There is one case in which a cutscene-driven boss fight is always acceptable, and that’s when you’re supposed to lose the fight, for narrative purposes. When executed properly, this can be a really effective plot twist, subverting the usual rules of game progression in order to send the story--and the direction of the game itself--off in a wholly unexpected direction. But, perhaps ironically, in order to work the surprise needs to be partially flagged up.
If a boss is supposed to be impossible to beat, and the player’s inevitable defeat leads not to a game over, but a new, unforeseen plot thread, then the twist needs to kick in quickly, ideally in a way that makes it clear to the player that they’re not dealing with a standard gameplay confrontation. Letting the player get through a couple of rounds before jumping to an indefensible super-attack cutscene is a cool way of doing it. Letting the player fight through half an hour of futile fake fighting, and allowing them to use up all their supplies along the way, is not.