these babies explode, they can do massive damage, especially in 
clusters.  Only the Demoman can detonate them, but he can do so 
whenever he needs to, regardless of what weapon he is holding, by 
clicking secondary fire - even if the bombs are in mid-air!

A Demoman can place up to eight Sticky Bombs at a time.  If he shoots a
ninth, the first Bomb that he launched will explode.  There really 
isn't a bad place to put these bombs, and true to their namesake, they
will stick to anything, including walls and ceilings.  Putting them 
in plain sight on top of control points discourages smart opponents
from advancing, and encourages dumb opponents to set them off.  

But the best thing to do with Sticky Bombs is create your own choke 
points, luring your enemies into following you (or as a defense 
against enemies who are chasing you.) You can coat the floor with 
Bombs in a pinch, but if I have time I like to stick them around the
outer edges of doorframes and support beams, behind crates and along
rooftops - guaranteed to shake up a few hapless opponents, and make
the rest of their team think twice before taking that route.

Sticky Bombs are also wonderful ways to destroy entire Engineer bases.
The idea is to launch as many Stickies into the base around the 
Sentries and Dispensers as possible, because unlike grenades, all of
the bombs will explode at once when detonated, giving no time for 
repair to the Engineer (who will instead likely be in pieces.)

I think, though, that practicing this sort of Sentry extermination 
with your Grenade Launcher is important, in addition to using your
Sticky Bombs.  Why? Because it saves you from having to detonate 
your Sticky Bombs, which you may have already set as a defensive 
trap, and take longer to shoot and reload than the Grenade 
Launcher's grenades.  Also, unlike grenades, Sticky Bombs can be
destroyed by gunfire or blown away by a Pyro's air blast, thus
robbing the Demoman of a demolition opportunity.

Granted, there are some jobs that only a Sticky Bomb can handle,
but a good Demoman doesn't rely on his Sticky Bomb Launcher alone;
he uses both of his Launchers together to trap his opponent in an 
explosive demise. :)

Oh, and before I forget - a Demoman can use his Sticky Bombs the same
way Soldiers use their Rockets to reach high places.  By detonating
a Sticky Bomb underneath his feet, the Demoman can make a powerful
leap (in the old days it was called a 'pipe bomb jump') to get to
hard-to-reach areas or cross large distances in a single bound.

BOTTLE:
Now, at close range, the Demoman doesn't have many options, and short 
of a direct shot with a grenade, or quick, mid-air Sticky detonation, 
the Bottle is the only other thing a Demoman can turn to. (That 
was a pun.)

But hey, the Bottle can get the job done up close, especially if your
enemy has been weakened by grenade/Sticky Bomb explosions.  When it 
comes down to the difference between taking potshots with grenades
and wildly swinging an empty Bottle, I think personal 
preference should be the deciding factor.


########################################################################		


		THE HEAVY


Health: 300 | 450 with Medigun buff

Weapons:
	
	Minigun (Sasha)
	Ammunition: 200 rounds
	
	Shotgun
	Ammunition: 6 shells
	Reserve Ammo: 32 shells

Melee Weapon:

	Fists

WHY THE HEAVY IS THE BEST CLASS TO PLAY:
Absolute, unrelenting firepower.  There are many powerful weapons and 
lots of creative equipment in TF2, but *nobody* outguns the Heavy.

There is simply no outshooting a Heavy.  If you like to be the guy with
the BFG, the Heavy is for you.  The Heavy is like a mobile upgraded
Sentry, sweeping the Minigun back and forth, mowing down enemy troops,
laughing all the way.  If you need a class to hold the line or capture
point, you need a Heavy. 

Offensively, Heavies are like battering rams, punching through enemy 
lines with their powerful Minigun, marching towards control points, 
clearing the way to the Intelligence.  Will he be shot at?  Sure.  
Will he care?  Likely not.  Rockets and grenades blow up the other
classes with a single hit, but not the Heavy.  Pyros melt down Scouts,
Spies, Medics, Demomen and the like with ease, but not the Heavy. 

Why not the Heavy? It's simple, really.  Medics look for Heavys all 
the time, because when buffed with the Medigun, Heavies carry a 
whopping 450 health.  That's not a typo.  Heavies are always getting 
shot at, but with a health pool that big, and a Medigun trained on him,
he's going to outlast any class shooting at him, unless his opponent 
outguns him.  And nobody outguns the Heavy.  Every team should 
have one.   

WEAPONS

MINIGUN:
This is the reason you play as a Heavy, to get to use this weapon. 
Arguably one of the more satisfying weapons in the game to fire, the 
Minigun is like a death hose, the ultimate example of quantity over
quality.  With practice, there are few weapons as lethal as a Minigun,
as long as it is used in the right situations.

Heavies aren't very fast to begin with (300 health is a lot to lug 
around) and firing the Minigun slows him down even more.  So, there 
are things to keep in mind when using this weapon to compensate for
the Heavy's sluggishness.

First, you need to get the barrel of the Minigun spinning before it 
will actually start to fire.  If you hold down primary fire, the Heavy 
will lower his weapon, there will be a delay as it begins to spin, and
then it will fire.  

A good Heavy, however, will hold down his secondary fire button, to spin
the barrel of the gun ahead of time.  This is useful when rounding 
corners, entering enemy buildings, and anticipating attacks, as you
can fire immediately when you see an enemy.  Spinning the Minigun
barrel gives off a kind of whine, which will alert nearby enemies to
your presence; but hey, you aren't a Spy, you aren't trying to hide, 
and given his size, the Heavy would have a job hiding anyway.

The second thing to remember when using the Minigun, is that although 
your forward, backward and side to side movement is slowed when the gun
is lowered/firing, your aiming speed does not slow down.  This is 
very important to remember when dealing with Pyros and Spies who are
going to try to ambush you up close, and also pesky Scouts who will be
running circles around you.  You can pivot as quickly as you can move 
your mouse, and short of a backstab, there is nothing as lethal at 
close range as the Minigun.

The Minigun is unstoppable at all but long ranges, but even so, it is
unwise to plod into enemy territory alone.  The Heavy is a big target,
and as good as the Minigun is, it works much better with teammates.  
Cover your teammates, and they'll cover you. Finally, as I mentioned 
above, Medics are very fond of Heavies, especially as recipients of
UberCharges - but you must communicate your ammo level to any Medics 
following you!  Some Medics are twitchy when it comes to their
UberCharge and hit you with it as soon as it's up, but it does your team
no good if the Minigun is empty.  Fully loaded and invicible, there
is little the Minigun can't accomplish. 

SHOTGUN:
The Heavy's Shotgun is just like the others used by Engineers, Pyros
and Soldiers, but often doesn't see as much use, and understandably so.

At the ready, a Minigun will be a much more effective tool for Heavies
at killing.  However, an ambushed Heavy who doesn't have his Minigun 
ready to fire wastes precious seconds getting it going, and in these
situations I like to rely on my Shotgun, rather than my health bar.  
Alternately, you can use the Shotgun to conserve Minigun
ammo before an UberCharge.

Although the Heavy is slow, the Shotgun doesn't impair his speed, 
giving him the most mobility he can get when he needs it most. 
With a few quick shots, the Shotgun will hopefully beat ambushers back
long enough for the Heavy to start up his Minigun, if not finish them 
off.  

FISTS:
Heavies rely on their knuckles to solve any problems up close.  True,
the noise that the Minigun makes, the Heavy's naturally slow speed, and
his impossible-to-miss size makes sneaking up on anyone about as 
likely as a Sniper getting an UberCharge; but overcoming those odds and 
delivering a knockout punch is very satisfying.
 
Just don't get your hopes up :). 


########################################################################


		THE ENGINEER


Health: 125 | 185 with Medigun buff

Weapons:
	
	Shotgun
	Ammunition: 6 shells 
	Reserve Ammo: 32 shells
	
	Pistol
	Magazine Capacity: 12 rounds
	Reserve Ammo: 200 rounds

Melee Weapon:

	Wrench

Equipment:
	
	Construction PDA
	Detonator

	Metal
	Carrying Capacity: 200 pieces

WHY THE ENGINEER IS THE BEST CLASS TO PLAY:
Do you like to set up impenetrable defenses, enabling victory by
bolstering your teammates, creating moving bases that suffocate enemy
defenses?  The Engineer is the class for you.

There is nothing like a good Engineer.  While on their own they aren't 
as powerful or healthy as ther peers, their devices make or break 
victory for their team.  Harvesting metal from the weapons of fallen
enemies and destroyed devices, Engineers construct powerful
Sentry Guns to hold off enemy advances, and use that same metal
to upgrade their Sentry to an even deadlier model.

But the Engineer isn't limited to building guns. Engineers create 
Teleporter entrance and exits, providing their team with quick access
to vital defensive points, or secret access to their opponent's base.  
Engineers also create Dispensers which serve as stationary Medics, 
replenishing health and ammo to nearby teammates, and slowly refilling
the Engineer's metal supply.

Good Engineers not only defend their base, they create forward bases as 
their team advances, building Teleporters and Dispensers, encouraging 
their team to press the attack.  There isn't a friendlier sight in the
world when turning into enemy territory than seeing an Engineer
banging out a Dispenser behind cover. Every team should have one.  

WEAPONS AND EQUIPMENT

SHOTGUN:
The Engineer's Shotgun is the same model that the Soldier, Pyro and 
Heavy carry, and is just as reliable.  As a primary weapon, it 
certainly doesn't stand up against the others (but hey, you still 
out-gun the Spy!).  Your Sentry Gun is really more of a primary 
weapon; it's the Shotgun's job to assist and defend the Sentry, and 
it'll be working overtime.

When you're out in the open scavenging for metal, or if you have
to defend yourself in the middle of a build, the Shotgun can get 
you out of a jam.  The Engineer reloads it quickly, and the Shotgun
has decent range and spread.  Hopefully, if you have to resort to your
Shotgun there will be teammates nearby to assist you.  In fact, I 
recommend budding Engineers to always travel with their teammates; they
can keep you safer than your Shotgun can, and buy you time to build
stuff.

PISTOL:
The Engineer's Pistol is just as good as the Scout's Pistol, firing as
fast as you can click, reloading fast, and with surprisng accuracy at
longer range.  The Engineer also packs a whopping 200 extra rounds for
his Pistol.  Maybe it's spillover from the Sentry Gun ammo.

As an Engineer, you'll be building and maintaining Sentry Guns, 
Dispensers and Teleporters primarily, so choosing to use your Pistol 
over your Shotgun will likely boil down to personal preference and 
circumstance.  Naturally, I find the Pistol more suited to targets 
who are further away from me.  Just don't expect to out-snipe a Sniper.

WRENCH:
Aha! Now this is probably the most used melee weapon in the game, and 
not for any added lethality - as a weapon the Wrench is no more or less
effective than any other. 

Engineers, however, use their Wrenches constantly to build, upgrade and
repair their devices.  If, say, an Engineer decides to build a Sentry
Gun, he can hit it with the Wrench repeatedly to speed up the build
process.  In a similar fashion, Engineers bang on damaged or Sapped 
devices to restore their health and save them from being destroyed. 

But wait, that's not all! Engineers can upgrade their Sentry Guns if 
they have enough metal to do so.  By hitting a completed Sentry with 
the Wrench, metal is deducted from your inventory towards the total 
amount required for the Sentry upgrade (200 metal).  Even if you don't
have enough metal for the full upgrade, you can start to upgrade the 
Sentry with the metal you have, then collect more and finish the job. 

Also remember that any Engineer can use his Wrench to repair and 
upgrade any other Engineer's Sentries, Dispensers and Teleporters. 
For my money, one Lvl. 2 Sentry at the start of a map does a better job
repelling Scouts than two Lvl. 1 Sentries.  Work together, and your
base will be impregnable in half the time!

Soooo.. it is not uncommon for an Engineer to be found hovering over 
his creations with his Wrench, in a constant state of repair/defense 
against enemy Spies - who you may often find disguise themselves as
Engineers and act as though they are busy repairing the Sentries, when
in fact they are sabotaging them.  How to spot the Spy?  A Spy that is
disguised as an Engineer will not be holding a Wrench, but instead a
Shotgun.  If you see a Shotgun-toting Engineer suspiciously near some
damaged Dispensers, sending over a Pyro would be a good idea :).

CONSTRUCTION PDA:
The Engineer's Personal Digital Assistant is where he 
builds all of his handy constructions.  Here is a breakdown of what
the Engineer can build, and how much metal it costs.

Sentry Gun: 130 metal
Dispenser: 100 metal
Teleporter entrance: 125 metal 
Teleporter exit: 125 metal
Upgrade Building: 200 metal

Engineers start with their full capacity of 200 metal, and so can build
anything they want to right off the bat.  After selecting what to build,
the Engineer will take out his toolbox and an image of what you
selected will appear in front of you, so you can pick out where to 
place your device; just click primary fire when you're ready, and
don't forget to bang away with the Wrench to speed up the process.

Sentry Guns are the backbone of any defense, and should be a build
priority.  Once you have set up a good base of operations for 
yourself and your teammates, you can move on to upgrading the Sentry. 
When placing a Sentry, you need not worry about aiming it in a 
certain direction; each version of the Sentry Gun rotates and auto-
shoots any enemy in sight.  However, you can right click while 
placing the Sentry to rotate the direction it will face by default,
which can be useful in speeding up the auto-target process.

Keep in mind that although the Sentry Gun becomes stronger and shoots 
faster with each upgrade, Sentries cannot see through a Spy's cloak 
or disguise, and will only fire on the Spy when he reveals himself, 
usually by stabbing or shooting someone.  And that someone is often 
the Engineer :).  It is very important to be wary of Spies, as an
Engineer without his Sentry is a sitting duck with 125 health and
an ordinary Shotgun.  

It is also worth noting that while the bullets
fired by friendly Sentries will never hurt members of its team, the
rockets fired by a Lvl. 3 Sentry can and will kill the Engineer who
built it, should he be in the way (or sitting on top of it whilst 
repairing.)  It is not unusual for enemy Spies to try to bait new
Engineers into walking in front of their own Sentry; when the Spy
allows the Sentry to see him, it will open fire... and blow up the
hapless Engineer. Fortuntatly for you, dear reader, you know
better. :P

Depending on your team, the map, and the stage of the game, you can
get all sorts of requests on what to build. I find that initially 
Dispensers are great.  Teammates love free ammo and health refills, and
Dispensers can help replenish your metal supply automatically, allowing
you to quickly build more devices to help your team.  In Sudden Death,
Dispensers NEED to be your first priority, because in Sudden Death
Dispensers are the only source of health for your teammates other than
a Medic.

Dispensers can be very helpful to your team if placed correctly, 
particularly fully upgraded, which greatly increases the rate it
heals/reloads/replenishes metal. One thing to keep an eye out for is 
how far your team is progressing/ pushing into enemy territory.  
As they advance, one of the best things you can do is build a Dispenser 
nearby, behind some cover.  If your offensive classes see that they 
have a fall back point nearby, they'll be much more encouraged to 
sustain the attack.

Teleporters are also a great thing for forward bases, and also for 
defense.  You'll need to build both an entrance and an exit for the 
gizmo to activate, but when it does, it provides instant 
transportation with only a slight recharge delay between Teleporters.
Heavys, Soldiers and Medics can then get where they need to be right
away with a Teleporter, and good Teleporter placement can really
prolong an attack, or bolster a defense.   

As a teleporter is upgraded, the recharge time is dramatically 
reduced, offering rapid-fire transport that is practically a 
requirement for success when sustaining a final push
at a distant control point.  As an Engineer, you need only upgrade
one half of your Teleporter duo to upgrade your setup to levels 2
and 3.  That said, if an enemy destroys either the Exit or Entrance
of your level 3 Teleporter, you'll have to rebuild *and* reupgrade.

The key with Teleporters is communication: talk to your team.
Let them know that you're building Teleporters, where the entrance is, 
and where it will take them.

In fact, communication is good across the board with the Engineer. 
Rather than randomly placing Dispensers and Sentries, ask your team 
where they will help the most, and monitor their effectiveness.  
Entire teams can be stopped by the efforts of one wary Engineer. ;) 

All buildings start at level 1, and can be upgraded twice, to level 3, 
at 200 metal per level.  Thus, an Engineer decked out with top-
of-the-line stuff will have spent a total of 1680 metal on his
Lvl. 3 Sentry Gun, Dispenser and Teleporters. :)  Get to building!

DETONATOR:
Engineers can only have one Sentry, Dispenser and Teleport 
exit and entrance built at one time.  They can destroy their devices
with their Detonator so they can relocate them, as needed as their
team advances, but the Engineer will have to start over with a Lvl. 1 
unit.

Engineers can salvage the metal from their destroyed buildings, making 
it a little easier to relocate and rebuild quickly.


########################################################################


		THE MEDIC


Health: 150 | 225 with Medigun buff

Weapon:
	
	Syringe Gun
	Clip Capacity: 40 syringes
	Reserve Ammo: 150 syringes
	
Equipment:

	Medigun	

Melee Weapon:

	Bone Saw

WHY THE MEDIC IS THE BEST CLASS TO PLAY:
Medics enable victory.  Period.  If you want to be the reason your team
succeeds, the reason the Heavy stays alive long enough to hold back
an attack or capture the game-winning flag - play a Medic.

Medics in the right place make their team unkillable, make defenses
unbreakable, and make any control point or Intelligence Briefcase 
takeable.  Teams need Medics like Enginners need metal, or Heavys need
bullets.  There's just no way around it.

Good Medics aren't just portable Dispensers.  Medics who bust their ass
every time they hear their teammates cry out not only heal them, but 
buff their teammates' health up to 150 percent! What more, Medics are the 
only class capable of rendering a teammate invincible.  More often than 
not, an UberCharge on the right class at the right time is the only 
way to win a control point, a map, or both.

No class is more appreciated when around, or missed when absent, than 
the Medic.  When teams reach a stalemate, when it comes down to the 
wire, you won't hear "Where's the Pyro?" or "Can we get a Spy up
here?"  When your team needs victory, your team needs a Medic. 
Every team should have one.

WEAPONS AND EQUIPMENT

SYRINGE GUN:
Playing as a Medic, you'll more often than not be called on to use your
Medigun to keep your teammates in top shape.  However, this being a
frantic team shooter, you will be called on to defend yourself now and
then.  Fortunately for you, the Syringe Gun is an excellent weapon to
use in these sorts of situations.

The Syringe Gun shoots hypodermic needles at full auto. At 40 needles
per clip, and good stopping power, Medics can hold their own when they
have to - just remember that Medics really shouldn't have to.

When shooting the Syringe Gun, you'll notice that the Syringes arc 
downward as they shoot (damn gravity) and as such you'll need to
compensate when you're aiming it at range.  The best idea for needling
down your opponents is to get as close as you safely can to your 
opponent; the goal is to land lots of needles on your opponent as fast
as you can, because as a Medic you're generally outgunned and weaker.

Fortunately, as a Medic (particularly a Medic who has read this guide)
you'll be tagging along with bigger, stronger classes with bigger, 
stronger guns.  In the case where you'll have to use your Syringe Gun, 
you should have a buddy nearby to help you.  No matter who you're 
with, keep moving and don't stop shooting till they keel over.

MEDIGUN:
Now this is the great part about playing a Medic - who'd have ever
thought that keeping teammates healthy would be easy and fun?

The Medigun in operation is kinda like the Proton Pack from
Ghostbusters (my favorite movie, if you haven't seen it stop reading
and go rent it... I'll wait for you.)  It shoots a rubbery beam of
healing energy at whatever teammate you've targeted, recharging
their health, and boosting it by up to 150 percent of its normal 
total - but only for as long as you keep your Medigun trained on them.
Note: the Medic cannot heal himself with his own Medigun - he needs
another Medic to heal him, or else find a Dispenser or medkit.

The most important thing about the Medigun, however, is the UberCharge
I've been mentioning throughout the guide.  Your UberCharge gauge 
starts empty, and as you heal your teammates, that gauge will 
start to fill.  Even if a teammate is already at full health, using
your Medigun on him will still fill your UberCharge gauge; however,
(and this is important) healing wounded teammates fills the gauge 
faster.  You want to fill the gauge quickly.  Keep your ears
pricked, and as soon as you hear "Medic!" help your teammate, and
you'll also help yourself.  Savvy Soldiers and Demomen often 
wound themselves with rocket and Sticky Bomb jumps, with the
express purpose of helping a Medic charge up quickly.

When the gauge is full, training your Medigun beam on a teammate 
and hitting secondary fire activates the UberCharge, making you and 
your selected teammate invicible for precious few seconds - seconds 
that win maps time and time again.  You'll know that your UberCharge 
is working when you see your teammate take on a red or blue glow, 
depending on what team you are on.  Your UberCharge will ONLY LAST 
if you keep your beam trained on your buddy... if you break the 
stream, you lose the invincibility.

Which brings us to our final Medigun question: who to hit with 
an UberCharge?

I'm not really concerned about what class you pick.  Depending on what 
obstacle you're looking to overcome, a Heavy, Soldier, Pyro or even
a talented Demoman can work.  I just don't want you to waste it.  

You don't need to fire off the UberCharge as soon as the
gauge fills, and you shouldn't just use it to save your own hide.
Evaluate your team's situation and communicate with your team to set
up a group attack built around the UberCharge.  And don't "lock
in" on one class.  True, the Medic+Heavy and Medic+Soldier pairings
are popular, but don't glue yourself to a Heavy at the expense of the
rest of your team - spread the healing love around.

And remember, I said that the Medigun beam was rubbery and flexible,
so the Medic can hide behind a wall or other cover safely while the
recipient of his healing beam does the dirty work.  Stay alive out
there! Your team is counting on it.

BONE SAW:
When the Syringe Gun runs out and that Pyro or Scout that ambushed you
is hot on your heels, this cool-looking weapon will be what keeps you
alive.  

In fact, the more comfortable you become with close-quarters combat,
you might just stop firing your Syringe Gun early, as most opponents
aren't going to expect a Medic to perform a bayonet charge of sorts.

This thing'll carve your enemies up as well as any other melee weapon,
but again, you hopefully won't have to resort to it.


########################################################################


		THE SNIPER


Health: 125 | 185 with Medigun buff

Weapons:
	
	Sniper's Rifle
	Single Shot, Bolt-Action
	Reserve Ammo: 25 rounds

	Machine Pistol
	Magazine Capacity: 25 rounds
	Reserve Ammo: 75 rounds	

Melee Weapon:

	Machete

WHY THE SNIPER IS THE BEST CLASS TO PLAY:
The only class capable of a sustained, deadly long range attack. We all
know what Snipers do, and in TF2 the Sniper is no different - but he is
truly alone: no other class can strike from a distance with precision
or lethality like the Sniper can.

A lucky direct shot with a grenade or rocket will blow you up, sure, 
but rockets are slow and even grenades can be easy to dodge.  A Heavy's
Minigun is a terrible thing at close range, but over distance becomes
more of a crapshoot.  The Sniper's Rifle, however, is constantly, 
reliably lethal at any range - in the right hands, and in the 
right spot, a Sniper's Rifle is the deadliest weapon in the game, hands 
down.

The Sniper's Rifle is the only weapon that offers an aim zoom, and also
"charges" the Sniper's shot - vastly increasing its strength, making
the Sniper not only wildly efficient at cutting down enemy troops, but
just as deadly at removing Engineer constructions - all in one shot.
Every team should have one.

WEAPONS

SNIPER'S RIFLE:
The hallmark of the Sniper class, without which he'd just be a guy in
a funny hat.  The Sniper's Rifle in TF2, in my opinion, is one of the 
best Sniper Rifles of any shooter I've played, and with practice, can
be extremely deadly.

Often, when players try out the Sniper class, there is an adjustment 
period, where the players get used to aiming with the zoomed-in 
sights (secondary fire brings up the scope) and targeting the most 
vital areas. I find that adjusting to the frantic, zig-
zagging pace of the game is the biggest thing for any budding Sniper 
to get used to before he or she gets comfortable playing the class.
Like so many other games, you want to aim for the head for the 
insta-kill in TF2. 

As you practice with the Sniper (I like to think of Sniping as a
practice, like law or medicine) observe these two things.  Firstly,
when you are zoomed-in, and ONLY then, your Rifle will "charge,"
increasing the lethality of your next shot.  It takes a second or 
two to fully charge, but it's worth waiting for.  The only way 
you're going to down a beefy Heavy in one is with a fully-charged 
shot to the head.  Even missing a headshot and hitting the guy's 
chest instead could end up in a kill if the shot is charged. 

Secondly, when you zoom in, and as your charge builds, a little
laser dot will appear at the center of your scope, helping you aim.
What you need to be aware of, is that your enemies can see the
little laser dot too.  I promise you, you might bag a few beginners,
but competant players won't leave cover if they see a little red
or blue dot dancing around on the wall.  

The good news is you can hide this - veteran Snipers will aim so that
the laser dot is on the outer edge of a wall, or nearby
obstacle where your enemy can't and won't see the laser as it travels
up their body and settles on their forehead.

Other than those tips, the best thing you can do with the Sniper's
Rifle is find a good position to shoot it from.  Nobody can really 
contest with the Sniper at long range, so you should stay at long
range, and find positions that threaten a wide area - just don't 
overload yourself; the more areas you try to cover, the more chances
an enemy Sniper has to get the jump on you.

When I pick up the Sniper's Rifle, I like to let the enemy do the 
work for me. As a Sniper you can count on your targets moving 
laterally to try to avoid you; but rather than chase them around, 
keep your sights at their head level, and squeeze the trigger as 
their movement carries them across your laser dot.  In other words,
you can try to put the laser dot on their head, or you can just wait 
for them bring their head to your laser dot, and then its BOOM 
HEADSHOT time. :p

MACHINE PISTOL:
This is hands-down my favorite ever Sniper class sidearm of all of 
the shooters I've ever played.  You just don't usually think 
'automatic weapon' when you think of a Sniper, but that's what the
Machine Pistol is, and I think you'll like it as much as I do.

As a Sniper, you'll always be the victim of opponents who manage to
sneak into your base, especially Spies.  But if you're wary (and I
do encourage you to step back from your scope and check out your
perch every now and then) you can mow down a potential backstabber
without breaking a sweat.
 
This gun shoots fast, shoots straight, and carries just enough
rounds per magazine to take down your ambusher.  I recommend 
that the Sniper use this weapon as he advances with his team, or
changes positions; I think it gives the Sniper a better survival 
rate on the move, and when your team needs you to move to shoot 
a Heavy or enemy Sniper, survival is important.

MACHETE:
I won't lie to you Snipers, you're going to be getting backstabbed a 
lot, because it's so easy to sneak up behind you when you're looking
down your Rifle's scope.  

That said, turning the tables on the Spy who thought he had the jump
on you, and hacking him apart either straight away or after riddling 
him with your Machine Pistol, feels *wonderful*.  Boast loudly whenever 
this happens.


########################################################################


		THE SPY


Health: 125 | 185 with Medigun buff

Weapons:
	
	Revolver
	Ammunition: 6 rounds
	Reserve Ammo: 24 rounds
	
	Electro Sapper	

Melee Weapon:

	Butterfly Knife

Equipment:

	Invisibility Cloak
	Cigarette Case

WHY THE SPY IS THE BEST CLASS TO PLAY:
I've repeated this phrase a lot over the course of this FAQ, so bear 
with me, but there is really, absolutely, no class like the Spy.  Not
just in TF2, but in any shooter I've played.  

The Spy is all espionage.  If you want to be a master of subterfuge,
the Spy is your guy.  Big guns and flashy explosives are for Rambo.  
The Spy is James Bond.  Under disguise or his trusty Invisibility Cloak,
a Spy can go anywhere, safe even from enemy Sentry Guns.  And
speaking of Sentries, the Spy is the only class capable of directly
disabling them using his Electro Sapper - making him an invaluable, 
if unseen, asset to any attack.

As a Spy, you aren't playing to outgun your opponent, you're playing to
outsmart them.  Using the right disguise in the right place, a Spy can
accomplish any number of dirty deeds for his team, and what team 
wouldn't appreciate that?

Only one guy can disguise himself as a Soldier to get into an enemy base,
switch disguise to a Heavy to trick the enemy Medics into healing him,
sneak under an Invisibility Cloak to the Intelligence room, sabotage
all of the Engineer's defenses and shoot his way back out to safety: 
the Spy.  Every team should have one. 

WEAPONS AND EQUIPMENT

REVOLVER:
As the Spy, feel special: you are the least powerful class in the game,
when it comes to raw firepower.  The Medic has more health and 
firepower than you.

What that means is that although the Revolver is a potent weapon, its
limited ammunition and semi-auto operation forces the Spy to use
his other tools to get in and out of hostile territory, rather than
force.

That said, don't be so absorbed as a Spy with Sapping, backstabbing 
and staying hidden that you don't use your Revolver when you need
to.  The Revolver is a strong weapon - the slugs it fires are much
stronger than those that the Scout's and Engineer's Pistol fires. 
You just need to be careful with your aim - make every shot count. 
The limited ammo is the reason I list the Revolver as weaker than 
the Medic's Syringe gun.  Shot for shot, the Revolver's stopping
power is better.

When your cover gets blown as you're trying sneak up on a Sniper, or
a Pyro catches you moving toward his teammates' Sentries, drawing 
your Revolver can save the situation.  Better to uncloak, 
displose of a threat, and recloak then stay invisible and burn to 
death.

ELECTRO SAPPER:
This tool is really something special, and something that makes 
Engineers cringe.  The Electro Sapper disables Sentry Guns, Dispensers
and Teleporters instantly.  You'll know when you've successfully
Sapped a Sentry Gun or Dispenser when you see electricity fritzing
all around it.  Left like this, the Sapped construct will eventually
be destroyed - and it can only be saved by an Engineer's Wrench.

What really makes the Sapper groovy is that it doesn't break a
Spy's disguise.  As I'll talk about later, using your other
weapons will cause a Spy to lose whatever disguise he is wearing, but 
Sapping buildings won't cause the Spy to lose cover. 

It is no great deduction, therefore, that a good Spy needs to be using
his Sapper as much as he safely can - and by 'safely' I mean to the
extent that he doesn't get caught at it.  Sapping a Sentry is as easy
as walking right up next to it and clicking fire, but you can't be
obvious about it, and you'll need to be coordinating your disguises
and actions in a way that allows you to stay alive, so you can keep
the enemy's defenses out of commission for good.

A control point without working Sentries is like a Heavy without his
Minigun: easy to attack.  Sabotaging these defenses is one of the
biggest roles a Spy can play for his team.  Sap safely, and Sap often.

BUTTERFLY KNIFE:
A Spy's Butterfly Knife gets quite a lot of use, given the ease with
which Spies can maneuver behind enemy targets using disguises and
his Invisibility Cloak.  And the Knife is the only melee weapon that
kills instantly when behind an enemy.

Keep in mind that stabbing someone with the Knife while in a disguise,
just like shooting someone while in a disguise, causes the Spy to lose
his disguise.  Which means that if you stab an Engineer around a
bunch of Sentry Guns, the second you get the kill the Sentries will
see you as an enemy Spy and shoot your face off.

Stab safely.  For example, if you sneak up on a rooftop and find a
Medic, Heavy and Sniper in front of you, work from back to front so
that none of them see you, and then redisguise or cloak and get away.

I see a lot of beginner Spies try to sneak up on someone, botch their
cover, and try to stab their way out of the situation.  I don't 
recommend this course of action, but maybe you are better suited to
melee combat than I.  I reach for my Revolver when things get dicey,
and I'm going to suggest you do the same thing, at least until you
get in some practice with the Knife.

INVISIBILITY CLOAK:
Everytime I use this, I feel awesome... its just so cool, watching 
the Spy activate his wristwatch, and suddenly be invisible, walking by
hapless enemies and Sentries without drawing as much as a second
glance.

You don't actually have to select this tool from your inventory like 
you would select a weapon.  No matter what the Spy is holding, tapping
secondary fire (tap, do not hold the button down) will render the
Spy completely invisible, giving him an easy way into or out of an
enemy area.  Tap the button again to reappear.

Sadly, you can't stay invisible forever.  A small bar at the bottom
of your screen will show you how much time is left on your Invisibility
Cloak, and when it's empty, the Spy will become visible.  The idea then,
is not to waste your Cloak, but only use it when you have to.  It is
much better to have some juice left in your Invisibility Cloak after
a few key backstabs or Saps, to buy you time to get away or take on a 
new disguise.  Don't worry, the Invisibility Cloak's gauge will slowly
replenish itself, but not as fast as the rate which you'll burn through 
it.  You can easily recharge your Cloak gauge by picking up
ammo boxes, fallen weapons, or visiting the resupply cabinet in the
spawn.

There are a few things to consider; you can't attack anyone or Sap 
anything while you're Cloaked.  You CAN, however, prepare yourself
for whatever action you need to do - readying your Butterfly Knife or
Sapper, or donning a new disguise so that when you reappear you 
can quickly execute whatever plan you've cooked up.

Also, you need to be aware of your surroundings when you cloak and 
uncloak.  You have to be crafty when playing a Spy, and nothing will
gives you away quite like an enemy seeing a supposedly friendly Scout
or Heavy suddenly appear out of thin air, or disappear before their
eyes.  This is a good way to get Pyros to light you on fire, and when
you're burning, invisibility won't hide the flames dancing around you.

Cloak and uncloak when it is safe to do so, and as a general rule, 
never deplete your Cloak gauge.. you never know when you might need
to make a quick getaway, or change a disguise on the fly, and your
Invisibility Cloak can provide you with the time you need to do so. 

CIGARETTE CASE:
The Cigarette Case is what the Spy uses to don different disguises; 
accessing it pulls up a menu that allows the Spy to choose which
enemy class he would like to disguise himself as, and after a quick
puff of smoke, he will.  You'll know when the disguise has taken
effect when you see a silhouette of the Spy appear on screen. Similarly,
you'll see the same graphic when you lose your disguise.

The right disguise and the right actions determine how successful a 
Spy will be.  As a Spy you have to think about a few things.  First,
it doesn't help you to pick the same disguise and run the same
route into the enemy base again and again - the other team is going
to catch on to you.  

Secondly, when you pick your disguise, you're going to have to put a
little salesmanship into it.  A Spy who picks a random disguise, 
sneaks up to an enemy, backstabs him and then gets killed isn't nearly
as effective as a Spy who keeps changing disguises, Sapping sentries, 
and killing when the opportunity presents itself.

The only way you'll get that kind of success with a Spy is if you
act as the class you disguise as.  Snipers belong in Sniper
nests, or at a distance from the main conflict.  Engineers belong
near Sentries and Dispensers, and Heavies should be up close to 
the action.  Running around conspicuously, trying to get behind
random enemies is just going to get a Spy shot.

I am no master Spy...(Spying is also a practice like medicine 
or law :p) but I know some things that can help you.  You really
shouldn't be seen entering an enemy base... it looks suspicious,
even when disguised.  Cloaking can help you here, or at least 
running backwards, which looks more like a retreat.  Also, 
when disguised, don't run with a group of your own teammates.  
How does it look to a BLU Sniper to see a bunch of REDs chasing
a BLU Soldier, but not shooting at him?  It looks like a Spy.

Shooting or stabbing an enemy while disguised makes you lose your
disguise, which means you'll need to have your Invisibility Cloak
ready if there are other enemies or Sentries nearby.  A Spy 
ALWAYS has to be aware of where Sentries are located, because as 
soon as he loses his disguise or invisibility, Sentries will
shoot at him.  Just because you didn't see the Sentry when you
were sneaking by disguised doesn't mean it won't fill you full
of holes when you start killing.  Sapping, however, does NOT break 
your disguise.

Above all else, try to have fun with the class (If you 
really think you're hot shit, try to get an enemy Medic to 
UberCharge you.) There's a lot to take in when playing a Spy, but 
nothing that you can't handle while still having fun.


########################################################################

That's it! I covered all the classes, all so you could get out there
and play like a pro for the RED and BLU.  I hope this FAQ has helped
you in some way, whether it was a better understanding of how the 
classes work, or the intricacies of a certain weapon, or just to fill
a lunch break reading about a game that interests you.  

And if you see me out in the servers, feel free to add me to your
friends list.  The Valve community and GameFAQs community have always
been the best in my book. 

~Lappy


########################################################################
                   W E A P O N   U P G R A D E S
########################################################################


ABOUT THIS SECTION

In this section, I'll be writing about the new weapons Valve has
released for each class.  When writing about the new weapons, I'll be
discussing the weapons they replace, what attributes the new weapons 
have, and the tradeoffs a player would have to consider when deciding
between two weapons of the same type.  In the spirit of fairness, I'll
be discussing each class' weapon upgrade in the order they are unlocked.

Now, in my opinion, play with what makes you happy, and with what helps
your team advance.  Yes, some of these weapons require a bit of work 
to get, but just because you've earned one weapon doesn't mean its 
necessarily the right one for the job your team is working on.  

Remember! You aren't "locked in" on the weapons you select for each
class for the whole round - you can change them as often as you like!
Take advantage of this, lest your enemies take advantage of you. :)

A Pyro running around in melee-only Sudden Death with the Axtinguisher
sounds like fun, and shows off all that hard work earning
Achievements, but is it the best idea?  Read on, and find out!


########################################################################


		PYRO WEAPON UPGRADES


Weapons:
	
	Flare Gun
	Single shot
	Reserve Ammo: 16 flares
	How it's earned: Achieve the first Pyro Milestone
	
	BackBurner
	Can be fired for 200 seconds, fully loaded
	How it's earned: Achieve the second Pyro Milestone
	
Melee Weapon:

	Axtinguisher
	How it's earned: Achieve the third Pyro Milestone


FLARE GUN
The first weapon a Pyro can earn is the Flare Gun, which becomes a
substitute for his trusty Shotgun.

One of the nice things about the Flare Gun is it gives the Pyro more
options at longer ranges - ranges which had previously been restricted 
to the errant spread of a Shotgun blast.  The Flare Gun is exactly
that - a gun that shoots flares, one at a time, and will ignite people
upon contact the same way that the Flamethrower does.  When shooting
the Flare Gun, be sure to compensate for gravity, as the flares start
to trail off the further they fly.

What's the tradeoff?

The Flare Gun is a whole different animal compared to the Pyro's 
Shotgun, and several factors will apply when deciding which to take 
into battle.  The Flare Gun is great for forcing Snipers off their
perch, and Soldiers and Demomen from launching explosives from afar.

That said, 6 Shotgun rounds fired one after the other finish off a 
fleeing, burning opponent a bit more efficiently, and afford the Pyro 
more room for error with his aim; this is not so with the single-shot, 
slow-reloading action of the Flare Gun, which also cannot be fired 
underwater.  Then again, nothing is as frusterating as a Pyro with
both a Flare Gun and careful aim.

Assess your team's situation, consider the map you're playing on, 
and choose your sidearm accordingly.

BACKBURNER
If you're the kind of Pyro who likes to sneak up behind players to 
light them on fire (and if you're following my guide, you should be)
the BackBurner is sure to delight.  The Backburner functions just as
the Pyro's normal Flamethrower does when fired at an enemy's front.  
From behind, the Backburner fires *100 percent* critical hits.  That's
not a typo.  

What's the tradeoff?

The tradeoff is that the Backburner cannot fire the compressed air burst
that the Flamethrower can fire.

Really, this comes down to which Pyro strategy you are more practiced 
with - sneaking up behind enemies, or reflecting projectile attacks;
and in some ways, these strategies also depend on the classes the
opposing team is using.

My advice is not to be so enamored by the (admittedly lethal) critical
hits that you forget about the air blast.  Ambushing is made easy with
a speedy Pyro and a BackBurner, but when your base is seiged by 
UberCharged Soldiers and Demomen, a couple of Pyro master-blasters can
ruin their entire attack.  Pyros have a very versitale selection of 
weapons to light people on fire with, so picking the right one 
for you shouldn't be too hard.

AXTINGUISHER
The final weapon a Pyro can earn is the Axtinguisher, a cool-looking
axe with a cool function. True to its name, the Axtinguisher is most
effective when used on opponents who are on fire, scoring a critical
hit every time until the bad guy drops, which shouldn't be long with 
this baby.

What's the tradeoff?

The Axtinguisher is only half as effective when the opponent is *not*
on fire, and is instead, say, beating you around the head with their 
own melee weapon.  The Fire Axe is the better choice if you prefer to 
hatchet enemies outright, and is always the best choice in 
melee-only sudden deaths, where your enemies will never be on fire.

Obviously, I encourage all of the Pyros reading my FAQ to use their 
primary and secondary weapons to melt down their enemies.  When 
deciding which axe to use, ask yourself if you're the kind of person 
who would switch to an axe to finish off an opponent instead of just
burning them to death, and if all else fails, let practice decide 
whether the Fire Axe or Axtinguisher is the best tool for you.


########################################################################


		HEAVY WEAPON UPGRADES
	
Equipment:

	Sandvich
	How it's earned: Achieve the first Heavy Milestone

Weapon:
	
	Natascha
	Ammunition: 200 rounds
	How it's earned: Achieve the second Heavy Milestone

Melee Weapon:

	The Killing Gloves of Boxing (KGB)
	How it's earned: Achieve the third Heavy Milestone


SANDVICH
The first upgrade a Heavy can earn is the Sandvich, and any Heavy will
instantly appreciate its usefulness.  Reaching into his bottomless
lunchbox, the Heavy produces a tasty-looking Sandvich, and when used
it will restore 120 health on the spot, over the course of four 
delicious seconds.

With an endless supply of Sandviches in tow, Heavies that have been 
separated from their Medics need not worry about retreating to a
medkit or Dispenser when low on health; and this can mean all the 
difference when sustaining an offensive push, or defensive stand.

What's the tradeoff?

A Sandvich-packing Heavy loses his Shotgun.

As I earlier wrote, a Heavy caught offguard loses time (and health) 
spinning up his Minigun.  A Heavy caught mid-snack is immobile for the
duration of his noisy, crowd-drawing chewing, which can be up to four
seconds.  If ambushed while eating, the Heavy has no Shotgun to
instantly return fire, and instead must either spend even more precious
time spinning up his Minigun, or try to use his solid-but-slow fists.  
And chances are, if you're ambushed eating a Sandvich, you aren't at 
top health to begin with.

There are many situations where Sandviches are a boon, but also 
situations where your Shotgun will serve you better. Keep these 
factors in mind when packing your lunch. ;)
    
NATASCHA
Natascha is the second lady in the Heavy's life, and the second unlock
he achieves.  Very similar in operation to its bigger sister, Sasha 
(the Minigun), Natascha carries the same amount of ammunition and has
the same barrel spin up/down time when firing.  Natascha, however, 
fires special rounds that slow down enemies upon contact, making fleeing
Scouts and cowardly Medics and Spies a thing of the past!

what's the tradeoff?

Natascha doesn't quite pack the oomph of its bigger sister, dealing
25% less damage than the Minigun, effectively taking a bit longer to 
finish off enemies but affording the Heavy time to do so by slowing 
them down. As a Heavy, you will need to get some experience with each 
weapon to decide which lady, Sasha or Natascha, is the best gal for 
the job.  

As always, the map you are playing on, as well as the classes the enemy 
team has chosen will likely influence your pick.  Don't worry, each gun 
is capable of firing critical hits, and each is murder when paired with 
a Kritzkrieg UberCharge. :)

THE KILLING GLOVES OF BOXING
The KGB, (no, not the Soviet Union's CIA) is the last unlock a Heavy
can achieve.  These massive boxing gloves not only take up the entire 
bottom half of the screen, but reward the Heavy for each knockout he 
scores - each kill with the KGB grants the Heavy 5 seconds of 
guaranteed critical hits, for all of his weapons!

What's the tradeoff?  

The KGB, likely due to their massive size, swing more slowly than the
Heavy's good, old-fashioned fists.  The critical hit bonus is a plus,
but requires you to actually punch someone to death first - and a 
pugilist, the Heavy is often not.  

That said, don't let me discourage you from punching the daylights
out of the enemy team if you're comfortable doing so with the Heavy.
If you do use the KGB, just remember that your main method of racking
up kills is your Minigun and Shotgun.  Critical hits are great, but
earning those five seconds of pain doesn't really help you if you kill 
yourself doing it.  

 
########################################################################


		MEDIC WEAPON UPGRADES

Weapon:
	
	Blutsauger
	Clip capacity: 40 syringes
	Reserve Ammo: 150 syringes
	How it's earned: Achieve the first Medic Milestone
	
Equipment:

	Kritzkrieg
	How it's earned: Achieve the second Medic Milestone

Melee Weapon:

	Ubersaw
	How it's earned: Achieve the third Medic Milestone


BLUTSAUGER
When you read 'Blutsauger', think 'Blood-sucker' and it'll make a lot 
more sense.   The Blutsauger is a jazzed-up Syringe Gun with one key
modification: every syringe that lands on target not only damages the
Medic's enemy but heals the Medic firing it. 

What's the tradeoff?

The Blutsauger, for all of its restorative properties, cannot score 
critical hits, though it retains the Syringe Gun's ridiculously fast 
firing speed.  

Some Medics prefer the ability to regenerate health as they return fire 
out in the open - and when you're preparing an UberCharge for your team, 
survivability is very important. :)  Then again, a Medic may trust his
aim enough with the Syringe Gun that he benefits more from the 
added firepower, and this choice may make more sense if you have some 
particularly competent teammates around you, helping to keep you safe.

I stand by my earlier statement that a Medic really shouldn't have to 
rely on his own (meager) offensive power to push through enemies.  Pick
the Gun that will keep you alive so you can keep your teammates alive.

KRITZKRIEG
The Kritzkrieg, once unlocked, will likely become a one of the more
pondered-over weapon choices for career Medics.  Why?  Well, for 
starters, as the Kritzkrieg heals teammates it fills the Medic's
UberCharge gauge 25 percent faster than the usual Medigun.  
What's more, when an UberCharge is deployed with the Kritzkrieg, the 
Medic's target will fire *100 percent* critical hits for ten seconds.

What's the tradeoff?

The Kritzkrieg, unlike the Medigun, does not render invulnerability
in addition to the guaranteed critical hits during the UberCharge.
So, the million-dollar question is: which is more valuable?

My answer is: ask your teammates.  Evaluate your team's position; are
you attacking or defending?  How many other Medics are on your team?
What kind of obstacles is your team facing, and most importantly, what
would help you get past the obstacle - invicibility or raw firepower?

Nothing stops a Scout rush like a Heavy on a crit rampage, but a
Demoman firing critical Sticky Bombs and Grenades doesn't do any extra
damage to Sentry Guns and Dispensers.  Talk to your teammates and 
especially your fellow Medics to see which Medigun would help them
more.  If you can work out a joint UberCharge with both a Medigun
and Kritzkrieg on a single (drooling) teammate, there's little
the three of you can't accomplish. ;)

UBERSAW
The Ubersaw, as you can likely guess, is a modified Bone Saw that a 
Medic can choose to use.  The Ubersaw, as its name suggests, shares
a relationship with the Medic's UberCharge gauge; in fact, every 
successful hit that the Medic lands with the UberSaw fills the 
UberCharge gauge by 25 percent!  With some deft saw-manship (?) and
help from your teammates (with larger guns), you can fill your Uber
gauge in seconds.

what't the tradeoff?

The Ubersaw is a little bit heavier, it seems, for our Medic
to swing, and as such he can wield his old Bone Saw at a noticably 
faster rate.  Both saws are equal in terms of their lethality.

As I've said before, a Medic really shouldn't have to rely on his
(feeble) offensive power.  The longer you play, the more comfortable
you get with using melee weapons, like the Medic's saws, and you'll 
be able to decide which saw is the best for you.  

The Ubersaw is flashy, and everyone loves a full UberCharge gauge,
but if a Bone Saw will keep you alive to actually *use* the UberCharge,
I'd stick with it.  Medics are much more valuable alive. :)


########################################################################
    E V E R Y T H I N G  T H A T  W O U L D N 'T   F I T  A B O V E
########################################################################


		ABOUT THIS SECTION

This section is where I've filed away articles I thought about including
in the main body of the FAQ, but just couldn't find the space for.

These articles generally relate to all classes, and also the weapons
and equipment in the game, and I've included them for your reading
pleasure.  Hopefully they will shed light on any questions I may have
created during your reading of my guide. :)
 

########################################################################


		AMMUNITION: SMOKE 'EM IF YOU GOT 'EM

Ah, Ammunition! The thing that keeps all those weapons I described 
firing and all that equipment running.  TF2 is a very fast-paced
shooter, and with that in mind I'd like to give you the following 
brief advice regarding ammunition:

Shoot at everything.

Well, that's not entirely true... don't waste your ammo or set 
unrealistic goals here (I'm looking at you, Pyro vs. Lvl3 Sentry), but
come on! Ammunition is EVERYWHERE in this game! Between the ammo 
boxes, Engineer Dispensers and Resupply rooms near your team's respawn
area, the game is practically begging you to keep shooting.  

And remember, no matter what type of enemy you kill, running over their
fallen weapon will replenish your own ammunition, including Metal if 
you're an Engineer.  How a Pyro's Flamethrower gasoline translates 
into Minigun bullets, I don't know.  Just keep yourself fully loaded,
and when in doubt: shoot, shoot, shoot. :)


########################################################################


		INTEL ON THE INTELLIGENCE

Technically, the Intelligence Briefcase could be considered a piece of 
equipment that any class can carry; if you're just starting to play
this game and came to my FAQ, I might have confused you with my 
references to the Intel, and so I'll talk about it here.

The Intelligence is the 'flag' on capture-the-flag maps, like 2fort.  
Your team's job on maps like this is try to take the enemy Intel from
their base and bring it back to yours, while stopping the enemy from 
doing the same.  Players who are carrying the Intelligence wear it
on their back, with trail of paper falling behind them, making them
a bit easier to find.

The Intel looks like a briefcase, and will be red or blue, depending on
which team it belongs to.  Any class can pick up the enemy 
Intelligence, but no class can pick up their own team's Intelligence.
A Spy can pick up enemy Intelligence if he is in disguise, but will 
lose his disguise as soon as he does so.  If invisible, the Spy must
decloak to pick up the Intel. Trying to recloak or redisguise will 
cause the Spy to drop the enemy Intelligence, as will simply 
getting killed.  Any class can manually drop the Intelligence, either
to pass it to a faster/healthier teammate or fool the defenders, by 
pressing the 'h' key (by default).

Now, this is important.  Dropped Intelligence will stay on the ground
where it is dropped for 60 seconds.  After those 60 seconds, the 
Intelligence will return to its usual spot in the base.  However,
if any player picks up the dropped Intel, the timer will be reset 
if the new carrier drops it again.  

So, when the Intel hits the ground, you can expect a good defending 
team to pull out all the stops for 60 seconds: Sticky Bomb traps, 
Sentry Guns, Heavies spraying wildly, Pyros on Spy alert, etc.  And, 
you can expect a determined offense to send its best Intel runners,
Scouts and Spies, in a coordinated effort to leapfrog the Intel to
their base for the score.

I say leapfrog because it is rare for the Intel to travel straight
from one base to the other without being dropped, unless the attackers
really work together or the defense is weak (or maybe a bit of both.)
In any case, speedy Scouts and invisible Spies gladly risk death just
to touch the Intel, slowly moving it towards their base while 
constantly resetting the Intel timer.  

Of course, your mileage may vary when it comes to how your team chooses
to attack and defend the Intel, but now you're a bit more informed on
what to expect. :)


########################################################################


		HOW TO KILL A (blank)?


In this section, I'd like to very (very) briefly go over each class' 
weaknesses.  This, like the rest of my FAQ, is a work of my opinion, 
and so you may disagree with me, but I think that there are general,
observable weaknesses for every class that any team can work to 
exploit.

HOW TO KILL A SCOUT:
Scouts are annoying because they're so fast, and are likely going to
try to double-jump and circle the slower classes while firing
away with that blasted Scattergun - but they aren't fast enough to
outrun a Sentry Gun, or a Heavy with good aim.

Remember, these guys have the lowest amount of health a class can get,
and rarely get teamed with Medics because Medics can't keep up with
their speed.  It doesn't take much firepower to put them down, nor 
does it take much fire from a Pyro to melt one.

HOW TO KILL A SOLDIER:
Soldiers are tough, but slower than most other classes, save the Heavy.
True, they have a lot of health, but the Rockets they fire are very
slow, and easy to sidestep the further away you are.

Bait a Soldier into firing his first four rockets at you and he'll be
stuck firing slow, single shots as you close in firing.  Even if he
switches to his Shotgun, steady aim and nimble footwork should 
prevail against the bucket head.  You could even take the fight
up close and personal, where the Soldier risks blowing himself
up shooting a rocket at his feet!

HOW TO KILL A PYRO:
There is nothing more frustrating than to suddenly be lit on fire. 
Pyros know this, and will do everything they can to keep the heat
on, preferably from behind (especially with the Backburner).
So... get away from the flame.  It's as simple as that.

As soon as you see a Pyro, retreat and open fire.  The only thing
a Pyro can do at long range is switch to his Shotgun or Flare Gun,
or run away.  Out of his comfort zone, where he can't ambush you
with his crit-happy fire toys, a Pyro can't do much to fight back.

HOW TO KILL A DEMOMAN:
Many Demomen are going to try and bait you into chasing them,
lure you into a Sticky Bomb trap, and then finish you off with
the Grenade Launcher.  But their biggest problem is that without
their bomb trap, they aren't as tough.  So either don't take
the bait, or remove the bombs with an airblast or gunfire.

A Demoman without the safety blanket of a Sticky Bomb trap is 
really only as good as his Grenade Launcher aim, or a few frantic
mid-air Sticky Bombs.  Either way, his rate of fire is slow 
and doesn't afford the same room for error that a Shotgun,
Minigun or Flamethrower offers.

HOW TO KILL A HEAVY:
True, most Heavies have a Medic glued to them at all times (the most
I've seen is 3 Medics on one Heavy) but that still doesn't
take away the Heavy's two biggest detractors: his speed and size.

Heavies are huge and slow.  A bigger target for rockets, grenades
and Sniper bullets you will not find, and is hard to miss.  Also,
the Heavy's broad back is a huge bullseye for speedy Scouts and Spies
to backstab, and Sentry Guns don't have the firing delay that the 
Minigun has.

HOW TO KILL AN ENGINEER:
Engineers are like den mothers, rarely leaving the safety of their 
Sentry Guns and Dispensers, because they don't have much firepower of
their own.  Short of a relentless hail of grenades or rockets on 
their buildings, a Spy is the best bet.

A good Spy can spread the Engineer thin by Sapping all of his stuff,
and then backstabbing him when he tries to repair.  Alternately, a 
Spy can buy time for his team by Sapping buildings long enough to
launch an assault.  Away from his buildings, the Engineer is just a
sitting duck with low health and no real "primary" weapon.

HOW TO KILL A MEDIC:
A Medic is really only as strong as the buddy he's following around
healing, and only then if his buddy is competent enough to watch out
for him.  The idea is to IGNORE whoever the Medic is healing, and
concentrate on killing the doctor.  

Hit a Medic hard and fast. Don't try anything fancy, because the last
thing you want is to get him to 1/4 of his health and have him pop an
UberCharge, or return fire with a Blutsauger and regenerate health.
In any case, try to put pressure on the Medic to stow away his 
Medigun; that way, the Medic's UberCharge gauge won't be filling,
nor will his teammates' health be buffed.

HOW TO KILL A SNIPER:
Snipers are creatures of habit.  By observing where your enemy Snipers 
like to sit, you can communicate their usual spots to your team, 
opening up kill possibilities for long distance explosives, friendly
Snipers, even agile Scouts and Spies.

Keep in mind that a Sniper looking down his scope has a HUGE blind
spot, making him very easy to ambush from an angle.  Also, keeping 
an eye out for the little laser dot will allow easy targets like 
burly Heavies and slowpoke Soldiers to stay out of harm's way.

HOW TO KILL A SPY:
Spies are flimsy, and they know it - which is why they try so hard
to stay in disguise, even when under fire.  Communication is the 
best weapon against a Spy.  If anyone sees suspicious activity, 
especially Sapped Sentries or Dispensers, announce it.

Spy-check frequently; that is, shoot teammates who look like they're
doing something they shouldn't be doing.  You won't hurt allies 
(there's no Friendly Fire in TF2, to the chagrin of some), but will
damage imposters.  Pyros are great for finding Spies, because their
Flamethrower gives away a Spy under his Invisibility Cloak.



########################################################################


		MASTER OF DISGUISES: A SPY's REPERTOIRE


Here I would like to briefly go over each of the Spy's disguises, 
for clarity's sake.  I considered putting this in the Spy class section,
but decided that it was already long, and that this info is applicable
to other classes in the detection of Spies. 

Hokay.  Basically, when a Spy dons a class disguise, he looks like that
class, but doesn't take on every aspect of that class.  Most
importantly, when disguised he can only look as though he is holding 
the primary weapon (or default slot 1 weapon) of that class. 

NOTE!
This means that when disguised as an Engineer, he is holding a Shotgun,
not the Wrench.  And when disguised as a Medic, he is holding the
Syringe Gun, and not the Medigun.  You need to be aware of this.  Spies
can still be very effective disguised as either of these classes, but
need to act accordingly to pull it off.

At all times when disguised, a Spy can be healed by enemy Medics or
Dispensers, and be the target of UberCharges.  And it seems that the
Spy slows himself down when disguised as slower enemies, such as a
Heavy, but cannot make himself move as quickly as a Scout.

A disguised Spy's player name changes to that of a player on the team 
of the disguised class, or a random name if there is no player on the
enemy team playing the class that the Spy is disguised as.

Example: 'Lappy' was on the RED team in 2Fort, and came 
across a RED Pyro with the name 'Lappy'.  'Wow!' thought Lappy, 
'someone has the same name as me, how strange.' Seconds later Lappy
learned that a BLU Spy was assigned his name randomly, and had been
following Lappy to stab him.  The Spy was successful.

If this happens, laugh at yourself (and the hilarity of the game 
in general.)  ALWAYS check player names of the people around you. 
You aren't always lucky enough to have the enemy Spy get assigned
your name (which makes it easier to spot once you know) but 
communicating that name to your team will help with overall
Spy detection.  

DISGUISES:

Scout: Carries the Scattergun; moves quickly, but not as quickly as 
a real Scout and cannot double-jump.

Soldier: Carries the Rocket Launcher, moves as slowly as a normal 
Soldier.

Pyro: Carries the Flamethrower; is not fireproof.

Engineer: Carries the Shotgun.

Heavy: Carries the Minigun; moves slowly, like a Heavy.

Demoman: Carries the Grenade Launcher; cannot detonate Sticky Bombs,
or Sticky Bomb Jump.

Medic: Carries the Syringe Gun.  You do not diplay an UberCharge 
gauge when enemy classes look at you.

Sniper: Carries the Sniper Rifle; cannot zoom in.

Spy: Carries the Revolver.  A friendly Spy wears a cardboard mask 
showing his teammates what class he is disguised as.  When disguised
as an enemy Spy, you do not wear a cardboard mask. 


########################################################################

		
		TELEPORTER ETIQUETTE: A GUIDE

Like the above section, this is something I wanted to include in the 
main part of my guide, but the Engineer section was already too long.

This section is a guide for all of you new folks to what I'll call
Teleporter Etiquette... mainly because I've seen plenty of servers 
where an otherwise helpful Teleporter is lessened somewhat by, shall
we say, inappropriate use. ;)  

I'll just come out and say it: there are some classes in TF2 that 
deserve to use the Teleporter before others.  A Teleporter can only 
send one at a time, and when we're all huddled around the machine at
the spawn as the Teleporter recharges, we need a way to evaluate who
gets to go next. 

Here's my opinion on who gets priority, sorted into three Groups: A, B
and C, by priority.  If you're going to go by Lappy's Rules of 
Teleporter Etiquette (and I think you should) you should always let 
the classes in Group A go first, then B and then C, in the event of a 
crowd. :)

GROUP A: SOLDIERS, HEAVIES AND MEDICS
These classes should always be the first to use a Teleporter, 
regardless of who else is there and how long they've been waiting. Why?
For the obvious reason: Heavies and Soldiers are the slowest classes in 
the game, and also the most dynamic with regards to offensive and
defensive capability: you need them on the front line, quickly.  

Medics, while not as slow, are still as important to get to the front
line as quickly as a Heavy or Soldier.  Hell, if the Medic doesn't get 
there quickly, there may not be a front line left once everyone else 
makes it.  These three guys get to go first, and in my book, the order 
of importance among them is Medic, then Heavy, then Soldier.

GROUP B: PYROS, DEMOMEN, ENGINEERS AND SNIPERS
All of these classes run at the same speed, and while not as fast as a
Scout, they can certainly get to the action faster than a Heavy or 
Soldier, and won't be as greatly missed as a Medic.

As far as usage goes, I'd say that Pyros and Demomen would get the most
out of the Teleporter, and perhaps Pyros moreso as they are a more 
offensive class; the faster they can get up close and personal the 
better.  Demomen can be handy to have up front too, but they are also
capable of an indirect, longer-range attack than a Pyro. 

I could also see where on a defensive map (like Dustbowl) a Sniper or 
Engineer could need to get into position quickly, either to 
reestablish Sniper support or make some quick repairs.  But let the 
Group A guys go first, and if there's a long line, just hoof it.

GROUP C: SCOUTS AND SPIES
The only reason either of these classes should step onto a Teleporter
is if the rest of the team is already alive and in the battle area - 
and even then I'd tell Scouts and Spies to just run to the fight. 

Honestly, Scouts, you're the fastest class in the game.  You don't need
a Teleporter.  In the time it takes for a Heavy to wait for the 
Teleporter to recharge, you could probably run there and back - and 
wouldn't you rather have a big, burly Heavy already there at the front 
lines, lumbering along, soaking up all the enemy fire?

Spies used to be given away under their disguise or Invisibility Cloak
by the glowing aura that persists after Teleportation, but now remain
hidden successfully after a teleport.  That still doesn't change my
mind that other classes deserve to go ahead of Spies, who are both
quick and have plenty of equipment available to them to get them safely
into and out of combat zones undetected.  

And I don't even care if there is a lighting-fast level 3 teleporter 
on the ground, THE RULES STILL APPLY!!!

So there. :P

########################################################################


		CRITICAL HITS AND YOU

As you try out all of those weapons that I wrote about above you'll
soon discover that each weapon is capable of firing "critical" hits: 
bursts of fire that do more damage than they ordinarily would, with
a special sound and indication onscreen.

Up until recently, not much was known about exactly how criticals 
were calculated.  That said, a new patch with considerable changes to
the critical hit system was followed by a detailed blog post from 
Valve's very own Greg Cherlin.

Cherlin writes:

"Each player's chance of successfully rolling for a critical hit 
depends on two factors: 

A base chance, which is fixed per weapon (2% for all non-melee 
weapons, 15% for melee.)

An additional bonus, which is based on the amount of damage you've 
done to enemies in the last 20 seconds.  This bonus linearly scales 
with damage, up to a maximum of 10%.

There are two paradigms used for when to roll, and what happens on 
success:

Rapid-fire weapons roll for critical hits once per second, instead 
of every shot.  If they roll a crit, the next 2 seconds worth of their
fire are marked as critical hits." 

Non-rapid fire weapons roll for critical hits each time you fire, and
if they roll a crit, only that shot is marked as a critical hit.

The Sniper Rifle and Spy Knife only score critical hits on headshots
and backstabs respectively.  They never roll for critical hits.

We had a few things we wanted to change with the old system... Here are
the actual changes we made, taken from the release notes:

Base critical hit chance is now 2% (was 5%).

Bonus range based on damage done changed from 0-15% to 0-10%.

Damage range required for bonus changed from 0-1600 to 0-800.

There was a point... at which your critical hit chance was as much 
a result of your performance as it was the base chance.  That point
is reached at... around the point where you've done 175 recent damage.  
This means that if you've just singlehandedly killed an enemy 
Demoman/Soldier/Pyro/Heavy, your next 20 seconds worth of crit 
chances are already  more of a result of that kill than the 
base chance.  As a result, if you're a highly skilled player, you're 
going to fire significantly more critical hits than those around you.  
And remember, if you've just killed 2 or 3 enemies, now's the time to 
push!"
  
So there you go! I don't think I could have put it any better. 


########################################################################


		OUTRODUCTION

Thanks again for reading this far.  I'll be updating this guide 
as necessary over time, so as soon as classes and weapons
get changed, I'll definitely adjust the guide, so as not to lead any
new readers astray with outdated information. 

That said, if you have read my guide and found any factual or
grammatical errors, or have any feedback for me, feel free to email me
at redspn88@yahoo.com.  I can't promise that I'll respond, but if I 
end up using your feedback or correction I'll certainly credit you in
my credits section.  

		DEDICATION

I was diagnosed with cancer in August and were it not for the friendly,
supportive, wildly efficient staff at the University of Michigan
Comprehensive Cancer Center I would not be writing this guide.  What
more, as of Oct. 2007 I am officially cancer-free; all because of 
these hard-working people.

I don't think that the doctors, nurses, interns and staff of such a 
prestigious hosptial get much time off to play videogames, but they all 
share the dedication of this FAQ.  Thank you all.

		THANKS

A rather trying summer was weathered only by the support of my loving
family, fiancee, friends and most importantly, faith in God.  Thank
you all, my life is a blessing that I have not earned.


########################################################################


		CREDITS

STEAMPOWERED.COM | http://www.steampowered.com
----------------------------------------------
Well, it's pretty hard not to know who these guys are, considering that
you have to go to their website to purchase this game (at least on PC).

The website didn't directly impact this FAQ (other than furnishing me
the game...) but it is the best source of content updates, and where
all of my patch Information comes from.  The forums can also be an
interesting, if slightly flammable (get it? HA!) place to visit.

Thanks, Steam!

THE OFFICIAL TF2 BLOG | http://www.teamfortress.com
----------------------------------------------
The TF2 Blog, owned and operated by Valve, is one of the most 
fascinating reads to be found online for any TF2 fan.  It is filled
with stories, design ideas, concept art, and in-depth looks into the
creative process behind TF2 - written by the developers themselves!

I quoted the Feb. 4, 2009 tell-all blog on critical hits for
my revamped "Critical Hits and You" article.  This is probably the
most definitive explanation for how critical hits work in TF2 to be
found, written by Valve developer Greg Cherlin.

Thanks, Greg!

THE TF2 WIKI | http://tf2wiki.net
---------------------------------
I'd like to credit the fine folks who've been putting hard work into 
the TF2 Wiki so far.  It's already a great source of information that
you can't find in my guide, including different class taunts (they're
all hilarious) map strategies, approximate weapon damage per distance 
and other tidbits like that.

I was very happy to find that this website had already tabulated all of
the ammunition and health totals for all of the classes, saving me a 
good bit of work.  If any part of my guide would be useful to them,
they are free to link to or quote this guide, preferably with 
attribution. :)

Thanks guys!

CBW GAMING | http://www.cbwgaming.com
-------------------------------------
A fellow called Zonker Harris posted a review (apparently, a reposted
review from Perfect Enemy) that listed all of the metal cost 
requirements for Engineer building, and this also saved me a bit of
research.

Thanks Zonker!

WIKIPEDIA | http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Team_Fortress_2
--------------------------------------------------------
This is the TF2 entry on Wikipedia, not to be confused with the 
TF2 Wiki also credited in this FAQ.  It is another excellent 
resource for TF2 tips and info outside of this FAQ, and in an earlier
version of this guide I had cited their entry on critical hits.

Thanks Wikipedia!

PC GAMER | http://www.computerandvideogames.com/sites/pcgamer
-------------------------------------------------------------
On Feb 29. PC Gamer published a blog written by Tom Francis that
explained in great detail how critical hits are calculated, the first
'official' word on the topic.  I have since replaced his article with
info straight from Valve, but the article is still a great read. 

Thanks Tom!

AMIT PAI | email
----------------
Amit emailed me after a recent update to alert me to some incorrect
figures in the Engineer section regarding building costs.

Thanks Amit!


########################################################################
		ATTENTION THIEVES/COPYRIGHT INFO
########################################################################

I own all the rights to this guide, so you need my permission before
reproducing any or all of it on your website/journal/magazine/forehead.

Or maybe you could go write your own guide instead. :p 

~Fin
	
########################################################################
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Copyright Jason Minich 2007-2008