+-------------------------------------+ | Age of Empires Strategy Guide for PC| | Author: Jim Chamberlin | | Last Time Updated: 08/20/99 | +-------------------------------------+ Any questions, e- mail me at: jjchamber4@aol.com ==================================== Table of Contents ------------------------------------ I. Introduction II. Game Modes III. The Villagers IV. The Resources V. The Technologies VI. War! VII. Creating Your Own Scenarios VIII. Assyrians IX. Babylonians X. Chosens XI. Egyptians XII. Greeks ***** Still Under Construction ***** XIII. Hittites ***** Still Under Construction ***** XIV. Minoans XV. Persians ***** Still Under Construction ***** XVI. Phoenicians XVII. Shangs ***** Still Under Construction ***** XVIII. Sumerians XIX. Yamato XX. The Buildings XXI. The Units ***** Still Under Construction ***** XXII. Extra Stuff ***** Still Under Construction ***** XXIII. Credits XXIV. Farewell! ====================================== I. Introduction ====================================== It isn't totally impossible to make a walkthrough for Age of Empires. First, you would have to list all contingencies within the game. This, along with all the other things you'd have to mention, if you were writing a walkthrough for Silent Hill (PSX), for example, would take a lot of time. Perhaps I'll attempt to do it when I get really, really bored. However, I'm not at that stage, yet. Anyway, this is a general strategy guide for a remarkable game for its type. Any questions or additions, e- mail me at: jjchamber4@aol.com. ====================================== II. Game Modes ====================================== _Campaign_ Basically, it's a series of scenarios which attempt to show the development of a given culture. This is a good place to start for a new AoE player. It allows you to understand and experiment with the basics of the games. _Scenario_ This is one, single scenario. Each of the scenarios has a certain set of instructions has a certain set of instructions. You must fulfill the requirements to win the scenario. _Random Map_ This is just a randomly generated map. You can change the victory condition, so there is a specific way you can win. _Death Match_ Well, you are given a certain amount of resources, and you must fight until everyone is dead. _Multiplayer_ It's a random map or scenario, for example. The whole Multiplayer thing is explained a little more in depth in the manual. I just don't feel like elaborating on it. ====================================== III. The Villagers ====================================== TASKS _BUILDER_ This person constructs buildings and farms. _FARMER_ This person gathers food from a Farm. The food from the Farm is deposited at either the Town Center or at the Granary. Researching Domestication, the Plow, and Irrigation increases a Farm's production. _FISHERMAN_ This person gathers food from the fishing spots. The food is deposited at either the Town Center or at the Storage Pit. _FORAGER_ This person gathers food from the Berry Bushes. The food is deposited at either the Town Center or at the Granary. _GOLD MINER_ This person mines for Gold at the Gold Mines. The gold is deposited at either the Town Center or at the Storage Pit. Researching Gold Mining increases gold mining efficiency, and Coinage increases Gold production. _HUNTER_ This person hunts for food from: Alligators, Lions, Gazelles, and Elephants. The food is deposited at either the Town Center or at the Storage Pit. _REPAIRMAN_ This person repairs boats and buildings. _STONE MINER_ This person miner Stone from Stone Mines. The stone is deposited at either the Town Center or at the Storage Pit. Researching Stone Mining and Siegecraft increases stone mining efficiency. _VILLAGER_ This person is either in combat or doing nothing. Researching Siegecraft allows Villagers to destroy walls and towers, and Jihad increases their combat ability. _WOODCUTTER_ This person chops down trees for wood. The wood is deposited at either the Town Center or at the Storage Pit. Researching Woodworking, Artisanship, and Craftsmanship increases woodcutting efficiency. ====================================== IV. The Resources ====================================== _Wood_ This is used to construct boats, buildings, and some military units. _Food_ This is used to create villagers, train and upgrade military units, research technologies, and advance to the next age. In AoE, food represents Fish, Fruits, Nuts, Roots, Wild Grains, and Berries. _Gold_ This is used to research technologies in later ages, create some military units, advance to the Iron Age, and pay tribute to other civilizations. In AoE, Gold represents Gold, Silver, Bronze, and Copper. _Stone_ This is used to build and upgrade towers and walls, and research some technologies. In AoE, Stone represents both Stone and Clay. ======================================= V. The Technologies ======================================= _Storage Pit Technologies_ TOOLWORKING Age: Tool Age Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit. Cost: 100 Food Benefit: This provides a +2 attack for your hand- to- hand units. Note: The first metals put to use were those found in a relatively pure state on the earth's surface, including gold, silver, and copper. Gold could be worked in its natural state. Experimentation with it eventually suggested electrum (a natural alloy of gold and silver) and copper could also be hammered into useful shapes. Learning how to extract copper from ore and shape it into tools was an important milestone in the rise of civilization because it opened the door first to making bronze and then to making iron. Cast copper tools were an important advance over stone tools, but were too soft to have a long, useful life. The discovery of bronze, made by alloying a small amount of tin with copper, ushered in a 2000- year Bronze Age. Cast bronze tools dramatically increased the efficiency of workers. Bronze weapons were superior to those made of stone and copper. Armies equipped with bronze swords, spears, and arrowheads had a critical advantage over more poorly equipped armies. METALWORKING Age: Bronze Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and researched Toolworking. Cost: 200 Food, 120 Gold Benefit: This provides a +2 attack for your hand- to- hand units. Note: The discovery and use of iron to make tools and weapons was one of the most important advances in civilization. Some historians consider the use of iron to be one of the distinguishing characteristics separating civilization from barbarism because the new tools were less brittle, could hold better edges, and held edges for a longer time without resharpening. Most importantly, iron ore was much easier to locate than copper and tin, making iron tools cheaper and more readily available. By 1000 B.C., iron tools were being made that were as good as the best ones of bronze; by 500 B.C., iron had largely supplanted bronze from Europe and Asia. The expanse and scarcity of bronze had restricted its use to the elite and wealthy. Iron tools and weapons were available to nearly everyone. METALLURGY Age: Iron Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and researched Toolworking and Metalworking. Cost: 300 Food, 180 Gold Benefit: This provides a +3 attack for your hand- to- hand units. Note: You must research Metallurgy before you can upgrade to the Cataphract. The use of iron spread throughout the Mediterranean, Middle East, and Asia during the first millenium B.C., and some areas became especially adept at the new science. Certain campgrounds added to the molten metal increased the strength of the resulting tools. New forging techniques also resulted in better tools. The best iron tool workers made superior weapons that were an important advantage in battle. BRONZE SHIELD Age: Bronze Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit. Cost: 150 Food, 180 Gold Benefit: This provides a +1 armor against the Ballista, Helepolis, and missile weapons. Note: The shield was probably the first piece of military equipment developed to protect a warrior. The earliest were made of wood or wood and hide, and were in various shapes. They were carried in the hand or on the forearm and used to ward off blows or missiles in battle. Shield designs and materials evolved to keep up with advances in weapons. Wood and hide shields were easy to smash with bronze weapons, so bronze shields were developed. Bronze shields also provided better defense against missiles. Arrows, especially with metal points, were prone to lodge in wooden shields. This increased the weight of the shield and made it more unwieldy. Roman legions threw spears at barbarian formations mainly so they would pierce and weigh down the enemy's shield just before closing. Arrows and other missiles deflected off bronze shields without penetration. IRON SHIELD Age: Iron Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and researched the Bronze Shield. Cost: 200 Food, 320 Gold Benefit: This provides a +1 armor against the Ballista, Heleoplis, and missile weapons. Note: The iron shield replaced the bronze shield when swords and other weapons of iron became common. Iron shields were not only expensive to make, but also more effective in stopping all hand- to- hand and missile weapons. The basic iron shield remained in use until firearms made personal shields on the battlefield obsolete. LEATHER ARMOR FOR ARCHERS Age: Tool Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit. Cost: 100 Food Benefit: This provides a +2 armor for your Archery Range units. Note: Soldiers have sought ways to protect themselves in combat since the beginnings of warfare. Long before the use of metals, leather was employed to make helmets and body armor that could stop, or at least soften, blows from blunt and edged weapons. Leather was easy to work with, it was light and not overly restrictive of movement, it could be fitted to the wearer, and it was usually plentiful and inexpensive. Leather remained an important material for body armor throughout the Bronze Age due to the high cost of metal armor. It wasn't until far into the Iron Age that metal armor was available for common soldiers. SCALE ARMOR FOR ARCHERS Age: Bronze Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and researched Leather Armor for Archers. Cost: 125 Food, 50 Gold Benefit: This provides a +2 armor for your Archery Range units. Note: The use of metals to make weapons was matched by using metals to make better armor. Among the first improvements in widespread use were breastplates and greaves of bronze. The breastplate protected the torso while greaves protected the legs below the knee. Both of these items protected only the front of the soldier, saving the weight and cost that all- around protection would entail. Breastplates and greaves were worn by hoplites of the phalanx, for example, during the glory years of Greece. When used together with a large shield and bronze helmet, they left little of the soldier's body exposed to attack. Bronze armor was an example of scale armor, or plate armor, in which metal plates provided protection. CHAIN MAIL FOR ARCHERS Age: Iron Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and researched Leather Armor and Scale Armor for Archers. Cost: 150 Food, 100 Gold Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Archery Range units. Note: Chain mail was a type of body armor made of iron circlets woven together into a cloak. The interlocking chains of iron protected the body somewhat from weapons that slashed or pounded. Chain mail was also flexible and allowed more freedom of body movement than armor made of metal plates. The disadvantages of chain mail were that it required a lot of care, was heavy, and was expensive to make. Chain mail was worn only by wealthy or powerful individuals who could purchase or demand its manufacture. LEATHER ARMOR FOR CAVALRY Age: Tool Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit. Cost: 125 Food Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Stable units. Note: The same as above. SCALE ARMOR FOR CAVALRY Age: Bronze Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and researched Leather Armor for Cavalry. Cost: 150 Food, 50 Gold Benefit: This provides a +2 armor for your Stable units. Note: The same as above. CHAIN MAIL FOR CAVALRY Age: Iron Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and researched Leather and Scale Armor for Cavalry. Cost: 175 Food, 100 Gold Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Stable units. Note: The same as above. LEATHER ARMOR FOR INFANTRY Age: Tool Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit. Cost: 75 Food Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Barracks and Academy units. Note: The same as above. SCALE ARMOR FOR INFANTRY Age: Bronze Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and researched Leather Armor for Infantry. Cost: 100 Food, 50 Gold Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Barracks and Academy units. Note: The same as above. CHAIN MAIL FOR INFANTRY Age: Iron Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, and researched Leather and Scale Armor for Infantry. Cost: 125 Food, 100 Gold Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Barracks and Academy units. Note: The same as above. _Market Technologies_ WHEEL Age: Bronze Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market. Cost: 175 Food, 75 Wood Benefits: Villager speed is increased by 30%. Note: You must research the Wheel before you can build a Chariot or Chariot Archer. The use of the wheel for transport was discovered in Sumeria sometime after 3400 B.C. and derived from the potter's wheel that appeared first. The Sumerians learned that in a small cart, a donkey could pull a load equal to three times what it could carry on its back. The wheel revolutionized transport and had an important impact on the battlefield as well. By the Bronze Age, chariot archers were dominating warfare on the open plains. The wheel was apparently used only for children's toys in ancient America, probably because of the rough geography and the lack of an animal like the ox or horse. WOODWORKING Age: Tool Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market. Cost: 120 Food, 75 Wood Benefits: You receive a +2 woodcutting ability and a +1 range for missile weapons. Note: The small stone blades that characterized the New Stone Age (neolithic period) made possible finer techniques in many areas, including woodworking. The larger and more unweildy stone tools of the past were capable of crude cutting and carving only. Better woodworking improved other tools and weapons, making possible the bow and arrow and spear thrower. ARTISANSHIP Age: Bronze Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market, and researched Woodworking. Cost: 170 Food, 120 Gold Benefits: You receive a +2 woodcutting ability and a +1 range for missile weapons. Note: The discovery and use of first copper and then the much more useful bronze tools and weapons was a dramatic leap in technology. Bronze, especially, posessed a hardness, strength, and ability to hold an edge that far surpassed the best stone tools, making it much more useful when working with stone, wood, hides, meat, and other materials. Cultures that used bronze had a decided economic and military advantage over those that did not. COINAGE Age: Iron Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market, and researched Gold Mining. Cost: 200 Food, 100 Gold Benefits: This provides you with free tribute and increases your Gold Mining productivity by 25%. Note: The first true coins were minted in ancient Lydia, now part of modern Turkey. These first coins were made from electrum, a naturally ocurring malleable alloy of gold and silver. Coins, and money in general, proved an important facilitator of trade and economic progress. Money acted as a storehouse of value, a medium of exchange, and a standard of value, as it continues to do today. Following the conquest of the Persian Empire, the concept of coinage or as adopted by the Greeks and spread by them throughout the Hellenistic world. CRAFTSMANSHIP Age: Iron Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market, and researched Woodworking and Artisanship. Cost: 240 Food, 200 Wood Benefits: You receive a +2 woodcutting ability and +1 range for missile weapons. Note: You must research Craftsmanship before you can upgrade to the Helepolis. The discovery of inexpensive ways to make iron was as great a technological leap over bronze making as bronze was over stone. Iron surpassed bronze in every critical characteristic- hardness, strength, and the ability to hold an edge before needing to be resharpened- Plus one. Iron was much easier to acquire than were copper and tin, making it available to all cultures and for all uses. Historians consider the ability to make and use iron ore one of the distinctions between barbaric and civilized culture. DOMESTICATION Age: Tool Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Granary, and researched Market. Cost: 200 Food, 50 Wood Benefits: You receive a 75% increase of food production to your farms. Note: The revolution in agriculture involved both the development of animals. The ability to control and manage herds of milk- and meat- producing animals also served to free humans from the drudging and desperation of continual hunting and gathering. Herding did not lead necessarily to a sedentary village life, however. The need to find pasture often meant that herding societies remained nomadic, at least for part of the year. Domesticated sheep and goats first appear in the archaelogical record around 7500 B.C. in the Zagros Mountains to the east of the Tigro and Euphrates River valleys. Cattle were domesticated around 600 B.C. in both the Sahara and Egypt, perhaps near simultaneously. Domestication of cattle alone may have been for responsible for a doubling of world human population in a few generations. STONE MINING Age: Tool Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market. Cost: 100 Food, 50 Stone Benefits: Your stone mining is increased by +3. Note: Wood for building was scarce in most places where civilizations first arose. Vast forests just did not exist in these predominately arid regions. The principle building material for common uses was mud bricks, sun- dried at first and then fire- baked. In some areas important structures such as temples, palaces, tombs, and fortifications were built of stone when it was available. Much information about ancient Egypt was preserved because of the permanence of stone. Equilalent structures in Mesopotamia collapsed into mounds of earth after many centuries of neglect and weathering. Acquiring non- wood building materials through brick making or quarrying was the object of Stone Mining. GOLD MINING Age: Tool Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market. Cost: 120 Food, 100 Wood Benefits: The gold mining production is increased by +3. Note: Gold washed down the hills and mountains was probably the 1st metal with which humans experimented. It was sufficiently soft and pure to be fashioned easily into objects of beauty for adornment and trade. The value of gold remained high as populations increased because of demand for it continued to exceed supply. Because of this value, the trail of gold was followed back to the source of the alluvial nuggets. Gold mining was developed to obtain ore from which the pure metal could be extracted. Many of the most beautiful objects that survive from antiquity are made of gold, including hundreds of items from the Egyptian Pharaoh, Tutankhamen's tomb. SIEGECRAFT Age: Iron Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market, and researched Stone Mining. Cost: 190 Food, 100 Stone Benefits: Villagers can destroy walls and towers, and your stone mining ablity is increased by +3. Note: You must research Siegecraft before you can upgrade to the Heavy Catapult. Despite the written records and depictions of cities and fortifications being stormed with the aid of siege equipment, starvation was the only certain and effective way to take strongholds before the gunpowder age. The defender of a strong position, with adequate troops, food, and water, had all the advantages. Physical assault of strongholds was a difficult proposition accompanied regularly only by those armies posessing siegecraft- the necessary equipment, resolve, leadership, elan, discipline, and skill. Examples from ancient history were the army of Alexander the Great that conducted 20 sieges over a ten- year period, most after the fall of the Persian Empire; the Hittites, the Assyrians, and the Romans. PLOW Age: Bronze Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market, and researched Domestication. Cost: 250 Food, 75 Wood Benefits: You receive a 75% food production increase to your farms. Note: The first agriculturists planted seeds by hand using digging sticks to open the ground. The invention of the plow made it possible to more easily prepare farmland for planting. The plow ripped open long rows for seeding, burying unwanted plants and cutting unwanted roots in the process. When pulled behind domesticated animals, such as oxen, food production per farmer and per acre again increased. The plow has continued to evolve since ancient times. For example, U.S. President Thomas Jefferson invented an improved version. IRRIGATION Age: Iron Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market, and researched Domestication and the Plow. Cost: 300 Food, 100 Wood Benefits: You receive a 75% food production increase to your farms. Note: One of the key steps in the agricultural revolution was understanding and managing irrigation. Observation of the natural world revealed eventually the relationship between planted seeds, good soils, sunlight, water, and resultant crops. Large- scale irrigation in both Mesopotamia and Egypt turned the rich but arid soils near the rivers into rich farmlands and made possible the rise of the great civilizations on earth. Building the dams and channels to irrigate these lands required sophistication of government, construction, and engineering not seen previously in any society. _Government Center Technologies_ ALCHEMY Age: Iron Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and Government Center. Cost: 250 Food, 200 Gold Benefits: You receive a +1 attack ability for your siege and missile weapons. Note: The beginnings of chemistry can be traced back to ancient attempts to make gold and silver out of base metals, to find a universal cure for disease, and to discover secrets of prolonging life. The experiments and secrecy of the alchemists gave them an aura of mystery and magic. Alchemists were both feared and sought out for help. In an ancient world of little scientific understanding, mystery, and magic had power. ARCHITECTURE Age: Bronze Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and Government Center. Cost: 150 Food, 175 Wood Benefits: Building construction is increased by +33% and the hit points of your buildings and walls are increased by +20%. Note: The art and science of designing and constructing buildings arose from the practical need to provide first shelter, then storage for food reserves, and then defenses for both. One of the specializations that appeared in the first towns was the builder whose skills and techniques continue to evolve today. Builders and architects worked with the materials available to construct buildings and fortifications. Over time new techniques of architecture improved the efficiency, strength, and utility of construction. ARISTOCRACY Age: Iron Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and Government Center. Cost: 175 Food, 150 Gold Benefits: The speed of your Academy units is increased by +25%. Note: The Aristocracy was a privileged class, usually hereditary, that arose within many cultures. Aristocrats generally derived their power from control of farmland and the attendant infrastructure of people, towns, and manufacturing- supported food production. They kept power at the pleasure of the ruler, as long as they acceded to his wishes. Aristocrats may also have had military responsibility, especially when on the frontier of the kingdom or empire. In many cultures the aristocrats provided the senior officer corps or elite troops of the army. Commanders of the armies and navies of Athens, for example, were elected from among the aristocracy of landowners. BALLISTICS Age: Iron Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and Government Center. Cost: 200 Food, 50 Gold Benefits: It increases the accuracy of missile and siege weapons. Note: You must research Ballistics before you can upgrade to the Ballista Tower. The use of missile weapons for war presented challenges that hunting with the bow did not. Hunters stalked game and shot ideally at a stationary target. War targets were often armored, partially shielded, or moving. Effective use of the bow and other missile weapons required tactics and training. Bowmen of low skill were taught to fire in barrages at an area rather than at specific targets. Better- trained archers learned to shoot for specific parts of the target, including the horses of chariots or cavalry. Ballistics, the study of projectile flight, was derived from the name of an ancient missile weapon, the Ballista. ENGINEERING Age: Iron Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and Government Center. Cost: 200 Food, 100 Wood Benefits: The range for your siege weapons is increased by +2. Note: You must research Engineering before you can upgrade to the Juggernaught. Ancient engineers were able to build remarkable structures even though the raw materials and tools with which they could work were often limited. The Egyptian pyramids, for example, were built of multiton stone blocks using only the fulcrum and lever, wedge, ramp, sledge, and rollers. The pyramid builders of 2600 B.C. used tools made only of wood and copper. Advances in engineering were slow and based primarily on practical experience until advances in mathematics, especially from the Greeks, led to the new experimentation and techniques. NOBILITY Age: Bronze Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and Government Center. Cost: 175 Food, 120 Gold Benefits: There is a hit point bonus of +15% for Cavalry units, Chariot, Chariot Archer, Horse Archer, and Heavy Horse Archer. Note: Within ancient tribal groups an early hierarchical structure centered around the strongman, who probably took power in a physical contest, led the group, and enjoyed special privileges. As populations increased, the hierarchy expanded. Layers of nobility, a class of society privileged due to fighting prowess or wealth, grew between the stronghold, or king, and common people and slaves. The nobility served as administrators and sub- commanders of the army. Examples of nobility were the Persian satraps, who ruled provinces of the Persian Empire, and Alexander the Great's Companion's, who commanded parts of his army and formed the core of his heavy cavalry squadrons. WRITING Age: Bronze Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and Government Center. Cost: 200 Food, 75 Gold Benefits: You share exploration with allies. Note: The advance of writing is benchmark technology often used to separate those cultures that were civilized from those that were barbaric. The key importance of writing is that it allowed information to be stored and passed on easily, thereby accelerating the accumulation and spread of knowledge. Writing is believed to have been invented between 4000 and 3000 B.C. in Sumeria. The first writing was in simple pictures called pictograms that gradually evolved into symbols representing the picture. Egyptian hieroglyphics first appeared between 3300 and 3100 B.C., and are thought to have been inspired by cuneiform, the Sumerian symbolic writing. Writing appeared in China after 1600 B.C. _Temple Technologies_ POLYTHEISM Age: Bronze Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and Temple. Cost: 120 Gold Benefits: Your priests move +40% faster. Note: The first religions embraced a multitude of gods, each associated with one aspect of life. There might have been a sun god, a moon god, a god of the forest, a god of the river, and so on. The multitude of gods was useful in understanding how the world worked and in directing petition and prayer for specific help and relief. The existence of multipple gods increased the power of priests because each god had special needs and abilities that needed interpretation. The ancient Egyptians, for example, worshipped around 2000 gods. Many of these were any local deities, but others were held sacred throughout the country. MONOTHEISM Age: Iron Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and Temple. Cost: 350 Gold Benefits: Your priests can convert enemy priests and buildings (except for Town Centers and Wonders.) Note: The belief that there is only one God has evolved from the Persian religion of Zoroastrianism down through Judaism to many of the more popular religions of today. Whether monotheism is an advancement or not is a subjective question. The widespread popularity over time and the fervor of adherents indicates that monotheistic religions have more successfully met the requirements of a religion than other beliefs that have fallen aside. MYSTICISM Age: Bronze Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and Temple. Cost: 120 Gold Benefit: Your Priests' hit points are doubled. Note: Mysticism was a spiritual discipline that sought to achieve contact with gods or other perceived realities through contemplation, trances, or meditation. It was induced or enhanced by drugs in some cases, and it was part of many ancient beliefs. For religions seeking to explain the great unknown, the apparent ability to communicate through media unknown to the average person was a powerful selling point. Because peopledream every night, it was a logical step to believe that a few members of the group could somehow make sense of dreams or see through the confusion to communicate with another dimension. JIHAD Age: Iron Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and Temple. Cost: 120 Gold Benefits: It increases the attack, speed, and hit points of villagers, but decreases their gathering efficiency. Note: The word jihad can mean a crusade or struggle, and comes from the holy war of Islam directed against all that defied the word of God as written in the Koran. The equivalent of jihad can occur in any society brought to a peak of emotion by religious fervor or other means. The value of the jihad to society is that the people caught up in the emotion of the enterprise place their best interests, even their lives, second to the purpose of the crusade. The jihad was especially effective at a most desperate time when survival of the group hung in the balance. FANATICISM Age: Iron Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and Temple. Cost: 150 Gold Benefits: Your Priests rejuvenate 50% faster after converting a unit. Note: You must research Fanaticism before you can upgrade to Legion. Religion evolved to provide a spiritual foundation and understanding to life once humans became sufficiently intelligent to ponder the great terrifying questions of our existence. A disturbing byproduct of the spread of religion was fanaticism- the intense, unquestioning devotion to the ideas and leadership of other humans. Fanatics were capable of ant act, even at great risk to their lives, and were especially dangerous enemies in war. ASTROLOGY Age: Bronze Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and Temple. Cost: 150 Gold Benefits: Your Priests convert enemy units 30% faster. Note: Ancient observers of the stars and the heavens noted the correlation between the sun, the seasons, and the success of crops. The study of celestial events was an early step in the attempt to understand and control the uncertainties of life and became an important part of many early religions. The sun god, Ra, for example, was the most powerful of the Egyptian gods. Priests who could determine the start and end of the growing seasons, foretell the phases of the moon, and predict terrifying eclipses greatly enhanced their power in society. The power of astrologers increased when their subjects believed that the influence of the stars and planets on human affairs could be divined from celestial positions and aspects. AFTERLIFE Age: Iron Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, and Temple. Cost: 275 Gold Benefit: The range of your Priests is increased by +3. Note: An important question that ancient religions attempted to address was what happens when people die. Many religions held that there was an afterlife, a place or existence that continued once a person's time on earth ended. The promise of an attractive afterlife was a powerful inducement for behavior that conformed to the goals of a particular religion. Fervent believers in an afterlife might give up their lives to serve their gods. Well- considered religions that offered a good return for acceptance, including an attractive afterlife, grew more in power and influence than those that did not. Christianity, for example, promised everlasting life to everyone of faith, not just to the rich buried in great tombs with servants and goods. ===================================== VI. War! ===================================== War is something that is bound to happen. There isn't a whole lot that I can say in this spot. For more war, try the hardest game setting, my favorite. Everyone has their own tactics they like to use, so that's up to you. You shouldn't sacrafice your entire army at once. Hold some back as a backup, when the others are getting hammered. If the other army is still beating the Hel* out of you, retreat. Come back to the S.O.B.'s and take 'em out. War is something that there isn't really one way to do. Every group that you'll encounter will have certain weapons that you don't, unless you cheat, that will give them a distinct advantage. You must look at all of your things and come up of something that they don't, and use it against them. You must expose their weakness!! ===================================== VII. Creating Your Own Scenarios ===================================== What exactly could I say in this section? Well, be creative. Try not to cheat your opponents too badly. For example, don't build a fortification surrounding your opponents, so they can't even move. Try to build some scenarios which are simple, just like the scenarios already within the game. But the point is to be creative! If you would like to learn more on this subject, check out the manual. I don't really feel like writing too much in this section, since it's pretty self- explainable. ===================================== VIII. Assyrians ===================================== (1800 to 600 B.C.) The only thing that I can say to introduce the Assyrians is the fact that they were very powerful and fierce. They have legendary barbarity, as well. _Location_ Assyria was located in northern Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) along the Tigris River. It was settled after Sumer to the south but was dominated by the Sumerians both culturally and politically during its early history. _Capital_ The capital of Assyria was Ashur for most of its existence, but moved to other sites when kings built new palaces. Other important cities and capitals in the Assyrian homeland were Nineveh, Arbela, Khorsabad, and Nimrud. _Rise to Power_ Around 2000 B.C., Assyria was invaded by Semitic barbarians called the Armorites. By 1800 B.C. an Armorite king of the Assyrians had established control over most of northern Mesopotamia. Their power was short- lived in this period, however, due first to the rise of Babylonia under Hammurabi and then the rise of the Mitanni in modern Syria. The period 1363 to 1000 B.C. was the Middle Assyrian Empire. Several strong kings reasserted Assyrian independence and then began encroaching on neighboring empires. The Assyrians avoided destruction during the catastrophe of 1200 B.C., perhaps they were already embracing the new military tactics and weapons that the older kingdoms were not. In the political vacuum of the ancient dark age, the Arryrians prospered. By 1076 B.C. Tiglathpileser I had reached the Mediterranean to the west. The New Assyrian Empire, 1000 to 600 B.C. was the peak of their conquests. Their empire stretched from the head of the Persian Gulf, around the Fertile Crescent through Damascus, Phoenicia, Palestine, and into Egypt as far south as Thebes. Their northwestern border was the Taurus Mountains of modern Turkey. Other than the vestiges of what had once been the Minoan (Crete), Mycenean (Greece), and Hittite (Turkey) cultures, all areas of pre- catastrophe civilization in the West were ruled by Assyria. _Economy_ The Assyrian economy was based on agriculture and herding, but the Assyrians also benefited by being situated astride some important trade routes. They are not remembered as traders in their own right, perhaps only tax collectors on traders went through. During the New Empire period, they profited from the taxes and tribute they collected from their various provinces and vassal states, including even Egypt for a few years. _Religion and Culture_ The Assyrian religion was heavily influenced by that of its Mesopotamian predecessors, mainly Sumeria. The chief god of the Assyrians was Ashur, from whom both their culture and capital take their names. Their temples were large zaggurats built of mud bricks, like their neighbors to the south. The principal activity of the rich was hunting from chariots, appropriate for such a war- like culture. Despite their fearsome reputation, the Assyrians embraced civilization. They wrote using cuneiform and decorated their cities leberally with reliefs, painted stonework, and sculpture. _Government_ The king was the head administrator of government, supported by local provincial governors. The palace was the site of government. Advisors consulted the omens before important decisions were made. Provinces and vassal cities were required to pay taxes and tribute in the form of food, goods, gold, labor, military supplies, and soldiers for the army. An extensive network of roads and grain depots were built during the New Empire to speed communication and armies moving to trouble spots. _Architecture_ The Assyrians built on a large and lavish scale, using mostly mud bricks, but also stone that was more readily available than it was further south. Several New Empire kings built extensive palaces and decorated them with the booty of war and the tribute of vassal states. Palaces were also decorated with painted stone reliefs, extensive gardens, and man0 made streams. A common decorative fixture was the LAMASSU- a winged hybrid creature, part bull and part man. _Military_ The first Assyrian armies were peasant spearmen. Following a series of military reforms around 800 B.C., however, they employed a standing army of conscripts and professionals. This army was better armed, armored, and supplied than most of its enemies, giving it important advantages. The New Empire armies benefited from cheap iron used for improved swords and armor. The Assyrians were among the first to adopt the concept of the integrated army made up of an infantry core for shock, supported by light missile troops and a mobile wing of chariots, camelry, and cavalry. The army was capable of fighting on the plains where chariots and then cavalry were critical, as well as in rough terrain where horses and chariots had little use. They campaigned regularly to the north and east against barbarians that posed a threat. The elite of the army for many years were the charioteers, followed by the cavalry when chariots bacame obsolete. The Assyrians were accomplished at the art of capturing walled cities. Their historical records recount numerous city assaults and the brutality that followed. Inhabitants were either killed or sent to another corner of the empire as slaves. _Decline and Fall_ The brutal policies of subjugation and exorbitant demands for tribute and taxes made the Assyrians unpopular masters. Despite the ferocity of their reprisals, vassal states contnually revolted given an opportunity. Weaker kings were unable to hold the empire together in the face of internal and external pressure. In 612 B.C., the capital at Nineveh fell to a coalition of Babylonians and Medes. The Babylonians were in revolt (Babylon had been sacked in 648 B.C.) and the Medes (from modern western Iran) were seeking retribution for past Assyrian invasions of their lands. The last Assyrian army was defeated soon thereafter by the same coalition and the Assyrians as a separate culture disappeared from the world's stage. _Legacy_ The Assyrians are remembered from their boastful inscriptions and biblical references as ferocious warriors. Whether they were significantly more brutal than was normal for the time is unclear. For several centuries, however, they were the greatest military power in the civilized world. Their armies were innovative, and they appear to have been among the first to use large bodies of cavalry effectively. They certainly influenced the Persian armies that followed them. They are not remembered for any significant advances in technology, philosophy, the arts, or science. Their cities have been piles of rubble for thousands of years now and have not given up fabulous treasures that can compare with those of Egypt and Greece. ===================================== IX. Babylonians ===================================== (1900 to 539 B.C.) The Mesopotamian city- state of Babylon twice expanded to become an important world empire before being absorbed by Persia. Its two great expansions were sufficiently remarkable to earn it a place in history beside the two other great Mesopotamian cultures, the Sumerians and Assyrians. Between its Old and New Empire periods, Babylonia devolved back into a small but rich city- state that was captured occasionally by its neighbors. The predominate inhabitants of Babylon changed several times over its existence, although the culture remained relatively constant and distinct. The Amorites, the Kassites, and the Chaldeans were all Babylonians at least once. _Location_ The Babylonians took their name from their capital and only major city, Babylon, located on the Euphrates River west of Sumeria and south of Assyria. It was well- placed on the river for agriculture and for trade, but had no natural defenses. A strong leader and strong army were needed to defend it. Determined attackers were able to sack the city on numerous occasions during its history when such a leader or army was not available. _Rise To Power_ Babylonia was founded as a kingdom around 1900 B.C. by Semitic Amorite barbarians who overran much of Canaan, Akkad, and Sumer one hundred years earlier. In 1792 B.C. the small kingdom was inherited by Hammurabi who ruled until 1750. During those 42 years, Hammurabi extended the kingdom to ecompass all of Sumer to the east and Akkad to the north. He also defeated the barbarian Gutians in the Zagros Mountains to the northeast who had previously sacked Akkad. He also pushed back the Elamites (east of Sumer) and the Assyrians (north of Akkad). This was the first great Babylonian empire. Following Hammurabi's death, the empire fell into gradual decline. In 1595 B.C. Hittites drove down the Euphrates and sacked Babylon, plundering the city and deposing the Amorite kings. This ended the first empire. Within 20 yearsm new invaders called the Kassites had settled around Babylon, establishing a new dynasty. The Kassites were neither Semetic nor Indo- European, and probably came from east of the Zagros Mountains. The Kassites ruled Babylon for several centuries before being coquered by the Assyrians in 1158 B.C. Descendants of the Amorites had restored control by 1027 B.C. During the Eighth and Seventh Centuries, the Chaldeans, new Semitic immigrants to the area, and the Assyrians fought for control of Babylon. The Assyrians claimed sovereignty for a while but sacked the city once as punishment for rebellion. A Chaldean sheik seized the Babylonian throne and then destroyed the Assyrians with the help of the Medes. The Chaldean Dynasty and the New Empire lasted from 626 to 539 B.C. The revived Babylonians overran most of the Assyrian Empire from the Persian Gulf to the boarders of Egypt. In 597 B.C. Nebuchadrezzar II captured Jerusalem and forced its king and nobles into exile. When the puppet ruler of Jerusalem rebelled, the city was taken again in 586 B.C. after an eighteen- month siege. This time much of the population was deported to Babylon and their descendants remained there until released by the Persians. This period of Hebrew history was called the Babylonian Captivity. _Economy_ The basic economy of Babylonia was typical for Mesopotamia at the time. Irrigation and dikes controlled the waters of the Euphrates River, providing bountiful harvests of grain, vegetables, and fruit in normal years. These foods were supplemented by herds of sheep and some cattle. The Babylonians traded food surpluses for raw materials like copper, gold, and wood, which they used to manufacture weapons, household objects, jewelry, and other items that could be traded. The fabulous wealth of the New Empire (626 to 539 B.C.) derived from controlling the east- west and north- south trade, primarliy thanks to control of Phoenicia, Syria, and the other Levant ports. This area had been the nexus of civilized trade for over a thousand years, and, for that reason, the prize for every empire and pseudo- empire of the age. Not long after the end of the Babylonian New Empire, the shift of much trade to the central and western Mediterranean reduced the importance of this area. _Religion and Culture_ The Babylonians worshipped many gods, but chief was of these was Murduk, god of the city of Babylon. Marduk was represented by a dragon in the artwork that decorated the city. Festivals were held throughout the year in honor of specific gods to assure their favor. The New Year festival for Marduk assured the fertility in their fields. For a brief time the New Empire was among the richest in the world. The city reflected that wealth in its extensive and highly decorated monuments. The interior of the Temple of Marduk was reportedly converted with gold. At the center of a great and rich trading empire, the people of Babylon had access to exotic goods and manufactured items throughout the world. _Government_ The New Empire government of Babylon adopted many of the Assyrian imperial practices, which probably contributed to its own short life. The king had overall administrative power, in addition to his central role in important religious rituals. Governors ruled important provinces on behalf of the king, but most of these were Babylonians appointed from outside the local area. Local puppets were often left in place to rule local kingdoms, but this occasionally led to revolt, as in the case of Jerusalem. _Architecture_ The city of Babylon was destroyed and rebuilt several times, usually on top of the old ruins. Buildings and walls were constructed of mud bricks, first sun- baked, and then baked with fire. The Babylon of the New Empire period was one of the wealthiest cities in the world. The Chaldean kings rebuilt the city and established its reputation for splendor for all time. The Euphrates River passed through the middle of the city and was directed around its four sides through a moat. Inside the moat were double walls. The Greek historian Herodotus claimed that the outer wall was so wide that a chariot with four horses could drive along it. There were several city gates, each named after an important god. The Ishtur gate opened on the sacred Processional Way that led to the ziggurat and Temple of Marduk. The gate, sacred way, and temples were decorated with bright blue glazed tiles depicting real and fantasy animals in relief. The two sides of the city were connected by a bridge. The east side contained the palace and temples, including many ziggaurats. The greatest of these, built by Nebuchanezzar II, had seven levels with a small temple to Marduk at the top. This zaggurat was probably the Tower of Babel mentioned in the Bible. Nebuchanezzar also built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, a multistoried ziggurat decorated with trees and plants to resemble a mountain. According to legend, the gardens were built to remind one of his wives of her mountain homeland. The Hangine Gardens were one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. _Military_ Little is known of the Babylonian military from either the Old or New Empires, although Hammurabi's army of the Old Empire may have made important use of chariots when these were first coming into use. The New Empire armies probably copied much from the Assyrians. This would suggest that Babylonians made extensive use of cavaly, especially mounted bowmen. Foot troops probably used iron weapons and wore iron helmets and some chain mail armor. The Babylonians and their less advanced allies, the Medes, took three leavily fortified Assyrian cities in short succession, suggesting they had mastered the Assyrian techniques for storming cities. _Decline and Fall_ Following seven turbulent years that saw three new kings in succession and two rebellions, in 556 B.C. the last of the Chaldean Dynasty, Nabonidus, took the throne of Babylon. He worshipped the moon god, Sin, but neglected local affairs and important religious rituals associated with other gods. For several years he did not perform the important New Year festival in the name of Marduk, the deity of Babylon, that renewed the fertility of the land. He also introduced reforms that gave effective control of temple finances to himself. The unrest and dissatisfaction these events fostered came at a time when a new power to the east, Persia, had been gradually expanding and spreading its influence. Under Cyrus I, the Persians had first overthrown their masters. the Medes, and then expanded to the northwest into Anatolia. During these conquests, Cyrus demonstrated a high degree of tolerance and clemency that encouraged others not to resist. When Cyrus turned against the Babylonians, he was welcomed by a large segment of the population, including the influential priests. Cyrus first defeated Nabonidus in battle at Opis. Nabonidus fled to Babylon but the city surrendered without a fight on October 12, 539 B.C., and the last Babylonian king went into captivity. The Jews and other peoples held in Babylonian captivity were freed. The entire New Empire of Babylon became part of the Persian Empire and Babylonia ceased to exist as a separate entity and culture. _Legacy_ The first Babylonian empire is best known for the Law Code of King Hammurabi, circa 1750 B.C., purportedly handed down by the god Shamah. The laws themselves are preserved on a 90- inch stone stele that was uncovered in Susa in modern times. It has been carted off by the Elamites following their sack of Babylon in 1158 B.C. The New Empire of Babylon was noted especially for its wealth and grandeur. This was reported in Old Testament accounts from the period of the Hebrew Babylonian Captivity and by the Greek historian Herodotus who visited the city. The most impressive features of the city were its walls, the Ishtar Gate, the ziggurat and temple to Marduk, the Processional Way, and Hanging Gardens. ===================================== X. Chosens ===================================== (2333 to 108 B.C.) The Korean Peninsula was invaded by successive waves of Neolithic peoples, but the culture of the area changed little until the use of bronze implements began around the fifteenth century B.C. The Bronze Age brought significant change to Korea. Recovered bronze spear points and arrowheads indicate conquest and warfare were widespread. Towns protected by earthen walls appeared. Funerary dolmens (rock shelters covered by enormous capstones) indicate the rise of a stratified political and social structure. The Bronze Age in Korea lasted until the fourth century B.C. During the Bronze Age, the first large political groupings of walled town states arose. The most advanced of these was Ancient Chosen. _Location_ The state of Ancient Chosen was located in the valleys of the Liao and Taedong Rivers, in the southwestern part of what is now North Korea. It occupied the Taedong River basin originally and spread its influence gradually over a large region of the peninsula. _Capital_ The Ancient CVhosen capital was Wanggom- song, now modern P'yongyang (the capital of North Korea). _The Rise To Power_ The power of Ancient Chosen grew from around 2333 B.C. to the end of the fourth century B.C. The Ancient Chosen expanded possibly due to better agriculture and population growth, better use of newly available iron weapons, better leaders, or all of the above. When the Chinese kingdom of Yen encountered the Ancient Chosen culture, they referred to them as being arrogant and cruel, which suggests that the Ancient Chosen were formidable warriors. Despite the apparent strength of Ancient Chosen at the end of the fourth century, they went into decline, nevertheless, following the arrival of the Yen kingdom across the Liao River. The Chinese overlord in control of the Liaotung Peninsula changed several times during the next century and the political upheaval fostered an immigration of Chinese political, military, and economic power into Ancient Chosen. One refugee, named Wiman, built a power base among the other refugees and eventually drove the Ancient Chosen king from his throne around 190 B.C. The new kingdom, called Wiman Chosen, was a hybrid of Korean and Chinese influences. Due to its superior military and economic strength, it subjugated smaller Korean states to its north, east, and south. This placed the Wiman Chosen between the now dominant Han Chinese and the remaining Korean states in the south, allowing it to control trade between the two regions. For three generations, the Wiman Chosen dominated north central Korea. _Economy_ The principal economic activity of Bronze and early Iron Age Korea was agriculture. Rice was the main food crop of southern Korea. Raising livestock (oxen, horses, pigs, and dogs) was more important in the north. The basic farming unit was the village, made up of headmen, free peasants, and a few slaves. Peasants and slaves worked mainly on communal farms. There were some peasant- owned lands as well. The fre peasants were heavily taxed and provided labor to the state. They were not permitted to bear arms or serve in the armies. _Religion and Culture_ The leaders of the early walled towns in Korea performed both political and religious functions. The dignity and authority of these leaders was enhanced by their acknowledged descent from a sun god. Political and religious power split gradually into two separate functions as the confederation grew in size. Rituals were thereafter directed by specialists. The primitive religion of prrehistoric Korea was based on animism and shomanism. Primative priets were magicians who attempted to move the gods by evocation. By the time of Ancient Chosen, priests prayed to the gods humbly and earnestly for favor. The ancient Koreans believed in the immortality of the soul and buried their elite with elaborate ritual. They also practiced divination. The two most important festivals of the year were tied to the growing season. In the spring, they prayed for abundance, and in the fall, they celebrated thanksgiving. _Government_ Village communities were governed by a ruling elite that kept order, allocated land and resources, collected taxes, and provided security. The individual communities were held together in confederation by military and economic means. Ancient Chosen took the name wang (king) for its leader about the time that the nearby Chinese kingdom of Yen employed the same title. _Military_ Little is known about the armies of Ancient Chosen except that they were standing armies and not levies of peasants. Evidence of horses and chariots is not widespread, suggesting that only the richest warriors could afford these enhancements. Bronze spear points and arrowheads from the early days of the Ancient Chosen suggest an army of spearmen and archers. Later finds include bronze daggers and spears of distinctive styles, iron daggers, and iron spear points. The daggers suggest that these short weapons were used by infantry for close combat in addition to spears. The prowess of Ancient Chosen armies can be inferred from their expansion and dominance of the region and the comments about Ancient Chosen recorded by their Chinese neighbors. _Decline and Fall_ Unified China under Han Dynasty was not pleased by Wiman Chosen's growth and control of eastward trade, and was concerned about a possible alliance between Wiman Chosen and the Hsiung-nu (barbarians then expanding out of Mongolia into Manchuria). The aggressive Emperor Wu of Han launched an attack against the Wiman Chosen when diplomacy failed to bring them to heel. The Wiman Chosen were a tough adversary but were weakened by defections and collaborations among the nobility. The Wiman Chosen capital fell in 108 B.C., and the kingdom came to an end. _Legacy_ The legacy of the Ancient Chosen was a Korean culture that remained separate from that of China, despite the proximity and influence of that enormous neighbor. ===================================== XI. Egyptians ===================================== (5000 to 30 B.C) The Egyptian culture was one of the oldest and most long- lived of antiquity. It benefited from an abundance of good farmland, nearby mineral resources, and a good strategic position. Despite occasional invasion and internal strife, it endured as a distinctive culture for nearly 5000 years. _Location_ Ancient Egypt occupied almost the same area as modern Egypt does today. Its civilization stayed very close to the Nile River. Because it was almost entirely surrounded by desert, enemies could approach only from the west and southeast along the Mediterranean coast, from the south down the river valley, or directly over the sea. _Capital_ During its long history, the capital of Egypt was located at various times in Heirakonpolis, Memphis, Herakleopolis, Thebes, It- towy, Akhetaten, Tanis, Sais, and Alexander the Great in 331 B.C. Greek overlords, the Ptolemaic dynasty, ruled from here until 30 B.C. _Rise of Power_ Agriculture was brought to the Nile Valley prior to 5000 B.C. by immigrants from the highlands of Palestine. By 3000 B.C., acriculture had spread southward up the Nile. Flooding was under control and irrigation put much more land under cultivation. The adundance of food led to large populations and increased wealth for the area. The early history of Egypt was a period of consolidation. Two separate kingdoms rose and vied for power along the river. Around 3100 B.C., King Menes of Upper Egypt conquered Lower Egypt and established the First Dynasty. Between 3100 B.C. and 1300 B.C., the Egyptians struggled with Nubians and Kushites up the Nile to the south. Forts and garrisons held the frontier but during periods of weakness these were destroyed. Around 1300 B.C. the Nubians suffered an important defeat and were neutralized as a thread for about 500 years. Egypt's Dynasty XIII, 1783 to 1640 B.C., was very weak. During this period the frontier forts to the south were lost and Semitic immigrants from the east moved into the delta. These immigrants, called the Hyskos, took control of the entire delta region in 1674 B.C. The Hyskos eventually adopted Egyptian culture and language, and introduced the horse and chariot. The New Kingdom was founded by Dynasty XVIII in 1552 B.C., following a successful war to drive out the Hyskos. This dynasty was the great age of the warrior pharaohs and Egyptian empire. The prevent further incursions from the east, the Egyptians attempted to establish control over the kingdoms in the Levant and Palestine. During this period they vied for control with the Hittites and Mitanni, as well as the local kings. The Egyptians were the dominant power in the Near East until around 1200 B.C. when the entire area was overrun by barbarians. _Economy_ Egypt was an agricultural society dependent on the water and soil brought down each year by the Nile from the highlands of Ethiopia. Extensive irrigation made it possible to farm fields not adjacent to the river but still close enough to be inundated each year and receive new sediments. The principalcrops were wheat and barley that were used to make bread and beer, the staples of their diet. They also grew fruits and vegetables and raised cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, geese, ducks, and pigeons. The abundance of food meant a large population and allowed the export of food. The Nile passes through several hilly regions and some of these were rich in minerals. The nearby Sinai Peninsula also held mineral riches. Unlike some other ancient cultures, the Egyptians had relatively easy access to copper and gold, further increasing their wealth. The hills were sources of granite, limestone, and sandstone that they used for construction. The Egyptians were one of the first cultures to build boats and they eventually took these out into the Mediterranean. Egypt became an important Mediterranean part of call as trade increased because it was it was a rich market for both buying and selling. Principal Egyptian exports were grain, food, linen, perfume, and manufactured goods. Important imports were timber, slaves, silver, horses, pottery, and wine. _Religion and Culture_ The Egyptian religion had over 2000 gods, though only a few of these were predominant. The important gods had a home town where their principal temple was located. One of the most important was Ra, the sun god, understandably critical to an agricultural society. They believed in a life after death. They referred to this as the "next world," and thought it was somewhere to the west. They developed elaborate burials and embalming to preserve the body for this second life. Goods and servants were buried with royalty and nobles to serve them. _Government_ The ancient Egyptians believed their kings were descended from the sun god, Ra. They believed they could communicate with the gods through the king. The king had absolute power but was required to perform several important duties. He was responsible for the harvest and irrigation of crops. He directed the government, trade, and foreign policy. He enforced the laws and led the army. During the New Kingdom, the pharoahs usually commanded their armies in the field. Reporting directly to the pharaoh were two viziers, one for Lower Egypt based in Memphis, and one for Upper Egypt based in Thebes. Below the viziers were rural districts controlled by governors and towns controlled by mayors. These officials carried out the pharaoh's orders and collected taxes. Scribes kept the records. The Egyptians had no coinage until they were conquered by Alexander the Great. All workers paid taxes by turning over a percentage of their production, whether it was fish, grain, trade goods, pottery, or other goods. In addition, each household had to provide a laborer for several weeks each year for mining or public works. The pyramids were probably built by laborers putting in their annual service. _Military_ The Egyptians were among the first cultures to possess the necessary population and wealth to build standing armies of professional soldiers. Prior to the Hyksos introduced the horse and chariot, which were quickly adopted by the Egyptians in turn. The dominance of the Near East by New Kingdom Egypt, from 1600 to 1200 B.C., was primarily due to the large and powerful chariot armies sent into battle there. These chariots carried a driver and composite bow archer and were the elite of the army. _Decline and Fall_ Egypt survived the catastrophe by 1200 B.C. by fighting off several major attempted invasions. They went into decline, nevertheless, following the death of Rameses III who was the last of the great warrior pharaohs. Their decline was partly due to trade coming to a virtual halt for several generations. A series of weak kings and civil wars over succession to the throne also eroded their strength. In 728 B.C., Egypt was conquered by Nubia and held for 60 years. In 665 B.C., the Assyrians completed a conquest of Egypt by sacking Thebes. A new native Egyptian dynasty arouse in 664 B.C., eventually throwing out the Nubians and asserting their independence from Assyria by stopping payment of tribute. In 525 B.C., Egypt was conquered again from the east, this time by Combryses II of Persia. When the Persians faltered in their war with the Greeks, the Egyptians reclaimed their independence briefly before succombing once more to Persian invasion by 332 B.C. Within a year, however, the Persians themselves were gone, destroyed by Alexander the Great who was accepted by the Egyptians as their pharaoh. Greeks ruled Egypt as overlords from the time of Alexander the Great until 30 B.C. when Cleopatra VII, th elast of the Ptolemaic dynasty, and Mark Antony were defeated by Octavian. Egypt thereafter became part of the Roman Empire. _Legacy_ The ancient Egyptians are remembered for the quality and quanity of cultural objects that have survived to the present, including the Pyramids, the Sphinx, the treasures of Tutankhamen's tomb, the other monuments and temples of the Nile Valley, hieroglyphics, mummies, and papyrus. They are also rememberdd in the West because of their prominent role in the history of ancient Israel as recounted in the Old Testament. ===================================== XII. Greeks ===================================== Under Construction ===================================== XIII. Hittites ===================================== Under Construction ===================================== XIV. Minoans ===================================== (2200 to 1200 B.C.) Primitive agricultural communities sprang up around the Aegean Sea by 6000 B.C., but this area lagged behind Egypt and Mesopotamia in advancing toward civilization. For reasons not yet understood, the island- based Minoan culture made a sudden leap forward around 2000 B.C. and became the first civilization of Europe. The sudden take- off may have been stimulated by trading contact with Mesopotamia through Levant ports of through contact with Egypt. One theory suggests that refugees from Egypt during a time of turmoil may have emigrated to Crete and brought technology and ideas with them. _Location_ The Minoan culture was centered on the island of Crete, but extended to other nearby islands, including Thera and Rhodes. They may have colonized the Anatolian coast at Miletus and elsewhere. By the extension of trade, they influenced the developing Greek culture on the mainland and other Aegean islands. _Capital_ The palace at Knossos on Crete was the capital of the Minoan civilization. It remained a hidden ruin until rediscovered and revealed in the twentieth century. _Rise of Power_ The Minoans were an economic power, not a military one. They preserved their economic advantages by apparently controlling ship traffic in the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas. For approximately 800 years, they dominated trade in these regions. They were so secure on their islands, protected by their ships, that they never fortified their cities. _Economy_ Crete was rich in natural resources, including farmland, water, supplies, timber, copper, building stone, and access to the sea. The Minoans were prosperous thanks to agriculture and fishing, but grew rich primarily on trade. The Minoans grew grain, fruit, herbs, and olives. Grain, wine, olive oil, timber, ceramics, and manufactured goods were theri principal exorts. They imported tin, silver, gold, linen, luxury items, and raw materials for manufacturing. _Religion and Culture_ The high standard of living, the relative abundance of food and other good things, and the security of their island homes gave the Minoans an outlook on life substantially different from other contemporary cultures. Perhaps because life was good, worship and communication with gods was not stressed. They built no great temples. Their religion was dominated by female goddesses who protected the household, the crops, and the animals. The Minoans made regular offerings of food, statues, and other objects. The Minoans may have practiced human sacrifice at one time. There is a famous tale of a minotaur, half man, half bull, who lived in a labyrinth beneath the palace. Young people were sacrificed to the minotaur each year. The high priest or king may have worn a bull mask for the sacrifice, creating the illusion of half man, half animal. They believed in an afterlife and buried the dead with food and possessions that would be of use. Two sacred symbols were bull horns and the double- sided axe. The Minoans developed a hieroglyphic writing system around 2000 B.C., perhaps following trading contract with the Egyptians. By 1900 B.C., they had developed a new script now called Linear A. Athird script called Linear B came into use as Knossus around 1450 B.C. To date, onlu Linear B has been deciphered, but most of the surviving examples are accounting records that reveal little about their history and culture. Surviving artwork shows the people of Crete engaging in the sport of bull- jumping. The significance of this activity is not known. Young men and women are depicted approaching a charging bull, grabing it by the horns, and somersaulting over the animal's back to land behind it. The everyday life of the Minoans was pleasant and relatively free of war and unrest, as witnessed by the richness and exuberance of their frescos, wall paintings, and decorative objects. _Government_ The great palace at Knossus was also a giant warehouse. The distribution of food and other goods may have been organized from here. The only king whose name survives was Minos. It may be that the word, Minos, referred to the office, not the man, like the Egyptian term, pharaoh. _Military_ The Minoans had little apparent need for an army, relying instead on their navy to keep any enemies from approaching. Minoan ships were galleys, manned by rowers on both sides. Narrow galleys were fast and maneuverable, allowing them to overtake slower sailing ships of the day. They did not employ rams at this early date, according to the evidence of surviving artwork. _Decline and Fall_ The idyllic life of the Minoans was disrupted by natural disasters. The archaelogical remains indicate that the palace of Knossus was destroyed by an earthquake in 1700 B.C. and rebuilt. The nearby island of Thera was partially sunk by a volcanic eruption and the resulting tidal wave probably struck Crete, causing extensive damage. The Minoan culture suffered from recurrent earthquakes and the Thera explosion, but the extent of the damage and its effect on their civilization is debated. There are two main scenarios for the end of the Minoan culture. According to the oldest theory, mainland Greeks invaded around 1450 B.C., essentially destroying the culture, although it lingered for 700 years more until mainland Greece itself was overrun. In the second scenario, based on more recent research, the Minoans suffered through disaster and a resulting loosening of their control of sea trade and movement, but did not succomb to the mainland Greeks. The Minoans were instead destroyed along with the Myceneans on the mainland by barbarians as part of the catastrophe of 1200 B.C. Evidence suggests that by 1180 B.C., the Cretans had moved from coastal towns and palaces to defensive city sites high in the hills. Attacks and the threat of further attacks were the probable cause of this shift. _Legacy_ The Minoans are remembered today for their fabulous palace and frescoes at Knossos, now partially restored. It may have been the largest and most beautiful palace of the late Bronze Age. They are also remembered for their mysterious writings, some of which continue to defy linguists. ===================================== XV. Persians ===================================== Under Construction ===================================== XVI. Phoenicians ===================================== (1200 to 146 B.C.) There was never a country or empire called "Phoenicia." The historical name of this culture was coined by the Greeks and was not their name. The name Phoenicia derives from the Greek word Phoenix, meaning in this case a dark red or purple- brown color. The phoenicians were renowned for their cloth dyes, especially an expensive purple one popular with royalty. Because Greek language and writings were preserved in abundance, versus Phoenician texts which are very scant, the name stuck. _Location_ The Phoenicians appeared on the historical scene around 1200 B.C., a time when most of the civilized world was being overrun by barbarians. In the political and military void of a 400- year ancient dark age, this small group of traders were able to prosper and gradually expand their influence. Instead of acquiring a physical empire of contiguous lands, they gradually built, instead, a large trading and colonial network from their home base of a few independent cities along the coast of what is now Lebanon. They were the remnants of the Canaanites, a Semitic people who occupied city- states in this region prior to 1200 B.C. The most important of their early cities were Tyre, Sidon, Berytus (modern Beirut), and Byblos. These coastal cities were hemmed in on the land side by the Lebanon Mountains. The only onvious opportunity for expansion and economic gain was by sea. _Rise To Power_ Prior to the catastrophe of 1200 B.C., Canaanite traders had been restricted to perhaps the Levantine coast, Egypt, and the southern coast of Anatolia. The Minoans on Crete blocked entrance into the Aegean, controlled all trade further west. The Canaanite coastal towns were usually controlled by Egypt, and one of their principal businesses was providing wood (the cedars of Lebanon) to the Nile region. The Minoan civilization was destroyed in 1200 B.C., removing most of the constraints on Mediterranean and Aegean Sea trading bu others. The Phoenicians were the most aggressive of those attempting to fill the void. Their cities were well- positioned for this enterprise by being located literally in the center of the known world. The Aegean, Mesopotamia, and Egypt were all roughly equidistant to the west, south, and east. For any of the three regions to trade with another, the easiest trade route was through the Phoenician cities. By the ninth century B.C., the ancient dark ages was nearing an end. The Phoenicians were growing rich as traders and this attracted enemies, principally the Assyrians. In the face of repeated assaults or heavy tribute payments at the least, the Tyrians adopted the strategy of establishing colonies to the west. Colonies were removed from the grasp of the Assyrians and also helped with the exploitation of metals and trade in the western Mediterranean. The most important Phoenician colony was at Carthage, established around 700 B.C. Other important colonies were in Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, and Spain. Over the next 500 years, Carthage grew rapidly in size and power. Most of its wealth came from the ore mines of Spain. Carthage fought for control of the western Mediterranean with the Greeks first and then the Romans. _Economy_ The early Phoenician economy was built on timber sales, wood working, and cloth dyeing. Dyes ranging in color from a pink to a dark purple were made from the rotting gland of a sea snail. Gradually the Phoenician city- states became centers of maritime trade and manufacturing. Having limited natural resources, they imported raw materials and fashioned them into more valuable objects that could be shipped profitably, such as jewelry, metalwork, furniture, and housewares. They borrowed techniques and styles from all corners of the world that they touched as traders. While exploring the western Mediterranean, they either discovered large metal deposits in Spain or took them from Greeks who may have been there first. By fortifying sites on Sicily and North Africa, they effectively denied other traders access to the riches of Spain, the west Africa coast (gold, exotic woods, and slaves), and Britain (tin, which was used to make bronze.) _Religion and Culture_ Phoenician religion was polytheistic and their other gods required continual sacrifices to forestall disaster, especially Boal, the god of storms. No significant Phoenician temple has yet been discovered, but most of their ancient cities lie buried under modern cities. The Bible recounts human sacriices by the Phoenicians but this practice was eventually stopped. It carried on in Carthage, however. A cemetary outside of Carthage was found to obtain thousands of urns of infants sacrificed to the gods. (BURN BABY BURN!!) Noble families of Carthage got into the habit of substituting animals and slaves for their children, but following a military disaster in 320 B.C., 500 infants from the best families were sacrificed. (HA HA!!) Early Phoenician culture was influenced to a large degree by their Semitic origins and Semitic neighbors. Their later culture was heavily influenced by the Greeks. There are few objects known today that are clearly Phoenician. One of their lasting copntributions to civilization was a proto- alphabet where each letter represented a consonant. This cut down significantly the number of symbols required to make written words. When written, the vowels were implied. Later advances by the Greeks added symbols for vowel sounds, creating the first true alphabet. _Military_ When the Phoenicians began competing with the Greeks for trade and colonies, the contest led to construction of the first ships built expressly for war. These were rowed galleys armed with a ram at the front and marines for boarding. Sea warfare grew in importance during the fifth century when Persia fought the Greek city- states for control of the Aegean, western Anatolia, and eastern Mediterranean. By this time the Phoenician cities were under control of Persia. Phoenician ships made up the bulk of the Persian fleet that was defeated at Salamis in 480 B.C. Phoenician galleys of the time were larger and less maneuverable than their Greek counterparts, and this was a fatal shortcoming in restricted waters. The Carthaginian navy dominated the early Punic Wars with Rome, but the Romans captured a Carthaginian ship that went aground and built duplicates. The Romans eventually cleared the Mediterranean of Carthaginian ships and carried the wars to a successful conclusion in North Africa. The Carthiginians had the only significant land army that can be considered Phoenician in derivation. Their greatest general was Hannibal, who invaded Italy from Spain, passing the Alps in winter with his army and elephants. Most of his troops were Celts enlisted from Spain and Gaul. One strength of his army was cavalry from North Africa that was usually able to drive off the Roman cavalry, surround the Roman infantry, and help annihilate it. The Romans defeated Hannibal eventually, not by fighting him, but by attacking where he wasn't- Spain first, and then North Africa. _Decline and Fall_ The Phoenician home cities were periodically under the thumb of one eastern conqueror after another from roughly 900 to 332 B.C. They were never strong enough to hold off the powerful armies from Assyria, then Babylon, and then Persia, although they were often rich enough to buy them off. In 332 B.C., Alexander the Great took them one by one, ending their on- again, off- again independence. They became Greek cities and lost their identity as Phoenician for good. The Carthaginians lasted another 200 years. Having held off Greek expansion past Sicily successfully for many centuries, they met their match in the more populous and better organized Romans. At the end of the Punic Wars in 146 B.C., the people of Carthage were carried off to slavery and the city was destroyed. _Legacy_ The Phoenician tradition as traders carried on in Lebanon down through the years to modern times, regardless of who was in political control. Phoenicians are also recalled as great mariners. They are believed to have been the first civilized culture to reach Britain and the Azores. There is evidence that Phoenicians circumnavigated Africa on commission by the Egyptians around 600 B.C. There is some questionable evidence that they reached the New World. Their most important contribution was their revised alphabet, which they spread around the known world. When further refined and spread by the Greeks and Romans, it became the alphabet used today by most western cultures. ===================================== XVII. Shangs ===================================== Under Construction ===================================== XVIII. Sumerians ===================================== (5000 to 2230 B.C.) The Sumerians were one of the earliest civilizations. Their growth and expansion was dependent on rich river valley farmlands. They were not as fortunate as others in terms of mineral resources or strategic position, however, and did not enjoy the existence of the Egyptians. They are considered one of the most important early cultures, nevertheless, because of the many advances attributed to them. Because their location was weak in terms of defense and poor in terms of resources, they were forced to innovate. In many ways they were more important to history because of their innovations than the much richer Egyptians. _Location_ Sumer was located in southern Mesopotamia where the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers come together before flowing into the Persian Gulf. By 5000 B.C. primitive farmers had come down to the valley from the Zafros Mountains to the east. The land was rich but baked hard in the summer sun after the late spring river floods. The early settlers learned how to control some of the flooding with dikes and how to irrigate their summer fields. Early settlements at Ur, Uruk, and Eridu grew into independent cities first and then city- states. _Capital_ As a conglomeration of city- states, there was no clear capital for the Sumerians because the center of power shifted from time to time. The cities of Ur, Lagash, Erech, Eridu, and Uruk were the most important. _Rise to Power_ From 5000 to 3000 B.C.. agricultural communities of Sumer gradually coalesced into city- states along the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The peak of this city- state culture lasted from 2900 to 2400 B.C. They warred with one another from time to time and competed for land and trade, but never conglomerated or built an empire that expanded from their traditional homeland. The city- states of the river valley were relatively rich from food production, manufacturing, and their position along important trade routes. This made them tempting targets when more powerful and warlike neighbors came into existence to the north and east. _Economy_ The Sumerians grew wheat, barley, peas, onions, turnips, and dates. They raised cattle and sheep, fished, and hunted wildfowl along the river. Food was generally abundant and populations grew accordingly. There was no copper in the river valleys, but copper was found in the mountains to the east and north. The Sumerians learned how to obtain copper from ore by 4000 B.C. and to make bronze by 3500 B.C. They traded food, cloth, and manufactured items for raw materials, such as timber, copper, and stone, which they fashioned into items of everydat use, weapons, and more valuable trade goods. Their merchants traveled up the Tigris and Euphrates to trade with the people of Anatolia and the Mediterranean coast. They also traded in the Persian Gulf for items from India and further east. _Religion and Culture_ The Sumerians worshipped hundreds of gods, with each city having its own patron deity. The principal gods, such as Entil, the god of air, were too busy to bother with the plight of individuals. For that reason, each Sumerian worshipped a particular minor god or goddess who was expected to interact with the major gods. The Sumerians did not believe in an afterlife and were realistic about the limits of human goodness. They accepted that although the gods were above question, they were not always kind. The soul and center of each city- state was its temple to the patron god. The Sumerians believed that the god owned the city- state. Part of the land was farmed directly for the god, often by slaves. The remaining land was farmed by the temple staff or by farmers who paid rent to the temple. Rents and offerings paid for temple operation and supported the poor. Slaves were an important part of the community and were one objective of any military campaign. Even locals could become slaves to satisfy debts. Slaves were allowed to work extra hours for themselves and use any savings to buy their freedom. _Government_ Each city in Sumer was ruled at first by a council of elders, although a war leader, called a lugal, was selected to lead the army during conflict. Eventually the lugals assumed power as kings and established dynasties. Evidence suggests that the Sumerians may have taken the first steps toward democracy by electing a representative assembly. They consisted of two houses- a senate of important citizens and a lower house made up of those available for military duty. Preserved clay tablets reveal that the Sumerians maintained courts of justice where people could expect a fair trial. One table recorded the oldest murder trial in history. Most of the food production and distribution was controlled through the temple. A noble class arose based on land ownership, control of land, and manufacturing. Most trade and manufacturing was outside the temple's control. _Architecture_ The Sumerians were handicapped by having no easy access to stone or wood for building. Sun- dried mud bricks were their main building material and this required some ingenuity. They were the first to employ the arch, vault, and dome. Their cities were completely enclosed by brick walls. Their most important buildings were temples, built as large mounds called ziggurats. Through cycles of attack, destruction, and restoration, the temples were rebuilt again and again at the same site, gradually getting larger with each reincarnation. Mud bricks eroded and crumbled much more quicker than stone, however, and little Sumerian architecture survives. _Military_ The key influence on the Sumerian military was their poor strategic position. Natural obstacles for defense existed only on their borders to the west (desert) and south (Persian Gulf). When more populous and powerful enemies appeared to their north and east, the Sumerians were susceptible to attack. Surviving artwork and archaelogical remains indicate that the Sumerian soldiers used spears and short swords of bronze. They wore bronze helmets and carried large shields. Their armies were not particularly noted but records are sparse. They engaged in siege warfare during their many inter- city wars. Mud brick walls did not stand against determined attackers who had the time to pry out the bricks or pound them to dust. The Sumerians invented chariots and were the first to use them in battle. These earlt chariots were four- wheeled and pulled by wild asses, and were not effective in battle as the later two- wheeled design pulled by horses. Sumerian chariots may have served primarily as fast transports, but surviving artwork suggests that spears or javelins were thrown from them. _Decline and Fall_ A group of Semitic people called the Akkadians settled north of Sumer along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The Akkadians adopted very quickly the culture, religion, and writing of the more advanced Sumerians who had preceeded them. In 2371 B.C., Sargon I seized the throne of Kish and gradually conquered all of the city- states of Akkadia. He turned south and conquered the city- states of Sumer, which were unable to unite in defense. Sargon established the first empire of history during the reign from 2371 to 2316 B.C., extending his control along the Fertile Crescent from Elam, to the east of Sumer, to the Mediterranean coast. Sargon's empire collapsed after his death but was restored briefly by his grandson. Around 2230 B.C. the Akkadian empire was destroyed by an invasion of Gutians, the barbarian hill people from the Zagros Mountains. New cities and towns soon grew up along the river valleys, but the Sumerians were gone as a distinct and indepentent culture. _Legacy_ The Sumerians are most noted for the invention of the wheel and writing. The wheel was important for transport and for pottery making. Sumerian writing, cuneiform, consisted of groups of stylus wedge impressions pushed into clay to form stylized pictograms representing words. This writing grew out of record keeping and seals from business transactions. They were among the first to use boats, including round boats made of hide stretched over a wooden framework. These coracles were especially popular among the reeds and waterways of the river delta. ===================================== XIX. Yamato ===================================== (300 to 800 A.D.) The Yamato period of Japanese culture is also called the age of the great tombs because of the appearance in these centuries of great tombs and tomb clusters, presumably for the burial of rulers and other elites. The name Yamato comes ffrom the region of Japan that was the home of the first clan to consolidate rule over most of the islands. During the Yamato period, Japan accelerated its advance in technology by adopting the cultivation of rice, improving its pottery, developing iron working, building social hierarchies, and accomplishing a political, economic, anc cultural consolidation of the islands. _Location_ The hereditary lands of the Yamato clan are on a peninsula on the southwest coast of Ise Bay. This bay is located on the main island of Honshu, southwest of modern Tokyo. _Capital_ Prior to the late seventh century A.D., there was no permanent capital of Japan. Each king ruled from his own palace, which was usually abandoned following his death. As the Yamato began to adopt the Chinese system of governemntal bureaucracy and organization, the need for a permanent seat of government arose. The first capital was founded at Fujiwara in 694 A.D. and served three emperors before being abandoned in 710. The second capital of this period was built at Heijo and occupied from 710 to 784. _Rise To Power_ Chinese documents from the second century A.D. make reference to 100 countries existing in Wa, a.k.a. Japan. By the third century, the Chinese refer to a queen of Wa, probably of the Yamato clan, who had consolidated 30 countries under her rule. During this period, the Yamato clan consolidated its control over most of Japan with a combination of military conquest, intermarriage, and diplomacy. _Economy_ Under the Yamato, the Japanese economy remained dependent on rice growing. It was primarily a barter economy and taxes were paid in rice, cloth, and other commodities by reasants who worked public lands. Beginning with the seventh century, coins were imported from China to facilitate tax collection. An attempt was made to mint Japanese coins, but rulers could not resist the temptation to debase the local coinage and it fell out of use. _Religion and Culture_ New concepts were added to the ancient Japanese beliefs and rituals during the Yamato period, including respect for clan ancestors and a mythology of divine ancestry for the Yamato dynasty. Under the influence of Chinese Buddhism propaganded by Forea during the sixth century, the Japanese religion became more formalized as Shinto, the Way of the Kami. The kami were an infinite number of natural spirits and powers that could be called upon for aid or appeased when angered. The hierarchy of Shinto divinities was defined and the mythology was written down. The rulers of Japan descended from the sun goddess, the supreme Shinto deity. Early Shinto was positive and concerned with the present, not the past or an afterlife. It fostered a reverence for a natural universe that was seen as good and ethical. Evil was identified with impurity and the unnatural. Sincere honesty was the central virtue. _Government_ During the Yamato period, tribal states of various sizes and power were brought together gradually by a dynasty of Yamato clan rulers. The leader of the Yamato in the second half of this period was known as the Daio, or Great King. The power of the Yamato was expanded and strengthened through blood ties within the clan, their apparent military supremacy, diplomacy, and manipulation of the sun myth that bestowed divinity on their ancestry. The different tribal groups or clans were the nobility or uji class. Serving the uji was an occupational/ professional class called the be, who worked as farmers, scribes, traders, and manufacturers. The lowest class were slaves. Immigrants fit in among the uji and be, depending on their skills and wealth. In the seventh century, the Yamato transformed the government of Japan based on influences from China. The Yamato sovereign became an imperial ruler supported by court and administrative officials. The uji class was stripped of land and military power, but given official posts and stripends. This political system remained in effect until around 1200 A.D. _Architecture_ The outstanding architectural achievements of the Yamato are their tombs. These are mounds of earth in the shape of a keyhole if viewed from above. The largest tombs are found in the Yamato region of Japan, and is further evidence of power emanating from that locale. The Nintoku tomb on the Osaka Plain rivals the Pyramids in size. The central tomb is 500 meters long and 35 meters high. It is surrounded by three moats with intervening belts of trees and covers 32 hectars (approximately 3.4 million square feet). Stone burial chambers were evacuated in the earth below the central tomb mound. Tombs thought related to the imperial family are now controlled by a government agency. Although some have been pillaged in the past, many remain unexcavated. _Military_ Based on the large numbers of warrior figures, weapons, and pieces of armor found in burial tombs from this era, warfare was apparently a common feature of Yamato culture. Despite the existence of a dominant ruler, clan groups found reason for conflict. All adult men were available for military service and were required to serve for at least one year. The uji class provided the elite troops and officers for armies. Warrior figures from tombs are shown wearing full body armor and visored helmets. The most commonly found weapons are swords, spears, and bow quivers. Horse figures are also found in abundance, suggesting the existence of cavalry. The sudden appearance of horses in burial goods around the fifth century has led to the hypothesis that Japan was invaded by a cavalry army at that time. It is more probable that the horse was an import that became a status symbol for the elite who were most likely to receive a ceremonial burial. The elite uji class made up the cavalry of the period because they could afford the horse and equipment. _Legacy_ The Yamato period is remembered for the sun goddess mythology from which all later emperors of Japan claimed divine ancestry. The Yamato period also formalized the Shinto religion that would compete with imported Buddhism to the present day. Most modern Japanese consider themselves descentants of the Yamato. The great tombs spread about the countryside are the most material legacy. ===================================== XX. The Buildings ===================================== ACADEMY Age: Bronze Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Barracks, and Stable. Cost: 200 Wood Hit Points: 350 Note: The Academy lets you train elite infantry units, including the Hoplite, Phalanx, and Centurion. Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this building. The academy was the Greek equivalent of a school. Students, usually only free men and favored slaves, received an education at the academy. Subjects of study included the typical fare of schools but also politics, athletics, and military training. The most rigorous of the Greek academies were those of Sparta, where boys were taken from their parents at an early age and educated in a military environment. The academy prepared the individual for service to the state as a citizen and as a soldier in the phalanx. In one of the remarkable encounters of history, the future Alexander the Great was educated at the Academy of Aristotle. ARCHERY RANGE Age: Tool Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Barracks. Cost: 100 Wood Hit Points: 350 Note: The Archery Range lets you train archers, including the Bowman, Improved Bowman, Composite Bowman, Chariot Archer, Elephant Archer, Horse Archer, and Heavy Horse Archer. You must build the Archery Range before you can build the Siege Workshop. Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this building. The bow was developed as a hunting weapon long before the first towns appeared and was easily adapted to warfare. Because the bow allowed fighting from a distance and from behind cover, archers did not have to fight face- to- face with their enemy. As the first civilizations grew in size and their armies grew correspondingly, formal training of archers was instituted. As part of this training, bowmen practiced shooting on archery ranges to improve accuracy. BALLISTA TOWER Age: Iron Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, researched the Watch Tower, upgraded to the Sentry Tower, upgraded to the Guard Tower, researched Ballistics, and upgraded to the Ballista Tower. Upgrade Cost: 1800 Food, 750 Stone Cost: 150 Stone Hit Points: 200 Attack: 20 Armor: - Range: 7 Special: Fire Rate once every 3 seconds Upgrade of: Guard Tower Upgrade at: Granary Note: The Ballista Tower is the ultimate tower. It has more attack strength than the Guard Tower. You must research Ballistics before you upgrade to the Ballista Tower. Towers are defensive structures that fire missiles at enemy villagers and military units within range. Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this tower. Alchemy increases attack strength. Ballistics increases accuracy. Woodworking, Artisanship, and Craftsmanship increase range. The tower discovered on the wall at the ancient site of Jericho served several purposes. It extended the visual range of lookouts that would be watching for the approach of raiders and other visitors. An early warning might have been the difference between a successful defense and the fall of the town. The tower was a superior firing position for archery. Bowmen shooting down had an advantage in range and penetration power of arrows versus enemies shooting up. Enemies hiding at the bottom of the wall may have remained visible to archers in the tower. The tower itself was an independent bastion that could serve as a defensive position of last resort if the wall was carried. The Ballista Tower was the ultimate defensive fortification of the ancient era. It could withstand a lajor attack and was equipped and designed to take a heavy toll on attackers. BARRACKS Age: Stone Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center. Cost: 125 Wood Hit Points: 350 Note: The Barracks lets you train infantry, including the Clubman, Axeman, Short Swordsman, Long Swordsman, and Legion. You must have built the Barracks before you can build the Archery Range, Siege Workshop, Stable, or Academy. Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this building. When the first armies came into being, places were needed eventually to make weapons, store weapons, drill troops, and house troops. The Barracks in Age of Empires represents these places. DOCK Age: Stone Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center. Cost: 100 Wood Hit Points: 350 Note: The Dock lets you create boats, including the Fishing Boat, Fishing Ship, Trade Boat, Merchant Ship, Light Transport, Heavy Transport, Scout Ship, War Galley, Trireme, Catapult Trireme, and Juggernaught. The Dock is also where fishing vessels deposit food and trade vessels deposit gold from trading. Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this building. The earliest boats were simply tied up to rocks or trees on shore to take on or drop off cargo or were physically pulled onto the beach. Later, wooden structures were built out into the water to facilitate loading and unloading. Docks were also safer for ships because ships could avoid being beached, which strained the hulls and increased leaking. When the dock was extended beyond the shallows, even larger ships could be tied up, farther improving efficiencies. FARM Age: Tool Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market. Cost: 75 Wood Hit Points: 50 Note: The Farm provides a reliable supply of food, which can be gathered by a villager. Because Farms produce food at a fixed rate, assigning more than one villager to work on a Farm does not increase its productivity. Farms eventually go fallow, in which case you can build another one. Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this building. Domestication, the Plow, and Irrigation increase Farm production. The humble farm was the foundation of the great civilizations of antiquity and most human societies since. The farm was the technological advance that provided the large and dependable supplies of food necessary for civilization to arise. Farming began when edible seeds and fruits were preserved from one growing season and systematically planted in prepared ground the following season. The plant that resulted were nurtured and protected until the edible produce was suitable for harvest. Important farming advancements in ancient times included irrigation of rich but arid land, the plow that opened the soil for receiving seeds, and the continual selection of seeds from the most succesful plants that gradually improved food plant yields. FORTIFICATION Age: Iron Prerequisites: You must heave built the Town Center, Granary, researched the Small Wall, upgraded to the Medium Wall, and upgraded to the Fortification. Upgrade Cost: 300 Food, 175 Stone Cost: 5 Stone Hit Points: 400 Upgrade of: Medium Wall Upgrade at: Granary Note: The Fortification is the ultimate wall. It has more hit points than the Medium Wall. Walls are defensive structures that can be built around your empire or important areas. Villagers and military units cannot move through standing walls, however, they can attack the walls. Stone Throwers, Catapults, Heavy Catapults, Ballistas, and the Helepolis are particularly effective for destroying walls. Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this wall. The great civilizations of ancient times built ever- larger fortifications to protect their important cities and frontiers. Herodotus reported that the walls of Babylon were sufficiently thick that a chariot could be driven on them around the city. Archaelogy indicates that large walls were not invulnerable- every great ancient city appears to have been stormed eventually- but only a large and well- equipped army could surmount them. GOVERNMENT CENTER Age: Bronze Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market. Cost: 175 Wood Hit Points: 350 Note: The Government Center lets you build additional Town Centers, and research technologies that improve your buildings and military units, including Writing, Architecture, Engineering, Aristocracy, Alchemy, Nobility, and Ballistics. Researching Architecture increses the hit points and decreases the construction time of this building. The government center was the administrative center of the town, village, city, kingdom, or empire. It was often the palace of the strongman or king. It was here that justice was dispersed, records kept, taxes collected and stored, diplomacy conducted, and plans made. The development of the government center spurred technology such as architecture through the commission of public works and writing for the keeping of records. The expansion of kingdoms led to a hierarchy of elites, often a nobility, that were needed as middle managers when the expanse of lands exceeded the ruler's ability to control directly. The provinces of the Persian Empire, for example, were ruled like independent stores by satraps who owed tribute and allegiance to the king in Susa. GRANARY Age: Stone Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center Cost: 200 Wood Hit Points: 350 Note: The Granary lets you build walls and towers, including the Small Wall, Medium Wall, Fortification, Watch Tower, Sentry Tower, Guard Tower, and Ballista Tower. You must research the Granary before you can built the Market. Foragers and farmers can deposit food from Farms and forage sites at the Granary instead of the Town Center. Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this building. Following the advance of farming, humans faced the first time the happy problem of how to safely store large quantities of food grains. The Granary made it possible to preserve growing season surpluses for consumption during winter months. The Granary was a central location where grain could be warehoused, guarded, and distributed fairly as needed. The need to protect food supplies was an early reason for building walls and fortifications. Without protection, the surpluses in the Granary were easily taken by raiders from nearby hunting and gathering groups. GUARD TOWER Age: Iron Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and the Granary, and researched Watch Tower, upgraded to Sentry Tower, and upgraded to Guard Tower. Upgrade cost: 300 Food, 100 Stone Cost: 150 Stone Hit Points: 200 Attack: 6 Armor: - Range: 7 Special: Fire rate once / 1.5 seconds Upgrade of: Sentry Tower Upgrade at: Granary Note: The Guard Tower has more hit points, attack strength, and range than the Sentry Tower. The Guard Tower can be upgraded to the Ballista Tower. Towers are defensive structures that fire missiles at enemy villagers and military units within range. Researching Architecture increases the construction time of this tower. Alchemy increases attack strength. Ballistics increases accuracy. Woodworking, Artisanship, and Craftsmanship, increase range. The tower discovered on the wall at the ancient site of Jericho served several purposes. It extended the visual range of lookouts that would be watching for the approach of raiders and other visitors. An early warning might have been the difference between a successful defense and the fall of the town. The tower was a superior firing position for archery. Bowmen shooting down had an advantage in range and penetration power of arrows versus enemies shooting up. Enemies hiding at the bottom of the wall may have remained visible to archers in the tower. The tower itself was an independent bastion that could serve as the defensive position of last resort if the wall was carried. The Guard Tower was a superior fortification, well- designed for holding out against attack and for bringing weapons to bear on an attacker. HOUSE Age: Stone Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center. Cost: 30 Wood Hit points: 75 Note: A House supports up to four villagers, military units, or boats. You must have enough houses before you can create new units. If a House is destroyed, you do not lose the units it supported, but you must build new houses before you can build new villagers, military units, or boats. Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this building. Shelter increased in importance when humans expanded their range farther away from the equator in the wake of the receding ice sheets and into climates of wide seasonal variation. Growing hman populations quickly occupied the few natural shelters available in these areas. The provision of man- made shelter made existence in challenging and variable climates possible. Without houses, year- round populations could not have increased beyond minimums. MARKET Age: Tool Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Granary. Cost: 150 Wood Hit points: 350 Note: The Market lets you build Farms, pay Tribute to other civilizations, and research technologies that improve your military units and the effectiveness of your villagers, including Woodworking, Artisanship, Craftsmanship, Stone Mining, Siegecraft, Gold mining, Coinage, Domestication, the Plow, Irrigation, and the Wheel. You must build the Market before you can build the Government Center or Temple. Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this building. The specialization made possible by the development of agriculture created the need for a place where craftsmen could meet to barter their wares for those of others and for food. The Market in each town and village was the place where barter and exchange took place. The development of the Market marked the change from the small hunting/ foraging group that shared its harvest to the much more complex economy that rose with the rise of towns and cities. Specialization resulted in efficiencies of scale and greater overall production fairly among the food providers and specialists. The profit motive spurred innovation to increase production. The potter, for example, looked for ways to make more and better pots for the same effort to increase the amount of food that he could obtain by trading pots. MEDIUM WALL Age: Bronze Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, researched Small Wall, and upgraded to Medium Wall. Upgrade Cost: 180 Food, 100 Stone Cost: 5 Stone Hit points: 300 Upgrade of: Small Wall Upgrade at: Granary Note: The Medium Wall has more hit points than the Small Wall. The Medium Wall can be upgraded to the Fortification. Walls are defensive structures that can be built around your empire or important areas. Villagers and military units cannot move through standing walls; however, they can attack the walls. Stone Throwers, Catapults, Heavy Catapults, Ballistas, and the Helepolis are particularly effective for destroying walls. Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this wall. One of the earliest human setlements yet discovered is the city of Jericho near the Jordan River in modern Isreal. This site from 7000 B.C. is remarkable for possessing a stone masonry wall, dry moat around the wall, and a tower. At an astonishingly early date, Jericho demonstrated that the ancients understood principles of fortification that would carry forward essentially unchanged until the development of gunpowder. The Medium Wall is a defensive structure built of stone or other substantial construction to withstand a protracted attack. SENTRY TOWER Age: Bronze Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, researched Watch Tower, and upgraded to Sentry Tower. Upgrade cost: 120 Food, 50 Stone Cost: 150 Stone Hit points: 150 Attack: 4 Armor: - Range: 6 Special: Fire rate once / 1.5 seconds Upgrade of: Watch Tower Upgrade at: Granary Note: The SEntry Tower has more hit points, attack strength, and range than the Watch Tower. The Sentry Tower can be upgraded to the Guard Tower. Towers are defensive structures that fire missiles at enemy villagers and military units within range. Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this tower. Alchemy increases attack strength. Ballistics increases accuracy. Woodworking, Artisanship, and Craftsmanship increase range. The tower discovered on the wall at the ancient site of Jericho served several purposes. It extended the visual range of lookouts that would be watching for the approach of raiders and other visitors. An early warning might have been the difference between a successful defense and the fall of the town. The tower was a superior firing position for archery. Bowmen shooting down had an advantage in range and penetration power of arrows versus enemies shooting up. Enemies hiding at the bottom of the wall may have remained visible to archers in the tower. The tower itself was an independent bastion that could serve as the defensive position of last resort if the wall was carried. The Sentry Tower was an improved fortification of strong materials and designed for defense. SIEGE WORKSHOP Age: Bronze Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Barracks, and Archery Range. Cost: 200 Wood Hit Points: 350 Note: The Siege Workshop lets you build siege weapons, including the Stone Thrower, Catapult, Heavy Catapult, Ballista, and Helepolis. Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this building. The earliest fortifications yet discovered date from 7000 B.C., but evidence of siege weapons doesn't appear until much later. We can assume, however, that siege equipment was in use long before the first evidence that has survived. Evidence of a scaling ladder does not appear until about 2500 B.C. The earliest record of a simple battering ram comes from 1900 B.C. Amore powerful ram plus the undermining of walls appears by 880 B.C. The mobile siege tower first appears one hundred years later. The catapult was invented by Greeks in 397 B.C. There were no further significant advances in siege engines until the advent of gunpowder. Siege weapons were researched and built in siege workshops. SMALL WALL Age: Tool Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and researched Small Wall. Research cost: 50 Food Cost: 5 Stone Hit points: 200 Research at: Granary Note: The Small Wall is the wealest of the walls. Upgrades include the Medium Wall and Fortification. Walls are defensive structures that can be built around your empire or important areas. Villagers and military units cannot move through standing walls; however, they can attack the walls. Stone Throwers, Catapults, Heavy Catapults, Ballistas, and the Helepolis are particularly effective for destroying walls. Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this wall. STABLE Age: Tool Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Barracks. Cost: 150 Wood Hit points: 350 Note: The Stable lets you train cavalry units, including the Scout, Cavalry, Heavy Cavalry, Cataphract, Chariot, and War Elephant. You must build the Stable before you can build the Academy. Researchinf Architecture increases hit points and decreases the construction time of this building. The horses that survived the last Ice Age were relatively small animals unsuited for riding or pulling. They were hunted out of existence in the Americas and domesticated first for food on the steppes of Asia. Over many generations of selective breeding, they grew large enough to be of use other than as food. One issue that had to be resolved was how to harness them without causing choking. Humans eventually learned to ride, first from the rear, non- control position over the hips, and then from the forward position that we are familiar with today. The first evidence of horses being ridden appears in the second millenium B.C., although it is generally accepted that they were ridden earlier in Asia. The Stable represents the application of animals, primarily the horse, to warfare, first pulling chariots and then carrying warriors. Detailed records survive from Assyria and elsewhere related to the acquisition, training, equipping, and employment of horses in battle. STORAGE PIT Age: Stone Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center Cost: 120 Wood Hit points: 350 Note: The Storage Pit lets you research technologies that improve the armor and attack strength of military units, including Toolworking, Metalworking, Metallurgy, the Bronze Shield, the Iron Shield, Leather Armor for Infantry, Scale Armor for Infantry, Chain Mail for Infantry, Leather Armor for Cavalry, Scale Armor for Cavalry, Chain Mail for Cavalry, Leather Armor for Archery, Scale Armor for Archery, and Chain Mail for Archery. Hunters, fishermen, and miners can deposit meat, fish, stone, wood, and gold at the Storage Pit instead at the Town Center. Researching Architecture increases the hit points and dcreases the construction time of this building. The storage pit was the functional equivalent of the granary, but for meat instead of grain. Storing meat presented special problems because it spoiled so quickly and easily. Meat was generally stored by drying or salting. The Storage Pit also represents the tool- and weapon- making skill of hunting societies, leading eventually to metalworking, making war, and armor making. In this capacity it also serves as a storehouse and collection point for the raw materials of tool and weapon making: wood, stone, and gold (representing all metals). TEMPLE Age: Bronze Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and Market. Cost: 200 Wood Hit Points: 350 Note: The Temple lets you train Priests and research technologies that increase their powers, including Polytheism, Mysticism, Astrology, Monotheism, Afterlife, Jihad, and Fanaticism. Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this building. The temple was a religious center. It was often the earthly home or point of communication with a particular god or goddess. Priests or priestesses in the temple acted as the servants of the resident god or goddess and managed contact to and from the people, plus instruction, rituals, petitions, and answers to questions. The most common form of petition was the prayer. Another was the provision of gifts that supported the temple and its servants. A less common petition was the sacrifice of animals or even humans. The general belief of the time was that the more elaborate a temple, the taller it was, and the more grand, the more disposed the god or goddess would be to provide good weather, rainfall, and crop yields, while keeping away pests, disease, and human invaders. TOWN CENTER Age: Stone Prerequisites: You must already have a Town Center, and you must have built the Granary, Market, and Government Center. Cost: 200 Wood Hit Points: 600 Note: The Town Center lets you create villagers and advance to the next Age. It is also where villagers can deposit food, wood, gold, and stone. The Town Center supports four villagers, military units, or boats. Priests cannot convert Town Centers. After you build a Government Center, you can build additional Town Centers to expand your civilization's dominance and build Town Centers closer to distant resources. You can also replace your Town Center if it is destroyed in combat. Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this building. Allvillages and towns had an administrative center that was the site of governmental power and leadership. In the earliest villages this might have been the leader's home. Later it might have been the king's palace. The center was often the place where important supplies, especially food surpluses, were stored. Vessels for storing grain and oil were found in the ruins of the Palace at Knossos of Crete. Some of the earliest accounting records yet found were clay tablets left in long- forgotten storerooms in ancient Sumeria and in Hittite cities. The destruction of the town center usually meant the destruction of the town's governmental infrastructure. WATCH TOWER Age: Tool Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and researched Watch Tower. Research Cost: 50 Food Cost: 150 Stone Hit points: 100 Attack: 3 Armor: - Range: 5 Special: Fire rate once / 1.5 seconds Research at: Granary Note: The Watch Tower is the weakest of the towers. Upgrades include the Sentry Tower, Guard Tower, and Ballista Tower. Towers are defensive structures that fire missiles at enemy villagers and military units within range. Researching Architecture increases hit points and decreases the construction time of this tower. Alchemy increases attack strength. Ballistics increases accuracy. Woodworking, Artisanship, and Craftsmanship increase range. The Watch Tower was a simple tower, easily built, and intended mainly to give early warning. WONDER Age: Iron Prerequisites: Advance to the Iron Age Cost: 1000 Wood, 1000 Stone, 1000 Gold Hit points: 500 Note: Building a Wonder can be a victory condition that wins the game or it can provide score points. You can build more than one Wonder. Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this building. A Wonder is a massive structure, a crowning achievement of technology, resources, and construction time for civilizations that build one. Examples of historic ancient wonders are the Egyptian Pyramid, the Great Wall of China, and the Athenian Acropolis. You must advance to the Iron Age before you can build a Wonder. Priests cannot convert a Wonder. ===================================== XXI. The Units ===================================== Under Construction ===================================== XXII. Extra Stuff ===================================== _Cheats_ To enter the following cheats, you must press [Enter] anytime during gameplay. Next, type the letters to the left, and press [Enter]. BIG BERTHA- Turns Heavy Catapults into Big Berthas BIGDADDY- A black sports car with a rocket launcher BLACK RIDER- Turns Horse Archers into Black Riders COINAGE- 1000 gold bonus DARK RAIN- Turns a Bowman into a Composite Bowman which turns into a tree when not moving DIEDIEDIE- All enemy units die E=MC2 TROOPER- Creates a guy in a white suit with a slow- firing nuke gun HARI KARI- You lose the game HOMERUN- You win the game HOYOHOYO- Priests are faster and stronger ICBM- Your Ballistas and Helepolis have a 99+1 range, if I remember correctly JACK BE NIMBLE- Your catapults and stone throwers fire villagers, cows, etc. KILLX- Kill player X NO FOG- Removes the fog of war PEPPERONI PIZZA- 1000 food bonus PHOTON MAN- Create a guy in a white suit with a quick- fire laser gun QUARRY- 1000 stone bonus RESIGN- You resign REVEAL MAP- Reveals the map STEROIDS- Buildings and units are created instantly WOODSTOCK- 1000 wood bonus ===================================== XXIII. Credits ===================================== - Microsoft - Ensemble - GameFaqs and CJayC - Scott Ong - vgstrategies.about.com - Cheat Code Central--http://www.cheatcc.com ===================================== XXIV. Farewell! ===================================== I hope you enjoyed the guide. If not, I got two words for 'ya, S*CK IT!! This guide is Copyright 1999 Jim Chamberlin. You can't copyright facts, only style. If you would like me to include something else in the guide, then e- mail me at the address at the beginning of the guide. Make sure you just didn't overlook it and missed it. Also there will also be a guide for each of the groups, which will have information about which technologies they have and which ones they lack. These won't appear for awhile, since I'm extremely busy right now. If you would like to add anything, let me know. This guide hasn't been proofread so there are mistakes in there, so let me know if you find any. If you wish to post this to your site, ask me first. Until Next Time...