Science of Games is a twice-monthly column that digs deep into the
coolest science fiction elements of videogame universes, and tries to separate
fact from fiction. Whenever possible, we’ll even bring in scientists, scholars,
and experts to help us get at the truth of what’s really going on. Got a game
you want to see investigated? Let us know in the comments!
A couple weeks ago, we took our first steps
into the charred remains of North America to try to investigate how much – if any
– of Fallout’s world we can look forward to (or dread) in the future. In fact, it was really more dread than hope.
Portable nukes and radiation sickness aren’t really anything to get excited
about. This edition offers a slightly more mixed bag of goodness and horror.
And in the case of the Forced Evolutionary Virus...a little of both.
Above: Don't worry, there won't be a super mutant on the end of this chain by 2077
Forced Evolutionary Virus
Even if somebody managed to
survive all of the perils of radiation we talked about in the last Science of
Games, the Fallout world is still filled to the brim with outstandingly stupid
people creating outstandingly stupid things that will kill you. The Forced
Evolutionary Virus is one of those wonderfully dumb creations.
Those super mutants you see
wandering the Capital Wasteland aren’t genetic mutations resulting from years
of radiation. The worst that stuff
will give you is a kid with an extra, goofy-looking arm. The super mutants were
created by a corporation called West Tek, which was seeking a way to combat the
threat of a Chinese biological super-virus. West Tek devised a way to alter the
structure of DNA from a double-helix structure into a quadruple-helix
structure. Though it was designed from the beginning as a way to boost
immunity, they soon saw mutations in their animal test subjects.
Above: At least, we don't think there'll be a super mutant on the end of that chain by 2077
The increased brain power and
muscle mass got the government bigwigs thinking, and gave them starry eyes
about the idea of soldiers so intelligent and strong that they could outwit and
overrun a Chinese adversary that had much larger numbers on its side. That’s
the gist of the origin story. There’s quite a bit more lore that goes along
with how super mutants came to be roaming the landscape, which you can look
into further on your own.
The short answer is that
quadruple-helix DNA doesn’t exist, and probably won’t. They’re not inherently
impossible, but all known forms of life have a double-helix, and it works pretty
well for the most part. There’s no reason to suspect extra genetic information
would make you extra-powerful. In fact, it can often lead to issues like Down’s
However, there is hope for the
quadruple-helix, or a “DNA tetraplex.” The structure can be used in
nanomachines to move and propel the little bot with great precision. One
suggested potential use for this is the blocking of specific chromosomes, such
as genes that cause cancer. Military applications are as-yet unknown.
Last week we went into the nasty
ramifications of an irradiated landscape, but how did it become that way in the
first place? It’s common knowledge that nuclear bombs give off intense
radiation, but not all nukes are created the same.
The nuclear atrocities of the
Fallout world were achieved by dirty neutron bombs, which sacrifice explosive
power in favor of a massive dose of radiation spewed out in all directions.
That’s the major reason why radiation is still so prevalent in their world.
Above: Regardless of what
type of nuke it is, if you see this, you're probably screwed
In our own world, nuclear bombs
have come a long way since the Fat Man and Little Boy of the 1940s. Explosive
yield has skyrocketed from kilotons into the megatons, but we’ve also gotten a better
handle on the long-term ramifications of radiation, as well. The most powerful
nukes we currently have today are not the fission-based nukes of old, but
It’s a different type of reaction
which doesn’t produce as much nasty neutron radiation in relation to the
destructive power. These thermonuclear weapons are detonated in stages, with an
old-school fission bomb placed inside a special radiation-reflecting container
filled with fusion fuel (usually deuterium or tritium, fancy Hydrogen with more
neutrons.) The old school bomb pops off and superheats the fusion material, to
create a fusion reaction. Then the fusion reaction can be used to heat the
original material (uranium) used in the first, old-school reaction, to create another reaction.
Because of the way these stages
stack on top of each other, you can essentially create a bomb as big as you
please. Which is how we ended up with the Tsar Bomba (which Ravenbom and
Warren-Miller were kind enough to correct me on last time), which was
originally designed at 100 MEGAtons, not kilotons. The ongoing escalation of
nuclear yield stopped at 100 megatons because Russians scientists were actually
concerned it might crack the Earth’s crust.
In short, we have better, cleaner
options for wiping out entire cultures nowadays. You’d have to be a sick dude
to intentionally use a dirty bomb to irradiate the landscape and ensure as many
people die a horrible death as possible.
On to sunnier topics! Now that
we’ve got you nice and depressed and thinking about your inevitable nuclear
destruction, we’ll move on to something a tad more relevant to gamers, the most
interesting topic man has ever discussed: hard
Holodisks are a consistent
component of the Fallout world, and are seen as a futuristic way of storing
large amounts of data. It’s even hinted that the government may have had access
to holodisks that could store up to 4 terabytes of data. Why is it that nobody
can ever come up with a decent futuristic data-storage capacity? Four-terabyte hard
drives are already on store shelves; we’ll probably have that much capacity
from flash drives by 2013.
The larger issue is that
holographic storage is actually a burgeoning field of research, and many
believe it will one day unlock the key to incredibly huge amounts of storage
Conventional methods of data
storage today involve optical surfaces or magnetic material. The problem with
this is that data can usually only be stored on a two-dimensional surface.
Holographic storage allows you to store date in all three dimensions,
exponentially increasing the available storage space.
Furthermore, these holographic
devices could theoretically read millions of bits of information all at once,
rather than relying on the slow trickle of information that we use today.